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(bBING a CONTINUATIOX or the 'ANXALs' combined with LOUDON ANII 


ALBERT C. L. G. GUNTHER, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., 








"Omnes res creatse sunt divinae sapientiae et potentise testes, divitise felicitatia 
humanse: — ex harum usu ho7iitas Creatoris; ex pulchritudine sapie^itia Domini ; 
ex CEConomia in conservatione, proportione, renovatione, potentia majestatis 
elucet. Eariini itaque indagatio ab hominibus sibi relictis semper sestimata ; 
a vere eruditis et sapientibus semper exculta ; male doctis et barbaris semper 
inimica fuit." — LiSNiEus. 

" Quel que soit le principe de la vie animale, il ne fiiut qu'ouvrir les yeux pour 
voir qu'elle est le chef-d'eeuvre de la Toute-puissance, et le but auquel se rappor- 
tent toutes ses operations." — Bruckner, Thiorie du Systeme Animal, Leyden, 

The sylvan powers 

Obey our summons ; from their deepest dells 

The Dryads come, and throw their garlands wild 

And odorous branches at our feet ; the Nymphs 

That press with nimble step the mountain-thyme 

And purple heath-flower come not empty-handed, 

But scatter round ten thousand forms minute 

Of velvet moss or lichen, torn from rock 

Or rifted oak or cavern deep : the Naiads too 

Quit their loved native stream, from whose smooth face 

They crop the lily, and each sedge and rush 

That drinks the ripjoling tide : the frozen poles, 

Wliere peril waits the bold adventurer's tread, 

The burning sands of Borneo and Cayenne, 

All, all to us unlock their secret stores 

And pay their cheerful tribute. 

J. Taylor, h'oruiich, 1818. 







I. The Genera and Subgenera of the Sciuropterus Group, with 
Descriptions of Three new Species. By Oldfield Thomas 1 

II. A Synoptic Revision of the Tamjrrhynchince {Curculionidce). 

By Guy A. K. Marshall, F.Z.S 9 

III. The Collections of William John Burchell, D.C.L., in the 
Hope Department, Oxford University Museum : — 

IV. On the Lepidoptera Rhopalocera collected by W. J. Bur- 
chell in Brazil, 1825-1830. By Cora B. Sanders, of 
Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford ' 33 

IV. Notes on the Forficularia. — X. A Revision of the 'Neso- 
gastrin(e. By Malcolm Burr, B.A., F.L.S., F.E.S 42 

V. Notes on the Forficularia. — XI. On new and little-known 
Species and Synonymic Notes. By Malcolm Burr, B.A., F.L.S., 
F.E.S ' 47 

VI. Notes on i\\ti Forficularia. — XII. Note on the Genus Apachi/s, 
Serv. By Malcolm Burr, B.A., F.L.S., F.E.S 51 

VII. Description of some new Species of Tabanidts, with Notes 

on some Jlfematopota. By Gertrude Ricardo 54 

VIII. New Eastern Lepidoptera. By Colonel C. Swinhoe, M.A., 
F.L.S., &c 60 

IX. Two new Mammals from Asia Minor. By Gerrit S. 
Miller 68 

X. A Survey of the Species find Varieties of Pupa, Draparnaud 
{Jaminia, Risso), occurring in South Africa. By James Cosmo 
Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., and John Henry Ponsonby, F.Z.S. 
(Plates I. & II.) 70 

XI. New Deep-sea Fishes from the South-west Coast of Ireland. 

By E. W. L. Holt and L. W. Byrne. (Plate III.) 86 

XII. Description of a new Genus and Species of Cleridce. By C. 

J. Gahan, M.A 05 

XIII. The Recent Voles of the Microtus 7iivalis Group. By 
Geurit S. Miller 07 

XIV. An Erroneous Echinodermal Identification. Corrected by 

W. B. JJenuam, D.Sc, F.R.S., Otago University, New Zealand . . 104 

XV. Descriptions of Three new Freshwater Fishes from China. 

By C. Tate Regan, M.A. (Plate IV.) 100 

XVI. Descriptions of new South-American Reptiles. livG.A. 
Boulengeu, F.K.S ' Ill 



XVII. Descriptions of Two new Forms of Papilio in the Collection 

of Mr. Grose-Smith. By H. Grosf.-Smith, B.A., F.E.S., F.Z.S., &c. 116 

XVIII. Some Notes concerning' the Male of Dexamine thea, 
Boeck. By Alexander Patience. (Plate V.) 117 

XIX. The Species of the Genus Bactylopsila. By Oldpield 
Thomas 122 

Neio Book .-—Wild Life on a Norfolk Estuary, By Arthur H. 
Patterson. With a Prefatory Note by Her Grace the Duchess 
OP Bedford 124 

Proceedings of the Geological Society 125, 126 

Altum's Squirrel Names, by Gerrit S. Miller 127 


XX. Descriptions of Nine Terrestrial Mollusca from South Africa. 
By James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., and .John Henry 
PoNSONBT, F.Z.S. Including Anatomical Descriptions of Two 
proposed new Genera (Afrodonta, M. & P., and Peltatus, G.-A.), 

by Lt.-Col. H. H. GoDWiN-AusTEN, F.R.S, (Plates VII. & VIII.). 129 

XXI. On a Collection of Mammals from the Batu Islands, west of 
Sumatra. By Marcus W. Lyon, Jun., United States National 
Museum . 137 

XXII. Notes on North-American Longicornia, with Descriptions 

of some new Species. By C. J. Gahan, M.A 140 

XXIII. The Genera of Stephanoceras and Allies. By S. S. 
Buckman, F.G.S 145 

XXIV. Descriptions of new Freshwater Fishes from China and 
Japan. By C. Tate Regan, M.A 149 

XXV. Descriptions of Four new Freshwater Fishes from British 
New Guinea. By C. Tate Regan, M.A 163 

XXVI. Some new Genera and Species of Blattidce, with Notes on 
the Form of the Pronotum in the Subfamily Perisphceriince. By 

R. Shelpord, M.A., F.L.S. (Plates IX. & X.) 157 

XXVII. On a new Oribi obtained by Major Powell-Cotton in 
British East Africa. By Oldfield Thomas and R. C. Wroughton. 177 

XXVIII. Notes on the Coleopterous Genus Oniticellus and 
Descriptions of some new Species from India. By Gilbert J. 
Arrow ' 178 

XXIX. On the Generic Names of the Rupicaprine Ruminants 
known as Serows and Gorals. By R. I. Pocock, Superintendent of 
the Zoological Society's Gardens 183 

XXX. On Muscardinidce from the Iberian Peninsula. By Angel 
Cabrera 188 

XXXI. Eighteen new European Voles. By Gerrit S. Miller, 194 

New Book : — European Animals : their Geological History and 

Geogi-aphical Distribution. By R. F. Scharff, Ph.D., B.Sc. . 207 

The Name ArcheBocidaris, by Prof. J. AV. Gregory, F.R.S, &c 208 




XXXII. New African Pblebotomic Diptera in the British Museum 
(Natural History).— Part I. Tuhunidce. By Eknest E. Austen . . 209 

XXXIII. On Phytosaurian Kemains from the Magnesian Con- 
glomerate of Bristol [liileya platyodon). By Friedrich Baron 
HuENE, D.Sc, Tubingen, Germany. (Plate VI.) 228 

XXXIV. Note on the Ophidian Genus Emydocephalus. By G. A. 

XXXV. Notes on a small Collection of Plankton from New 
Zealand. — I. 

I. Crustacea (excluding Copepoda). By W. T. Calman, D.Sc, 

British Museum 232 

II. ChfEtognatha. By C. Herbert Fowler, B.A., Ph.D 240 

XXXVI. On some new Species of the Coleopterous Genus 
Mimela. By Gilbert J. Arrow 241 

XXXVII. Description of a new Elapine Snake of the Genus 
Amsthocalanms, Blgr., from New Guinea, By G. A. Boulenger, 

F. R.S 248 

XXXVIII. On the large Flying-Squirrels referred to Petaurista 
nitida, Desm. By Oldfield Thomas 250 

XXXIX. The Nomenclature of the Flying Lemurs. By Oldfield 
Thomas 252 

XL. Three new African Species of Mus. By R. G. Wroughton. 255 

XLI. Note on a Megalosaurian Tibia from the Lower Lias of 
Wilmcote, Warwickshire. By A. Smith Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S. 257 

XLII. Descriptions and Records of Bees.— XVIII. By T. D. A, 
CocKERELL, University of Colorado 259 

Xlilll. Descriptions of Thirty new Species of Tahani from Africa 
and Madagascar. By Gertrude Ricardo 268 

XLIV. Description of a new Longicorn Beetle from South Africa. 
By W. L. Distant 279 

XLV. On a new British Terrestrial Isopod ( Trichoniscus linearis, 
sp. n.). By Alexander Patience. (Plate XI.) 280 

Proceedings of the Geological Society 282, 283 

The Echinoid Name Cidaris and its Modern Application, by F. A. 

Bather, British Museum (Nat. Hist.) 284 


XLVI. Descriptions of some new Species of Koctuidfc from Peru. 
By Herbert Druce, F.L.S. &c 289 

XLVII. A List of Mammals collected by Mr. C. F. M. Swynner- 
ton in Northern Gazaland (Portuguese East Africa) and the Melsetter 
District of Rhodesia. Bv R. ('. Whovohton 303 


XLVIII. Some Species of Leptocheirns, a Genus of Amphipoda. 
By Canon A. M. Norman, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. (Plates 
XII. & XIII.) 307 

XLIX. Descriptions of Thirty new Species of Tahani from Africa 
and Madagascar. By Gertrude Ricardo 311 

L. Description of a new Elapine Snake from Australia. By G. A. 
Boulenger, F.R.S 333 

LI. Note on the Type Specimen of a Blind Snake, Helminthophis 
tcilderi (Garmau), from Brazil. By A. G. Hammar 334 

LII. A Note on Loligo media (L.). By Anne L. Massy, Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland, Fisheries 
Branch, Dublin 336 

LIII. Descriptions and Records of Bees. — XIX. By T. D. A. 
CocKERELL, University of Colorado 337 

LIV. On the Synonymy and Systematic Position of some Species 
of Tabanidfe described byThunberg and Lichtenstein. By Ernest 
E. Austen 344 

LV. The Missing Premolar of the Chiroptera. By Oldfield 
Thomas .' 346 

LVI. A new Deer of the Brocket Group from Venezuela. By 
Oldfield Thomas " 349 

LVn. Description of a new remarkable Crustacean with Primitive 
Malacostracan Characters. By 0. A. Savce 350 

LVIII. On some New and Curious Thysanoptera (Tubulifera) 
from Papua. By Richard S. Bagnall, F.E.S. (Plates XIV. & 
XV.) : 355 

LIX. Description of a Species of Palce^non from near Sydney, -^ 
probably either a new Species or the Adult Form of Palcemon 
l^EujMkeinon) dance, Heller. By Dr. J. G. de Man, of lerseke 
(Holland). (Plate XVI.) 363 

LX. Description oPa new Cichlid Fish of the Genus Heterogramma 
from Demerara. By C. Tate Regan, M. A 370 

LXI. Description of a new Fish of the Genus Galaxias from Chile. 
By C. Tate Regan, M.A 372 


LXII. Notes from the Gattv Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews. — 
No. XXIX. By Prof. M'Intosh, M.D., LL.D., FIR.S., &c. (Plate 
XVII.) 373 

LXTII. On certain African and S.-American Otters. By Old- 
field Thomas .' 387 

LXIV. The Inclusion of Foreign Bodies by Sponges, with a 
Description of a new Genus and Species of Monaxonida. By Igerna 
B. J. SoLLAS " 395 


LXV. New African Phlebotomic Diptera in tlie British Museum 

(Natural History).— Part II. rabanidcB (continued). By Ernest 

E. Austen . . ." 401 

LXVI. On rhiloxcia patiencei, sp. n., a new Terrestrial Isopod. 

By Richard S. Bagnat.l, F.E.S. (Plate XVIII.) 428 

LXVII. On Four little-known Names of Chiropteran Genera. 

By Knud Andersen 431 

LXVIII. On the Extremity of the Tail in Ichthyosauria. By 
H. G. Seeley, F.R.S., F.G.S.', King's College, London 436 

LXIX. On the Interlocking of the Neural Arches in Ichthyo- 
sauria. By H. G. Seeley, F.R.S., F.G.S., King's College, London. 441 

LXX. Brachiopod Nomenclature : The TerebratnlcB of the Crag. 
By S. S. BucKMAN, F.G.S 444 

LXXI. New Asiatic Apodemus, Evotumys, and Lepus. By 
Oldfield Thomas 447 

Proceedings of the Geological Society 450 — 452 


LXXII. A Synopsis of the Sharks of the Family Scyliorhinidee. 
By C. Tate Regan, M.A 453 

LXXIII. Description of a new Species of the Genus Conns. By 
G. B. Sowerby, F.L.S 465 

LXXIV. On a new Rhodesian Hare. By E. C. Chubb 466 

LXXV. The Nomenclature of certain Lorises. By Oldfield 
Thomas 467 

LXXVI. On a Stridulating-organ in certain African Riyer-Crabs. 
By \V. T. Calm AN, D.Sc, British Museum (Natural History) .... 469 

LXXVII. On the Moths collected during the Cruise of the 
' Valhalla ' during^ the Winter 1905-6 by Mr. E. G. B. Meade- 
Waldo. By Sir George F. Hamp.son, Bart., F.Z.S., &c 474 

LXXVIII. On the Occurrence of the Ilydroid Cordylophora in 
Egypt. By Charles L. Boulenger, B.A 492 

LXXIX. A Synopsis of the Sharks of the Family Cestraciontidce. 
By C. Tate Regan. M.A 493 

LXXX. Additions to the Hymenopterous Genera Myzine and 
Plesiii. By Rowland E. Turner, F.Z.S., F.E.S 497 

LXXXI. Rhynchotal Notes.— XLIV. By W. L. Distant .... 515 

Proceedings of the Geological Society 531 

The Type of Cidnris, by Hubert Lyman Clark ; The Cahow: Disco- 
very in Bermuda of Fossil Bones and Feathers supposed to 
belong to the Extinct Bird called "Cahow " by the early Settlers, 
by A. ]•:. \'errill 532, 533 

Index 53^5 

Plate I. i 
II. I 





VII. i 


IX. I 




XV. I 


Species and varieties of Pupa. 

Cyttosoma helgse. 
Freshwater fishes from China. 
Dexamiue thea and Tritaeta gibbosa. 
Phytosaurian remains. 

Terrestrial Mollusca fi'om South Africa. 

Species of Blattidse. 

New British Terrestrial Isopod. 

Species of Leptocheirus. 

New and curious Thysanoptera from Papua. 

Species of Pal^mon from near Sydney. 
Ophelia radiata. 
Philoscia patiencei. 


Page 73, line '2b, for greater read greatest. 

74, ,, 4, /or deflexed /-eofZ reflexed. •* 

7o, „ 36, /o/- anfr. read dente. 

77, „ 33, /or fine read finer. 

77, „ 35, dele particularly arid read less. 

82, „ 10, for cuticles read scratches. 

335, „ 21 from bottom, /or ocular read preocular. 





" per litora spargite museum. 

Naiades, et circiun vitreos considite fontes : 
PoUice virgineo tuneros hie carpite flores : 
Floribus et pictum, divse, replete caniatrum. 
At vos, o Nymphse Craterides, ite sub undaa ; 
Ite, recurvato variata corallia trunco 
Vellite muscosis e rupibus, et mihi conchas 
Ferte, Deae pelagi, et pingui conchylia succo." 

N.Parthenii Gianneffasi, Eel. 

No. 1. JANUARY 1908. 

I. — The Genera and Subgenera of the Sciuropterus Group, 
with Descriptions of Three new Species. By Oldfield 

The old genus Sciuropterus, as already indicated by Forsyth 
Major and Heude, contains a very heterogeneous collection of 
forms, and a study of them brin<rs me to the conclusion that 
they should be divitled into at least six genera. Heiide 
has already erected the genus Trogopterus for the remark- 
able Chinese species described as Pteromys .vanthipes by Milne- 

Upper cheek-teeth subequal, square, with low ridges, the 
usual high internal antero-posterior ridge almost obsolete as 
a ridge, being represented by two separate cusjis, to which 
respectively tlie two usual transverse ridges run directly across 
parallel to each other, instead of (as in Sciuropterus) con- 
verging and nearly meeting on the external slope of the 
higljest part of the main antero-posterior internal ridge. As 

An7i. cC- Mag. N. Hist. Scr. 8. Vol. i. 1 

2 Mr. 0. Thomas on the Genera and 

a consequence the teeth appear from above to be simply 
quadricuspidate, and when viewed from their inner aspect 
show two definite cusps instead of the usual single crest. 

No small upper premolar ( p^) present. 

Usual antero-external cusp of />* situated more mesially on 
the tooth, so as to function partially as a p^, 

BulltB well inflated. 

Type — lomys horsfieldii^Pteromys {Sci'uropierus) Jiorsfieldi, 

Other species : I. thovisoni^ Thos. ; /. davisoni, Thos. 

This genus is readily distinguishable from any member of 
tlie group by its peculiar quadricuspidate teeth and by the 
entire suppression o^ p^. 

Figures of upper and lower molars of /. horsfieldi have 
been given in Dr. Major's paper *. 

Belomys, gen. nov. 

Upper cheek-teeth brachyodont, but exceedingly compli- 
cated, as in Trogo'pterus^ masking the essential pattern, which 
is, however, as in Sciurojderus. The ridges are deeply 
grooved, wrinkled, and excavated, and not only is the postero- 
internal cusp of each tooth separated by a deep notch from 
the main part of the inner longitudinal crest, but the anterior 
end of the same crest is cut off by another deep notch from 
the middle part. The inner aspect of m^ and m^ shows there- 
fore three cusps — a small anterior, a middle larger, and a 
fairly developed posterior. Externally, where in some species 
of SciurojJterits there is a small supplementary cusp at the 
exit of the middle valley, there is a well-marked externally 
projecting angle, deeply grooved down its centre, so as to 
form a projecting gutter. ^* not immensely large as in 
TrogopteruSj but nevertheless larger than m^ ; p^ compara- 
tively large, internal to the front cusp of p^. 

Ears large, their bases in the known species with tufts of 

Type — Belomys pearsoni {Sciuropterus pearsom, Gray). 

Other species : B. viUosus^ Blyth, from Upper Assam, 
which is probably different from the Darjiling B. pearsoni ; 
B. kaleensis, Swinhoe, from Formosa; and the Manipur 
species described below. 

This form was included in Trogopterus by Heude on the 
statement by Forsyth Major that its molars were of similar 
pattern f ; but it appears to me that the hypertrophy of p* in 

* P. Z. S. 1893, p. 194, pi. Tiii. fig. 21 and pi. ix. fig. 21. 
t T. c. pi. viii. fig. 20 and pi. ix. fig. 20. 

Subgenera of t/ie Sc'iavoptenii Group. 3 

Trogopterus xanthipes is a character of generic rank, while in 
addition tliat species is to a certain extent hypsodont, which 
is not the case in Belomys. 

With less complicated teeth than Belomgs, though still 
much more so than in Sciuropterus, is 

Pteromyscus, gen. 


Molars agreeing with those of Belomys in their general 
structure, but the degree of complication is less. Thus, 
among other details, there is no notching off of an anterior 
portion of the inner longitudinal boundary-wall, and the spout- 
like projection in the middle of the outer edge is less 

;/ a little smaller than in Belomys, barely or not equalling 
m} in area, p^ minute, closely crushed against the antero- 
internal side of p'*, and often hardly visible from above. It 
is present in all the skulls available, but looks as if it could 
hardly be of any functional value. 

Ears quite small, untufted. 

Type — Pteromrjscus pulverulentus [Sciuropterus pulveru- 
lentus, Giinth.). 

A second species described below. 

Petaurillus, gen. nov. 

Molars with very low, rounded, and almost obsolete ridges, 
quite different from the high and well-defined ridges present 
in Sciurop)terus, although their relative positions are much 
the same. The ridges not wrinkled or notched. 

/>* distinctly smaller than m^ ; not of the usual triangular 
shape, but nearly symmetrical, its outer scarcely longer than 
its inner border, p^ well developed, standing in front of the 
centre of />'*, not overlapped by it. The three anterior teeth 
of the row, therefore, evenly and symmetrically diminish in 
size forwards, a condition not found in any of the other 

ISkuU in general form short, broad, and low, with a short 
nmzzle. Bull^B well swollen, the mastoid portion also slightly 

Mammre 4. 

Type — Petaurillus /losei {Sciuropterus hosci, Thos.), 

A second species described below. 

The two species of retaurillus are the pigmies of the 
grouj), being decidedly smaller than the smallest species of 
Sciuropterus. They are readily distinguishable by the straight 


4 Mr. 0. Thomas on the Genera and 

graduated series fornied by their anterior cheek-teeth and by 
the low and rounded nature o£ their molar ridges. 

The genera now admitted of the smaller flying-squirrels 
may be briefly indicated as follows : — 

A. Molar pattern consisting essentially of two transverse 

ridges converging internally towards the central part 
of a longitudinal internal crest, thongli this structure 
is marked in the very wrinkled-toothed forms. 
Never as described under B. 
a. Teeth excessively wrinkled. An outwardly pro- 
jecting angle developed at the middle of the ex- 
ternal edge. Postero-internal cusp well developed. 
«*. Teeth semihypsodont. p* very large, twice the 

size of 771^ Trogopterus. 

P. Teeth brachyodont. ja* not or little larger than 
a^. p^ well developed ; jj* rather larger than ?«\ 

Ears large Beloimjs. 

l?. p^ minute ; p* rather smaller than m\ Ears 

small Pteromysctis. 

I. Teeth not excessively wrinkled. No projecting 
angle on outer edge. Postero-internal cusp rarely 
c^. /)* generally a little larger than m\ Molar ridges 

well developed Sciuropterus. 

cP, p* decidedly smaller than 7n\ Molar ridges low 

and rounded Petaurillus. 

B. Molars each with two parallel transverse ridges rising 

into cusps laterally, so that the tooth appears evenly 
quadricuspidate from above, and shows two subequal 
conical cusps on its inner aspect. ^^' absent lonnjs. 

An alternative key may be based on the characters of tlie 
premolars only, as follows : — 

A. Five cheek-teeth, p^ present. 

a. Large premolar (;;*) approximately equal to or larger 
than first molar {m^) ; p^ standing internal to its 
anterior angle, 

a', p* very large, twice the size of ni^ Trogopterus. 

h^. p* not or little larger than ?n^ 
a?, p^ small but functional. 

a^. p^ more complicated, the anterior of its three 
outer cusps highest; p^ not visible exter- 
nally Belomys. 

b*. jo* less complicated, the antero-external cusp 

shorter ; p' generally visible externally. . . . Sciuropterus. 

¥. p^ minute, apparently not functional Pteromgscus. 

h. p* decidedly smaller than'm' ; p^ in front of its centre. Petaurillus. 

B. Four cheek-teeth, p^ absent lomys. 

But, further, the genus Sciuropterus^ even as thus restricted, 

Suhyeyiera of the Sciuropterus Group. 5 

needs further division into subgenera, of which tliere appear 
to me to be at least four. These may be distinguished as 
follows : — 

A. Bullae well inflated. Molar ridges high. 
a. MammjB 8. (Ilolarctic.) 

a"*. Posterior transverse ridge of ^*, ?n', and m^ deeply 
notched, so as to cut off a separate cusp in the 
centre of the tooth Sciuropterus. 

J'. Transverse ridges of teeth complete, as usual. . . . Glaucomys. 
h. ]\Iamma3 G. (Oriental.) 

c\ Bullae well inflated, often double. Molar ridges 

complete Hylopelcs. 

B. Bullae low, flat, little inflated. Molars with lower 

ridges, their enamel usually much sculptured, and 
with supplementary cusps between the transverse 
ridges externally Pctinotnys. 

Subgenus Sciuropterus. 

Teeth more complex than in otiier members of the genus, 
the cusps and ridges high and well defined. Internal wall of 
each tooth grooved on its lingual aspect, so as to be move or 
less divided into three, and approaching Belomys in this 
respect. Posterior transverse ridge of jA, m^, and m^ deeply 
notched halfway across at right angles to its length, its 
dividing-line from the inner wall of the tooth also more 
deeply notched in ; as a result a distinct conical cusp is 
isolated in the centre of the tooth. No similar structure is 
found in any other member of the group. 

Skull : muzzle narrow, witli parallel sides which are nearly 
at right angles to the spring of the zygomatic arch. Palatal 
foramina comparatively large. 

llange. Palffiarctic liegion from Scandinavia to Japan. 

Type — Sciuroptei'us russicus, Tiedem. 

Other species : 6'. momonga, Temra. ; S. hiichnerij Sat. ; 
S. aluco, Thos. 

Glaucomys, subgen. nov. 

Teeth comparatively simide ; a slight tendency to the 
develoj)ment of grooves on the lingual side of the internal 
wall. Posterior transverse ridges complete, partially joined 
internally to the outer slope of the internal wall, and without 
any notch halfway across the tooth. 

J\luzzle long, tapered forwards, its sides meeting the spring 
of the zygomata at u slant. Palatal foramina comparatively 

Mamnui: 8. 

Mr. O. Thomas on the Genera and 

Range. Nortli America and N.W. Himj 

Type — Sciuropterus {Glaucomys) volans {Mus voJans, 

Other species : those of N. America, and also S.fimbriatus, 

Extraordinary as the above-given range may appear to be, 
I can find no character of subgeneric importance to separate 
the large Himalayan ;S^. fimhriatus from the N. American 
flying-squirrels, while both are equally distinct from the 
intervening species belonging to the restricted subgenus 

Hylopetes, subgen. nov. 

Teeth very much as in Glaucomys^ though there is an 
increasing tendency, which culminates in the next group, for 
the enamel to be finely sculptured between and on the sides 
of the ridges. 

Bullae well inflated, sometimes doubled by the swelling up 
of the posterior mastoid portion. 

Mammge 6. 

Range. Oriental Region from Nepal to the Malay Islands. 

Type — Sciuropterus [Hylopetes) everetti^ Thos. 

Other species : S. aWoniger, Hodgs. ; nigrt'pes, Thos. ; 
spadaceus, Bly. ; phayrei^ Bly. ; aurantiacus^ Wagn. ; platy- 
vrus, Jent. ; phaomelas, Giinth. ; tep)hromelas, Giinth. ; 
tJiomasi, Hose. 

Petinomys, subgen. nov. 

Teeth with rather lower cusps and ridges than in true 
Sciuropterus, the enamel rather more elaborately sculptured, 
and with a more frequent development of accessory cusps, 
csjiecially at the outer exit of the valley between the two 
main transverse ridges. 

bkull broad and low, with a short muzzle. Bullae fairly 
large horizontally, but peculiarly low and flattened, scarcely 
rising above the general level of the base of the skull, their 
substance unusually thick and opaque. 

Mammas 4 or 6. 

Range. S. India and Ceylon, Malay Peninsula and islands. 

Type — Sciuropterus {Petinomys) lugens, Thos. 

Other species : S. fuscccopillus, Jerd. ; hageniy Jcnt. ; 
ma?rens, Mill.; genibarbis, Horsf . ; setosus, Temm.; vorder- 
manni, Jent. 

I should have been inclined to consider the striking and 
peculiar flattening of the bullse in this group as a generic 

Subgenera of the Sciuropterus Group. 7 

cliaracter, were it not that 8. fuscocapillns and S. thomasi 
tend to be intermediate in tliis respect between Petinomys 
and Ilylopetes. 

The following new members of the group may be here 
described : — 

Delomys trichotiSj sp. n. 

External characters apparently very much as in B. pearsont, 
though the cars of the single specimen seem to be a little 
larger and more heavily tutted, and the hairs of the chest 
are whitish without the slaty bases present in all our other 
specimens of the group. 

Skull with the nasals not surpassing posteriorly the frontal 
processes of the ])reuiaxiilaries. 

Molars conspicuously lighter than in B. pearsont, the tooth- 
row not much shorter, but so much narrower that the palate- 
breadth between the premolars exceeds the combined length 
of p^ and m^, while in pearsoni the same breadth only equals 
the length of // + half that of m}. The teeth themselves are 
of essentially the same pattern, but owing to their smaller 
size appear much more finely sculptured. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in skin) : — 

Head and body IDG mm.; tail 151 ; hind foot 32-5. 

Skull: fronto-parietal suture to tip of nasals 28; nasals 
12*2 x6"5; interorbital breadth 8"1 ; intertemporal breadth 
9'6 ; palatilar length 20; diastema 9"5 ; distance between 
inner sides of p^ 5'2 ; length of tooth-series 9, of molars 
only 6-2. 

llab. Manipur. Type from Machi. 

Type. Adult male. J3.M. no. 85. 8. 1. 136. Collected 
7th May, 1881. Presented by Allan O. Hume, Esq. 

Fleromyscus borneanus, sp. n. 

Very closely allied to the IMalaccan P. puherulentus, 
Giinth,, to which, without examination of the skull, I have 
hitherto referred it. External characters very much as in 
that species, the upper colour of the same blackish brown 
flecked with light, but the light rings on the hairs which 
form the fleckings are smaller and more nearly white. Under 
surface of the body and of tiic basal third of the tail clearer 
whitish, without the subdued butfy or " clay-coloured " 
suffusion found in pulverulentas. 

Skull rather larger than that of puheruhntus, the brain- 
case broader, and both the interorbital and intertemporal 
spaces noticeably wider. 

8 Genera and Subgenera of the Scluropterus Oroup. 

Incisors broader and heavier, nearly one third broader "than 
in equally aged examples o^ pulvendentus. 

Dimensions of the type (from skin) : — 

Head and body 290 mm. ; tail 215; hind foot 41. 

Skull : greatest length 46 ; basilar length 37-5 ; greatest 
breadth 30; nasals 12*2 x 7-8; interorbital breadth 10; 
intertemporal breadth 12-3; breadth of brain-case 21; 
palatilar length 20 ; length of upper tooth-series (probably 
slightly reduced by age) 9. 

Bab. Baram District, E. Sarawak. 

Ttjpe. Old female. B.M. no. 91. 8. 28. 10. Collected in 
1891 by Dr. Charles Hose. 

Petaurillus emih'ce, sp. n. 

Nearly allied to P. hosei, but smaller in all dimensions. 

Colours in all respects quite like what the type of hosei 
would probably have had if it had not been skinned out of 
spirit, and therefore presumably discoloured. Tims the type 
of eiyiilke, sent home as a skin, is paler rufous on the back 
(tips of hairs near vinaceous-cinnamon of Ridgway), and the 
belly is pure white, without the slight rufous tinge already 
suggested as possibly due to spirit. Cheeks pale buffy 
whitish, no darker line perceptible below the eye. In all 
other respects the original description of hosei will fit eniilice. 

Skull, apart from its markedly smaller size, quite like that 
of hosei, except that the nasals do not project backwards 
beyond the fronto-pr em axillary processes. 

Dimensions of the type (measured on the skin) : — 

Head and body 72 mm. ; tail Q2, its longest lateral hairs 7 ; 
hind foot 17. 

Dimensions of an adult female in spirit : — 

Head and body 68 mm.; tail 67; hind foot 16 ; ear 15. 

Skull (of type) : greatest length 24 ; basilar length 17*5 ; 
greatest breadth 15*2 ; length of nasals 6*1 ; interorbital 
breadth 6"5; palatilar length 9 6; length of upper cheek 
tooth-series 3'9, of true molar series 2'7. 

Hah. Baram, E. Sarawak. 

Type. Adult male. B.M. no. 3. 4. 9. 1. Collected 14th 
May, 1901, by Dr. Charles Hose. 

Keadily distinguishable from P. hosei by its much smaller 

I have much pleasure in naming this pretty little flying- 
squirrel, the smallest member of the group, in honour of 
Mrs. Hose, the wife of the discoverer of its only near ally. 



A Synoptic Revision of the Tanyirlijncluna?. 

II. — A Synoptic Revision of the Tanjrrliyncliinae (Curcu- 
lionidse). By GuY A. K. Marshall, F.Z.S. 

In tlie Berliner ent. Zeits. for 1886 (p. 100) tlie late 
Dr. Faust published a revision of Lacordaire's tribe Tany- 
rrliyncliides, in which he then included seven genera. In 
1889 he gave an additional table of the genera allied to 
Myorrhinns, two of which were described as new (Deutsche 
ent. Zeits. p. 140). Since that time a considerable number 
of new forms have been discovered which must be referred 
to this group, and, as many of these require new genera for 
their reception, it seems advisable to give a fresh working 
synopsis of the whole group. This revision has been rendered 
possible by the kindness of Dr. K. M. Heller, of Dresden, 
and Prof. Yngve Sjostedt, of Stockliolni, who have been 
good enough to lend nie many types and co-ty])es from tiieir 
museums ; and I am also much indebted to Mr. H. E. 
Andrewes for the loan of co-types of three Indian species 
described by Faust. 

Before entering into any definition of the group, it may 
be well to point out that Faust, when dealing with Tany- 
rrhynchus, always treated T. costirosiris, Boh., and its near 
allies as the typical forms of the genus. It was for the 
reception of these very species that, a few years ago, I 
proposed the genus Strainia (Proc. Zool. Soc. 190-4, i. p. 140), 
and the validity of tliat genus has been confirmed by an 
examination of the type of Tanyrrhynchus^ viz. T. strigi- 
rostris, Sparrm. 

The species of Stramia differ not only from Tanyrrhynchus, 
but also from all the genera here associated with it, in the 
structure of the mouth-parts. The peduncle of the submentum 
is very markedly produced and the mentum itself is quite 
small, being very little larger than the peduncle, so that the 
maxilljB and their palpi are entirely exposed when the 
mandibles are closed. In the Tanyrrhynchinai, as here 
defined, this condition never occurs. \x\ their case tlic 
peduncle of the submentum is always small, sometimes very 
small, while the mentum is large (many times larger than 
the peduncle) and nearly fills the whole buccal cavity behind 
the maiuliblcs, when closed; the maxillary palpi are thus 
entirely hidden (or occasionally their extreme apices may bo 
seen projecting beyond the apex of the mentum) and the 
maxillae themselves are more or less completely hidden, being 
more exposed at the base the more thepedunele is developed. 
\\\ addition to these buccal characters, Stramia may be dis- 

10 Mr. G. A. K. Marshall—^ Synoptic 

tinguished from TanyrrhyncJius hj its lateral scrobes, the 
internal denticulation of the intermediate tibiaj, the absence 
of a femoral tooth, the strong curvature of the scape at its 
apex, the much greater width of the episterna of the meta- 
sterimm, &c. In the structure of its mouth-parts, as well 
as in many other characters, Stramia shows considerable 
affinity with Hipiyorrhinus, and I see no reason for altering 
my previous suggestion that it should be associated with 
that genus. For similar reasons the nearly allied genus 
8olenorrh{nus^^c\.\h.,m\xs,t also be removed into Lacordaire's 

With the removal of these two elements the mouth-parts 
of the genera of Tanyrrhynchinaj become sufficiently homo- 
geneous in character. From what has been said above with 
regard to the mentum it is clear that they cannot be regarded 
as true Phanerognathi, and owing to the comparatively large 
size of that organ, in relation to the buccal cavity, it seems 
preferable to regard them as slightly transitional Adelognathi. 
From all of these latter, with the exception of tlie very 
distinct Brachycerinse, they may be distinguished by a 
combination of two characters, viz. : the comparatively 
slender and prominent mandibles, and the absence of a 
mandibular scar; and these have probably been developed 
correlatively with the greater elongation of the rostrum, 
which also characterizes the group as compared with normal 
adelognaths. But here again there are signs of transition. 
In Tanyrrh. strigirostris, Sparrm., T. squah'dus, Boh., and 
(what I take to be) T. loripes, Boh., there are faint indications 
of mandibular scars; but owing to their ill-detined character 
and outwardly oblique position, it seems improbable that 
they can really serve as supports for temporary false man- 
dibles. They are perhaps mere rudiments indicating that the 
Tanyrrhynchinse have comparatively recently diverged from 
the Otiorrhynchidse, in the sense of Leconte and Horn. This 
is borne out by the apparent affinities which can be traced 
between Aosseterus i\.xid Piazomias (Tanymecides), Symjnezc- 
rrhynchus and Ellimenistes (Oosomides), and Tanyrrhynclius 
and Eremnus (Eremnides). 

In many of the genera the position of the eyes is abnormal. 
In SynajnocephaluSy Myorrhinus, Anathresa, and some Ilapto- 
rnerus they are more or less closely approximated on the 
forehead; but in Stereorrhynchus, IJmzila, Malosomus, 
Opseorrhinus, Atmesia, Eiqyhab'a, and some Haptomerus 
they are situated considerably further forward, so as to be 
placed on what would normally be considered as the basal 
part of the rostrum. In the great majority of species the 



Uevisioii of the TanyiTliyncliii 


rostrum presents the somewliat characteristic feature of being 
covered with scaling on the dorsal surface, but quite bare 
and very shiny beneath. In the genera allied to Myorrhinus 
and Stereorrhynchus the underside of the rostrum is apt to be 
more or less strongly comjjressed laterally, so that in cross- 
section it would a])pear to be roughly triangular with the 
apex downwards. The scrobes are always visible from above, 
at least at the insertion of the antennee, and are usually 
quite dorsal in position, being sometimes very closely 
approximated and foveiform. 

As at present known, the great majority of genera are 
peculiar to Africa, and only a few species are known from 
the following localities : Eastern Europe, Arabia^ India, and 

Synopsis of Genera. 

1. (18.) Corbels ofposterior tibiae cavernous 

or subcavernous, i. e, with their 
external margin bent inwards 
more or less broadly (narrowly 
in Synaptocep/tahis) . 

2. (3.) Rostrum separated from head by a 

transverse impressed line. — * 
Scape reachiiig thorax ; claws 
connate at base; funicle with 
joint 2 much longer than 1, and 
1 longer than 3; elytra without 

erect setae 1. Sympiezorrhynchus, 

JSchh. (S. Africa.) 

3. (2.) Rostrum continuous with the head. 

4. (13.) Scape of antennae e.\ceediug an- 

terior margin of eye. 

5. (6) Tarsal claws free. — Eyes lateral ; 

scrobes sublateral ; antennas in- 
serted about middle of rostrum, 
the two basal joints of funicle 
equal ; tarsi witli joint 1 as broad 
as 3; elytra with depressed setaj. 3. Lipothyrea, Pasc. 

0. (5.) Tarsal claws connate at base. 

7. (10.) Scrobes dorsal, very close together, 
the space between them narrower 
than base of scape ; antennae 
long and slender, the scape ab- 
ruptly clavate. — Elytra witli long 


* In every case the characters given after the rule are alwavs present 
in the section to which they belong, and they may or may notbe present 
in the next corresponding section. They are not therefore absolutely 
dL^criminative characters, but will serve to facilitate exact determination 
of a genus. 


Mr. G. A. K. Marshall— /I Synojilic 

erect setse ; antennse inserted 
beyond middle of rostrum, but 
at some distance from apex. 

8. (0.) Eyes lateral ; funicle with joint 2 

evidently longer than 1 

9. (8.) Eyes dorsal, very close together, 

the 'space between them much 
narrower than the scape ; the 
two basal joints of funicle sub- 

10. (7.) Scrobes sublateral, the space be- 

tween them much broader than 
the base of the scape ; antennae 
shorter and thicker, the scape 
gradually dilated to apex. — Eyes 

11. (12.^ Antenna inserted behind middle 

of rostrum, funicle with joint 2 
scarcely longer than 3; prothorax 
scarcely narrower than the 
broadest part of the elytra ; 
elytra broadest near base, strongly 
acuminate behind, each elytron 
with a minute apical spine ; body 
with erect setae ; tarsi with joint 
1 nearly as broad as 3 

12. (11.) Antenna inserted near apex of 

rostrum, funicle with joint 2 
much longer than 3 ; prothorax 
much narrower than elytra ; 
elytra broadest about middle, 
without apical spines; body 
with no erect setae ; tarsi with 
joint 1 much narrower than 3 . . 

13. (4.) Scape of antennje not exceeding 

anterior margin of eye ; claws 

14. (15.) Rostrum long and strongly curved, 

narrower at the base than the 
space between the eyes ; scrobe 
not deflected, but continued right 
up to the eye ; funicle with the 
two basal joints equal, joint 7 as 
long as broad. — Elytra with erect 

15. (14.) Eostrum deflected, but ahnost 
straight, evidently broader at the 
base than the space between the 
eyes; scape strongly deflected, 
passing far below the eye; 
fimicle with joint 1 longer than 

4. Zeugor}ig»m, Mshl. 
(S. Africa.) 

5. Goniorrhmus, Fst. 
(S. Africa.) 

6. Xyn(Ba, Paso. 

2, Bicodes, gen. nov. 
(S. Africa.) 

Synctptonyx, "Waterh. 


Itevision of the Tanyrrliyncliinaj. 13 

10. (17.) Rostrum distinctly narrowed from 
base to near apex, the apical 
mai'gin dilated and with a short 
recurved process on each side; 
eyes lateral ; prothorax only 
slightly narrower at apex than 
at base; elytra very broadly 

ovate, with subdepressed setae. . 8. Euonyx, gen. nov. 

(S. Africa.) 

17. (16.) Rostrum parallel-sided, the apical 

margin not dilated, nor refiexed ; 
eyes dorsal or subdorsal ; pro- 
thorax much narrower at apex 
than at base ; elytra elongate, 

with short erect setas 9. Synaptocephalus, Fst. 


18. (1.) Corbels of posterior tibia? open. 

li). (20.) Scape not exceeding anterior mar- 
gin of eye. — Claws connate ; 
funicle with joint 1 longer than 
2 ; elytra narrowly marginate at 

base 10. Aosseterus, Schh. 

(S. Africa.) 
L'O. (19.) Scape exceeding anterior margin 
of eye. 

21. (42.) Rostrum continuous with the head. 

22. (39.) Eyes dorsal or subdorsal, the space 

between them not broader than 
that between the bases of the 

23. (26.) Tarsal claws connate at base. 

24. (25.) Femora unarmed ; tarsi with joint 

1 evidently narrower than .3 . . 12. Haptomerus, Fst. 
(Europe & Africa.) 
2o. (24.) All the femora with a distinct 
tooth ; tarsi with joint I almost 

as broad as 3 11. Myorrhinus, Schh. 

20. (23.) Tarsal claws free. 

27. (28.) Head subglobose ; eyes almost 

circular, situated quite close to 

the anterior margin of prothorax. 13. Annthresa, gen. now 

(S. Africa.) 

28. (27.) Head elongate ; eyes elongate, de- 

pressed and longitudinal, situated 
at extreme apex of head, the 
space between the posterior mar- 
gin of eye and the apical margin 
of prothorax equal to, or greater 
than, the length of the eye. — 
Base of rostrum as broad as the. 
head across the eyes. 

29. (38.) Elytra ovate, without any humeral 


30. (31.) Intermediate coxae contiguous; 

tarsi with joint 1 as broad as 3. 

14 Mr. G. A. K. Marshall—^ Synoptic 

— Antennfe inserted about 

middle of rostrum 14. StereorrhjncJius, Lac. 

(S. Africa.) 

31. (30.) Intermediate coxte separated ; 

tarsi with joint 1 narrower 
than 3. 

32. (37.) Basal margin of prothorax not bi- 

sinuate, truncate in middle ; 
funicle with joint 1 longer than 
2 ; elytra ovate. 

33. (34.) Scroiaes " elongate, produced shal- 

lowly backwards ; antennae in- 
serted about middle of rostrum. 

Rostrum longer than the head. . 15, Utnzila, gen. nox. 

(S. Africa.) 

34. (33.) Scrobes foveiform, subapical ; an- 

tenn£e inserted nearer apex of 
3o. (36.) Rostrum not longer than the head 
(measured to anterior margin of 
eye) ; episternal suture of meta- 
sternum obsolete 16. Malosonnis, Fst. 

36. (35.) Rostrum evidently longer than the 
head ; episternal suture of meta- 
sternum distinct and complete. . 17. Atmesia, Pasc 

(India, Arabia, Abyssinia.) 

Atmesia, Pa 

37. (32.) Basal margin of prothorax deeply 

bisiniiate, sharply angulate in 
middle ; funiele with joint 2 
longer than 1 ; elytra globose. 
— Femora with a small tooth ; 

elytra without setse 18. Opseorrhinus, Fst. 


38. (29.) Elytra suboblong, with a distinct 

humeral angle. — Rostrum not 
longer than head ; funicle with 
joint 2 slightly longer than 1 ; 

elytra without erect setse 19. Euphalia, Pasc. 


39. (22.) Eyes lateral, the space between 

them always broader than the 
space between the bases of the 

40. (41.) Tarsal claws free; femora armed 

with a small tooth ; posterior 
coxae broader than the abdominal 

intercoxal process 20. Tanyrrhynchiis, Schh. 

(S. Africa.) 

41. (40.) Tarsal claws connate at base ; 

femora unarmed ; posterior 
coxae not broader than the ab- 
dominal intercoxal process .... 21. Eremnodes, gen. nov. 


42. (21.) Rostrum separated from head by a 

transverse impressed line. — Eyes 
compressed, subdorsal, the space 

Revision of the TanyrrliyncliitiEe. 


between them about as broad as 
that between the autennis ; the 
latter inserted close to apex, long 
and slender, the scape exceeding 
the anterior margin of the pro- 
tliorax ; scrobescontinued broadly 
right up to the eyes; femora 

43. (44.) Tarsal claws connate ; funicle with 

joint 1 much longer than 2 ; 
second tarsal joint narrowly 

elono-ate 22. Ephimerostylus, Fst. 


44. (4.'}.) Tarsal claws free ; funicle with 

joint 2 much longer than 1 ; 
"second tarsal joint broadly tri- 
angular 23. Nastomma, gen. no v. 

(S. Africa.) 

1. Sympiezorrhynchus, Schll. 

S'/mpiezorrhjnchus, Schh. Gen. Cure. vii. 1, p. 170 (1843). — Type 
>S. camelus, Boh. 

Synopsis of Species. 

1. (4.) Prothorax with a broad dorsal 


2. (3.) Eyes depressed, subdorsal, the space 

between them narrower than the 

diameter of the eye and bearing a 

deep frontal furrow ; rostrum with 

a narrow, almost parallel-sided, 

dorsal elevation from antennae to 

base, the space between the scrobes 

scarcely broader than the base of 

the scape ; basal margin of pro- 
thorax strongly rounded ; elytra 

globose 1 . <S'. camehis, Boh , 

.3. (2.) Eyes convex, lateral, the space be- 
tween them much broader than 

the diameter of the eye and with 

only a shallow frontal impression ; 

dorsal elevation of rostrum nar- 

nowest behind tlie antennaj and 

strongly dilated towards the base, 

the snace between tlie scrobes 

much Droader than the base of the 

scape ; basal margin of prothorax 

subtruncato ; elytra ovate 

4. (1.) Prothorax not elevated dorsally, 

simply convex. 
G. (C.) Eyes lateral, the space between them 

hardly narrower than the base of 

the rostrum 

0. (5.) Eyes subdorsal, the space between 

them much narrower than the base 

of the rostrum i. S. innfectatus, Boh. 

2. S. pulvinatti^, sp. n. 

3. .S. si(/)utfus, Boh. 

IG Mr. G. A. K. I\Iarsliall— .1 Synoptic 

1. Sympiezorrhynch us camelus, Boh., Sclih. I. c. p. 171. 
Natal: Malvern (C. N. Barker), Isipiiigo (G. A. K. M.). 
Type in tlie Stockholm Museum. 

2. Sympiezorrhynchus jmlvinatuSj sp. n. 

Long. 4|, lat. 2i mm. 

rallide viridis, fronte et proihoracis elovatione brunneis, elytrorum 
intcrstitiis 2 et 4 pallicle brunnescentibus. 

Caput convexum, oculis lateralibus, fronte lata, in medio minus 
profunde impressa. Eostrum a capite irapressione profunda 
separatum, in dorso elevatum, elevatione versus basin valde 
ampliata et supra canaliculata, Prothorax transversus, postice 
subtruncatus, lateribus paulo rotundatus, prope basin latior, intra 
apicem leviter constrictus, supra late pulvinato-elevatus, gibbo 
rugoso insequali. Elytra late ovata, ad basin conjuiictim sinuata, 
subtiliter punctato-striata, interetitiis latis subplanis, setis 
brevissimis squamiformibus obsitis. 

Cape Colony [coll. Fry) . 
Type in the British Museum. 

3. Symjn'ezorrhynchus sujnatus, Boh., Schh. /. c. j). 173. 

Cape Colony. 

Type in the Stockholm Museum. 

4. Sympiezorrhynchus inafectatus, Boli., Schli. I. c. p. 172. 

Cape Colony: Grahamstown {coll. Fry). 
Type in the Stockholm Museum. 

2. BicODES, gen. nov. 

Caput breviter subconicum, cum rostro continuum. Rostrum 
capite longius, subparallelum, leviter arcuatum, subtus rotuu- 
datum et squamosum, scrobibus supernis, postice late sed paruni 
profunde ad oculos continuatis. Antennae sat validas, prope 
apicem rostri insertoe, scapo leviter arcuato, ad apicem gradatim 
parum ampliato, funiculi articulo secundo quam prime perpaulum 
longiore. Prothorax postice bisinuatus, antice truncatus, nee 
pone oculos lobatus, intra apicem levissime constrictus. Elytra 
ovata, tenuiter punctato-striata, ad basin conjunctim emarginata, 
humeris nuUis, setis vix perspiciendis. Pedes sat valid! ; 
femora mutica ; tibiae intus uou crenulatse, posticae corbulis 
valde cavernosis ; tarsi articulo prime quam tertio multo 
angustiore, secundo evidenter transverse, unguiculis ad basin 
connatis. Abdomen segmento prime postice truncate, segment© 
2=3 + 4. Coxis posticis elytra attingentibus ; metasternum 
sutura episterni omnino obsoleta. 

]i(iviswn of (he Tanynliynchinaj. 17 

Type B. vittatus, sp. n. 

This genus is extremely similar to SympiezorrhyncJius, 
but in this latter the head is separated from the rostrum by 
an imjjressed line, the episterual suture of the metasternum 
is quite distinct in the basal half, the posterior coxa? do not 
reach the elytra, the apical margin of tlie first abdominal 
segment is slightly sinuate, and finally the scrobe is con- 
tinued backwards as a narrow curved furrow, quite distinct 
from the broad lateral impression of the rostrum. 

The following is the only species at present known : — 

1. Bicodes vittatus^ sp. n. 

Long. 3-4i, lat. U-2h mm. 

Piceus, laete viridi- aut aureo-viridi-squamosus ; prothorax vittis 
duabus fuscis dorsalibus latis male deliiiitis; elytra interstitiis 
1 at 4 et 5 a basi ultra medium fusco-squaraosis. 

Caput convexum, fronte lata, in medio stria minuta instructa, 
oculis lateralibus convexis. Rostrum dorso subelevatum, supra 
fere planum, nee carinatum nee canaliculatuin. Antcuiue 
ferrugineae, viridi-squamosae. Prothorax paulum latior (piam 
longior, lateribus leviter rotundatus, prope basin latior, antice 
attenuatus ; supra convexus, punctis parvis confiuentibus 
(a squamis densis omuiuo conditis) undique obsitus, sed margiue 
antico glabro impunctato. Elytra ovata, lateribus fortiter 
rotuudata, prope medium latiora, punctato-striata, interstitiis 
latis subplanis sub squamositate nitidis et subtiliter coriaceis. 
Pedes ferruginei, viridi-squamosi. 

Natal : Frere [G. A. K. M.). 
Type in the British Museum. 

Lipothyrea, Pasc. Anu. & Mag. N. H. (5) ix. p. 375 (1882), 

This genus was placed by Pascoe in the Leptopides, but it 
entirely lacks the mandibular scar, which is very well 
developed in the typical members of that group. It is 
certainly in a far more natural position among tlie Tanyrrhyn- 
chinse. There is only one species. 

1. Lipothyrea chloris, Pasc. /. c. 

Australia: Port Bowen. 
Type in the British Museuui. 

4. Zeugorygjia, ^Isl 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1900, 

Ann. d- Mmj. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. i. 

Zeuyorygmo, Wslil. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1900, ii. p. 92.3. — Tvthj Z. Iiirln, 

18 Mr. G. A. K. Marshall— A Synoptic 

Synopsis of Species. 

1. (2.) Scrobes foveiform, not continued pos- 

teriorlv ; rostrum not carinate ; funicle 

with joints 3 and 4 equal I. Z. hirta, Mshl. 

2. (1.) Scrobes continued posteriorly for some 

distance, their upper margin bearing a 
distinct carina ; funicle with joint 3 
longer than 4 2. Z orangice, Mshl. 

1. Zeugorygma hirta, Mshl. /. c. p. 92-4. 

Natal: Estcourt [A. E. Eaviland), Frere [G.A.K. M.). 
Type in the British Museum. 

2. Zeugorygma orangice, Mshl. I. c. p. 924. 

Orange Colony: Bothaville {Dr. H. Brauns). Cape 
Colony : Port Elizabeth [Dr. Brauns). 
Type in the British Museum. 

5. GONIOERHTNUS, Faust {emend.). 

<Gomorhinus, Fst. D. e. Z. 1889, p. 142. 

Faust states that in this genus the intermediate cox« are 
contiguous ; such, however, is not the case. These coxse are 
narrowly separated as in all other genera of Tanyrrhynchinse 
except Stereorrhynchus, Lac. 

1. Goniorrhinus erinaceus, Fst. I. c. p. 143. 


Type in the Dresden Museum. 

6. Xyn^a, Pasc. 
Xj/naa, Pasc. Journ. Ent. ii. p. 419 (I860). 

1. Xynaa saginata, Pasc. I. c. p. 420, pi. xvii. fig. 2. 
Australia : Gawler. 
Type in the British Museum. 

7. SyxVAPtonyx, Waterh. 

Synaptoyiyx, Waterh. Tr. Ent. Soc. Lend. 1853, p. 187. 

In the Munich Catalogue this genus is erroneously attri- 
buted to Wollaston. 

1. Synaptonyx ovatus, Waterh. I. c. p. 187. 


Type in the British Museum. 

Revision of the Tanyrrliync!iin[e. 19 

8. EuONYX, gen. nov. 

Caput breve transversum, cum rostro continuum, oculis depressia 
distantibus lateralibus. Rostrum capite triple longius, a basi 
versus apicem valde attenuatum, sed in ipso apice lateraliter 
reflexo-dilatatum, subtus corapressum nudum nitidum ; scrobes 
ad apicem tanturn subdorsales, mox infra fortiter deflexi, longe 
sub oculis desiuentes. Antennae breves, in medio rostri insertae, 
scapo marginem anticum oculi vix excedente, funiculi articulo 
primo quam secundo multo longiore, articulis apicalibus brevis- 
simis tranversis, clava late ovata. Prothorax antice et postice 
subtruucatus, nee pone oculos lobatus, nee ad apicem const rictus. 
Elytra late ovata, humeris nuUis, tenuiter punctato-striata. 
Pedes mediocres, femoribus muticis, tibiis interne non crenulatis, 
corbulis posticis subcavernosis, tarsorum articulo tertio quam 
primo latiore, unguiculis parvis connatis. Coxae posticae elytra 
attingentes. Episternum metasternale parvum subtriangulare, 
postice angustatum et abbreviatum. 

Type E. sulcirostris, sp. n. 

The chief characters which distinguish this genus are the 
anterior narrowing of the rostrum, with its recurved apical 
margin, and the structure of the episterna of the metasternum. 
Tlie sliarp lateral deflection of the scrobes is also a striking 
cliaracter, which is otherwise only to be found in Synapto- 

1. Euonyj; sulcirostris, sp, n. 

Long. 2i-3|, lat. 1^-2 mm. 

Brunneus aut piceus, pallide cervino- et caisio-squamosus, reflexione 

Caput convexum, fronte lata, stria media aiigusta instructa. 
Rostrum unisulcatum, buIco in medio latiore, versus basin et 
apicem angustato, supra (velut in capite) setis brevibus sub- 
erectis dense obsitum. Anteuna3 ferruginea^, palHdo-setosae. 
Prothorax transversus, antice quam ad basin paulo tanturn 
angustior, lateribus rotundatus, in medio latior, supra convesus, 
levis, dense squamosus et setis pai-vis suberectis obsitus. Elytra, 
late ovata, in medio latiora, convexa, subtiliter punctato-striata, 
interstitiis latis, fere planis, setis albis parvis subdepressis seriatim 
dispositis. Pedes ferruginei, pallido-squamosi. 


Type in the Dresden Museum. 

y. Synaptocephalus, Faust. 

Si/miptocephalus, Fst. S. e. Z. 18^0, p. 18-').— Type .S. kolhei, I'st. 

20 Mr. G. A. K. Maisliall— ^ Synoptic 

Synopsis of Species. 

1. (6.) Eyes dorsal or subdorsal, forehead miicli 

narrower than the rostrum ; prothorax 
vdi\\ no trace of an ocular lobe or 

2. (3.) Rostrum tricariuatedorsally, not impressed 

laterally in front of the eye ; scrobes 
continued right beneath the rostrum 
and almost meeting at its base 1. 'S'. helleri, sp. n, 

3. (2.) Rostrum not carinate, with a more or less 

distinct central furrow and with an 
evident basal suhtriangular impression 
just in front of the eye ; scrobes shorter, 
ending on the side "of the rostrum and 
not continued beneath it. 

4. (5.) Eyes very close together, forehead not 

broader than the apex of the scape ; base 
of elytra truncate, its external angles 
not jirojecting 2. S. kolbei, Est, 

5. (4.) Eyes further apart, the forehead much 

broader than the apex of the scape: base 
of elytra broadly sinuate, its external 
angles projecting slightly forwards .... 3. S.faustifS^.n. 

6. (1.) Eyes entirely lateral, forehead much 

broader than the rostrum : prothorax 
with a faint lateral lobe and distinct 
postocular vibrissje A. S. JeJceli, Est. 

1. Synaptocephalus helleri^ sp. n. 

Long. 4|-5|, lat. l|-2i mm. 

Niger, viridi- aut subaureo-squamosus, squamis fuscis intermixtis ; 
prothorax vittis tribus latis subdenudatis notatus. 

Caput subconiciim convexum, ociilis subdorsalibus depressis 
approximatis, fronte quam clava antennarum angustiore. 
Rostrum rectum parallelum, longitudini prothoracis sequale, supra 
leviter tricarinatum, carinis antice abbreviatis ; scrobes valde 
profundi, subtus ad basin rostri continuati et ibi approximati. 
Prothorax transversus subconicus, ad basin latior, antice valde 
angustatus, lateribus rotundatus, basi apiceque truncatus, antice 
ad latera nee lobatus nee fimbriatus, supra convexus, undique 
punctis parum profundis subconfluentibus instructus. Elytra ad 
basin leviter conjunctim sinuata, angulis externis non projectis, 
fortiter punctato-striata, interstitiis parum convexis, 

Mashonaland : Salisbury {G. A. K. M.). 
Type in the British Museum. 

In general facies this species is extremely like S. kolhei^ 

2. Synaptocephalus kolbei, Fst. S. e. Z. 1890, p. 186. 

Zanzibar {Mailer). German E. Africa : Usaramo, 
Mwiansi [F. Stuhlmann). 

Type in the Dresden Museum. 

lievision of the Tanynhyn.hinas. 21 

3. Synaptocephalus faustiy sp. n. 

Long. G|, lat. 2| mm. 

Niger, squamulis dcnsis pallide virescentibus undique obsituj. 

Caput subconicum convexum, oculis sublatcralibus depressis, fronte 
quam clava antennarum latiore, in medio tenuiter canalicnlata. 
nostrum rectum parallelum, prothorace brevius, ad latera ante 
oculos triangulariter impressum, supra planum, canaliculo tenui 
antice abbreviate instructum ; scrobes non sub rostro continuati, 
in ipso latere desinentes, postice minus profundi. Prothorax 
omnino sirailis ao in S. helJeri, sed paulum latior at margine 
basali leviter sinuato. Elytra etiam velut in S. helleri, sed 
augulis externis baseos prominulis, squamositate dcnsiore et 

White Nile (Richter). 

Type in the Dresden Museum. 

This species stood in Faust's collection under the MS. 
name of S. viridis, Fst. It quite resembles S. kolbei. Est., 
in general facies. 

4. Si/7iaptocephoJus jekeli, Fst. 
Aosseterusjekeli, Fst. Berl. ent. Zeit. 1886, p. 101. 

N.W. Rhodesia: Leshumo (Holub), Zambesi River 
{Dr. Bradshato). 

Type in the Dresden Museum. 

The exact position of this species is doubtful, but it appears 
to me to have more characters in common with Synapto- 
cephalus than with Aosseterus, and it has certainly quite the 
distinctive facies of the former. In the following characters, 
which distinguish tliese two genera, jekeli agrees with 
Synaptocephalus : — 

Synaptocephalus. — Corbels of posterior tibiaj narrowly 
cavernous; lateral margin of elytra with a small emargination 
near base for the reception of the head of the metasternal 
cpisternum ; the suture of this episternum only visible at the 
extreme base ; prothorax broadest at base, much narrower at 
apex ; elytra not constricted at base. 

Aossettrus. — Corbels of posterior tibiffi open ; elytra not 
emarginate laterally near base ; suture of metasternal epi- 
.Hternum complete and distinct ; prothoi'ax scarcely narrower 
at apex than at base, its sides strongly rounded and broadest 
at middle; elytra shallowly constricted at base. 

10. A(^8.SETERUfi, Schh. 

Aosseterus, Schh. Manl. Sec. Fhiu. Cure. p. To (1847). -Tvpa 
A. argentatusy Ffihr. 

•U Mr. G. A. K. Marshall— .4 Synoptic 

Synopsis of Species. 

1. (2.) Eyes subcompressed, nearer together, 

the space between thera narrower 
than that between the antennae ; 
apical lateral margin of prothorax 
without vibrissa \. A. striyirostris, FShr. 

2. (1.) Eyes entirely lateral, convex, the 

space between them about twice as 
broad as that between the antennae ; 
prothorax with distinct vibrissas. 

3. (4.) Head with a fine central stria which 

is continued nearly to apex of 
rostrum; scrobe continued broadly 
up to the eye ; size o\-Q\ mm 2. A. argentatus, FShr. 

4. (3.) Head without a stria ; rostrum with 

a fine stria on the apical half only ; 
scrobe narrower, curved more down- 
wards, and ending far from the eye ; 
size 3 mm 'i. A. melanehoUcus, FShr. 

1. Aosseterus strigirostr'is, Fahr. OEtV. K. Vet.-Ak. Forh. 

1871, p. 11. 
Aosseterus cinei-asceyis, Fahr. /. c. p. 12. 

S.E. Africa. 

Ttpe in the Stockholm Museum, also the type of 

After a careful examination of the type specimens I can 
find no character to warrant the recognition of cinerascens as 
a good species ; it differs from the typical form only in its 
smaller size and more grey colouring. 

2. Aosseterus argentatus, Fahr. h c. p. 11. 

Transvaal [Dr. Cheio, A. Bottcher). 
Type in the Stockholm Museum. 

3. Aosseterus melanehoUcus, Fahr. /. c. p. 12. 

S.E. Afeica. 

TiPE in the Stockholm Museum. 

11. Myoerhinus, Schh. 

Mijorhinus, Schh. Disp. Meth.p. 213 (1826).— Type M. albdineatus, F 

Synopsis of Species. 

3. (2.) Fiinicle with joint 1 much shorter 

than 2 ; femora only slightly clavate. 1. M. albolinmtu», F 
2. (1.) Funicle with the two basal joints 

equal ; fvmara strongly clavate. ... 2. M. suhrittatus, Fairm. 

^tevisioii of the Tanynliyncliiiice. 23 

1. MyorrMnus albolinentus, F. ( Curculio) Ent. Syst. i. 2, 

p. 490 (1792) ; Oliv. Ent. v. 83, p. 423, pi. 23. Hg. 322 
(1807); Gyl., Schh. Gen. Cure. iii. p. 531 (1836). 
Myorhimis steveni, Gyl. /. c. p. 530. 

Type (?). 

2. Myorrhinus suhuittatus, Fairni. Ann. Sue. Eiit. France, 

1866, p. 267. 

Asia Minor. 

Type (? in coll UdSrer). 

12. Haptomerus, Faust. 
Haptomerus, Fst. D. e. Z. 1889, p. 142.— Type H. lepidus, Brull^. 

Synopsis of Species, 

1. (10.) Elytra -witliout erect set® ; fore- 

head not silicate between the eyes ; 
rostrum more slender, gradually 
dilated towards apex. 

2. (5.) Second joint of funicle longer than 


3. (4.) Third joint of funicle not longer 

than fourth ; elytra more globose, 
the punctures coarser, the inter- 
vals narrower and more convex. . 1. H. siculua, Kraatz. 

4. (3.) Third joint of funicle longer than 

fourth ; elytra more elongate, tlie 

Euuctures less coarse, the intervals 
roader and almost plane 2. H. lepidus, BruUe. 

5. (2.) First joint of funicle longer than 


6. (7.) Scrobes siiblateral, only partly 

visible from above, their lower 
edge not continued in front of the 
anteunte. Eyes situated appa- 
rently on the base of the rostrum. 3. 11. schneideri, Kirsch. 

7. (6.) Scrobes dorsal, entirely visible from 

above, their lower edge continued 
almost to apex. 

8. (9.) Eyes on vertex of head, their 

diameter being much longer than 
the space between them and the 
margin of the thorax ; rostrum 
tricarinate basally, apical part 
bare, shiny, and with no central 
furrow ; first joint of funicle 

elongate, simply clavate 4. //. tna^huriun, t-p. n. 

0. (W.) Eyesappareiitly on base of rostrum, 
their ciiamotcr being less than the 

24 Mr. G. A. K. Marshall—^ Synoptic 

space between them and the 
thorax ; rostrum not carinate 
basally, apical part squamose and 
with a distinct central furrow ; 
first joint of fnnicle triangnlar . . o. H. limis, Gyl. 
10, (1.) Elytra with long erect set?e; forehead 
with a short furrow between the 
eyes ; rostrum very stout, parallel- 
sided. The two basal joints of 
funicle subequal ; rostrum with a 
distinct furrow from base to apex. G. H, natalis, sp. n, 

1. Haptomerus siculus, Kraatz (^Myorhinus), B. e. Z. 1859, 

p, 56. 


Type in the German National Entomological Museum. 

2. Hap>tomerus lepidus, BruUe, Exped. Mor. iii. p. 246. 

E. Europe. 
Type (?), 

3. Ilaptomej'us schneideri, Kirscli [Myorrkinus], Verb. nat. 

Ver. Brunn, 1879, p. 32. 

Caucasus r Kiptscliakli [Oscar Schneider and Hans Leder). 

Type (?). 

This species is luiknown to me, 

4. Haptomerus mashunns, sp. n. 

Long. 2|-4, lat. l\rH ^^' 

IS'igro-piceus, squamulis pallidis submetallieis parcis, versus dorsi 
marginem densioribus, indutus, macula parra pallida basali in 
interstitio elytrorum tertio ; setis rix perspiciendis. 

Caput breviter subconicum, oculis magnis dorsalibus approximatis, 
props marginem thoracis sitis. Rostrum elongatum minus 
crassum, versus apicem paulo ampliatum, valde arcuatum, supra 
post antennas tenuiter tricarinatum, antice glabrum nitidum 
subtiliter punctulatum ; scrobes dorsales, ptene ad oculos minus 
profunde extensi. Prothorax transversus, antice posticeque trun- 
eatus, lateribus rotundatus, in medio latior, versus apicem parnm 
angustatus, supra confertim subtiliter granulatus et a^qualiter 
sparse squamosus. Elytra breviter ovata, humeris rotundatis, 
ante medium latiora, late et profunde punctato-striata, interstitiis 
angustis, marginibus iaflexis oranino nudis. 

Mashonaland: Salisbury [G. A. K, M.). 
Type in the British Museum, 

Revinion of the Tiinynhyncliinae. 25 

5. ILrptomeriis Umis^ Gyl. (Mi/orhinus), Sclili. Gen. Cuic. iii. 
p. 532 (1836j. 

Myorhinus mci.siro$tns, Gyl. L c. 

Mtjorlnnus setarms, FSlir. op. cii. vii. 2, p. 421 (1843). 

Cape Colony. 

Types of all three forms in the Stockliolra Museum, 
After a prolonged examination of the unique type specimens 
I have failed to find any characters by which incisirostris and 
setarius can be distinguisiied from limis. The structural 
characters cited by Gyllciihal in the case of incisirostris arise 
simply from the fact that the type is entirely denuded of 
scales ; while setarius differs from limis only in its much 
smaller size. 

6. llaptomerus natalis, sp, n. 

Long. lf-3|, lat. 1-11 mm. 

Niger, squamis cinereis deiisis undique indutus, in elytris setia 
longis erectis parce obsitus. 

Caput elongatum, antice productum, oculis depreasis subdorsalibus 
approximatis, a thorace distantibus, inter se a sulco brevi 
separatis. llostrum capite longius crassum arcuatum parallelum^ 
ad basin non angustius quam caput ad oculos, supra a basi ad 
apiccm evidenter unisulcatus ; scrobes latissime sed parum pro- 
funde ad oculos continuati. Prothorax transversus, antice 
posticeque truncatus, lateribus leviter rotundatus, pone mediuia 
latior, versus apicem multo angustatus, supra convexus, dense 
sequaliter squamosus. Elytra breviter ovata, ad basin truncata, 
prope medium latiora, dense squamosa et tenuiter striata, sed 
in exemplo detrito evidenter punctato-striata, interstitiis latis 
nitidis impuiictatis. Pedes breves validi dense squamosi, tarsis 

Natal : Estcourt {G. A. K. M.). 
Type in the British Museum. 

13. Anatiiresa, gen. nov. 

Caput breve, oculis subdorsalibus deprcssis approximatis. Eostrum 
elongatum arcuatum subparallelum, subtus nudum subcom- 
pressum ; scrobes variabiles, aut subfoveiformes, aut ad oculos 
plus minus profunde continuati. Antenna- prope medium rostri 
insert a;, scapo t'ero recto, gradatim clavato, quam funiculo 
evidenter breviore, marginem posticum oculi attingeiitc, funiculi 
articulis duobus basalibus suba^qualibus, aut primo longiore. 
Prothorax transversus, antice truncatus et angustior. Elytra 
breviter ovata, punctato-striata. Pedes femoribus inermibus, 
corbulis tibiarum posticarum apcrtis, tarsorum articulo primi> 
subcjuadrato. quam tertio angustiore, uiiguiiuHs liberie;. 

26 Mr. G. A. K. Marshall— .4 Synoptic 

Type Myurrhinus glohulosus^ Fahr. 

The only essential character which distinguishes this 
genus from Ilaptonierus is the free tarsal claws» 

Synopsis of Species. 

1. (4.) Curvature of the forehead on the same 

level as that of the rostrum ; scrobes 
continued backwards right up to the 
eye; iirst joint of fun icle not longer 
than second ; base of rostrum much 
narrower than the width of the head 
across the middle of the eyes. 

2. (3.) Elytra without erect setge ; scrobes very 

deep posteriorly 1. 

3. (2.) Elytra with dense erect setae ; scrobes 

shallow posteriorly 2. 

4. (1.) Forehead more or less elevated above 

the level of the rostrum ; scrobes 
evanescent posteriorly ; first joint of 
funicle longer than second ; base of 
rostrum about as broad as the head 
across the middle of the eyes. Elytra 
■with erect setae. 

5. (6.) Rostrum stouter, gibbous at the inser- 

tion of the antennae, with a narrow 
central fuirow (sometimes obsolete 
near the base), which is broader and 
deeper near the apex 3, A. globulosa, FShr. 

6. (5.) Rostrum more slender, not gibbous at 

the insertion of the antennae, convex 
above and without any central 
furrow 4:. A. crenulosa, FShr. 

A. calva^ sp. n. 
A. longstaffii, Mshl. 

1. Anathresa calva, sp. n. 

Long. 4|, lat. 2i mm. 

Niger, cinereo-viridi-squamosus, setis brevibus albis depressis 

Caput subglobosum, fronte supra rostrum non elevata. Rostrum 
supra planum, nee sulcatum nee carinatum ; scrobes ante antennas 
anguste ad apicem continuati, postiee late et profunda ad oculos 
extensi. Antennae articulis funiculi duobus basalibus subasquali- 
bus. Prothorax postiee truncatus, lateribus valde rotundatus, in 
medio latior, supra subtilissime confertim punetatus. Elytra 
late ovata, ad basin truncata, postiee acuminata, humeris rotun- 
dato-productis, supra tenuiter punctato-striatis, interstitiis latin 
subplanis. Pedes piceo-ferruginei, squamis et setis pallidis 

Transvaal {A. Bdttcher). 
Type in the British Museum. 
This species may be distinguished 

from all its congeners 

Revision of the Tauyirhyiichiurc. 27 

by Its larger size, its more roundly prominent slioiiklers, its 
very deep scrobes, and, finally, by the absence of erect setse 
The only specimen I have seen was kindly given to me by 

2. Anathresa lonqstaffi, Mshl. [Myorrhinus) Proc. Zool. Soc. 

1906, ii. p. 932 (1907). 

Cape Colony: East London {Dr. G. B. Longstaff). 
Type in the Oxford Museum. 

3. Anathresa glohulosa, Fahr. {Myorhinus) CEfv, K. Vet.- 

Ak. Foih. 1871, p. 221. 
Myorhinus setipennis, FShr. /. c. 

Matabeleland : Buluwayo {G. A. K. M.). 

Type in the Stockholm Museum ; also the type of setipennis. 

After a careful comparison of the types I am satisfied that 
setipennis is merely the male of glohulosa. Wahlberg's 
specimens were probably taken in the Transvaal. 

4. Anathresa crenulosa, Fahr. [Myorhinus) I. c. p. 222. 

CaffraRIA [Wahlherg). 

Type in the Stockholm Museum. 

I have seen only the unique type. 

14. Stereorrhynchus, Lac. 

Stereorhynchiis, Lac. Gen. Col. vi. p. 371 (1863). 

Stenoccphuhts^ Sclib. Maut. sec. Cure. 1847, p. 77 (nom. prseocc). 

1. Stereorrhynchus setipennis, Faiir. ffifv. K. Vet.-Ak. Forh. 
1871, p. 220. 

Transvaal (A. Bdttcher). 
Type in the Stockholm Museum. 

15. Umzila, gen. nov. 

Caput auticc elongatuiu, oculis dorsaHbua approximatis longitu- 
dinalibus, quasi in bnsi rostri positis. Kostrum capite longius, 
paralleluni, arcuatuni, subtus nudum nitidum ; scrobes dorsalos, 
antice producti, postico parum profunde continuati. Anfenna- 
subvalidse, in medio rostri posita?, scapo fore recto, gradatim 
clavato, oculoa superante, funiculi articulo primo (piara secundo 
longioro, articulis apicalibus transvcrsis. Protborax transvcrsus, 
antice ct posticc truucalus, lateribus rotundatus. Elvtra lute 

28 Mr. G. A. K. Marshall— A Si/noptic 

ovata, evidenter punctato-striata, hispida. Pedes validi, femori- 
bus muticis, corbulis tibiarum posticarumapcrtis, tarsorum articulo 
primo quam tertio angustiore, unguiculis liberis. Abdomen 
segmento primo poslice emarginato, 2 = 3 et 4 simul sumptis. 
Sutura episternalis metasterni ad basin tantum videnda. 

Type Umzila swynnertoni, sp. n. 

This genus most nearly approaches Malosomus, Fst., from 
which it differs in the structure of the scrobes, the greater 
length of the rostrum as compared with the head, and the 
much shorter and thicker legs and antennae. 

1. Umzila swynnertonij sp. n. 

Long. 3|, lat. 1| mm. 

Niger, dense viridi-squamosus, unicolor, setis pallidis erectis con^ 
fertim obsitus, abdomino cinereo-squamoso. 

Caput convexum, fronte inter oculos evidenter striata. Rostrum 
supra dense squamosum, convexum, nee sulcatum nee carinatum. 
Anteunoe piceo-ferruginese, pallido-squamosse. Protborax lateri- 
bus rotundatus, antice posticeque angustatus, in medio latior, 
supra coufertim evidenter puuctatus. Elytra late ovata, ad basiu 
truncata, humeris rotundatis ; supra fortiter punctato-striata, 
interstitiis subplanis, setis brevibus erectis dense seriatim obsitis. 
Pedes picei, squamis cinereo-vireseenfcibus induti, 

Gazaland : Chiriuda Forest (C. F. M. Sioynnerton), 

Type in the British Museum. 

I have much pleasure in dedicating this species to my 
friend Mr. Swynnerton, who has made a very valuable 
collection of the animals and plants which occur in the highly 
interesting and isolated patch of primeval forest at Chirinda. 

16. MalosomuS, Faust. 
Malosomus, Fst. D. e. Z. 1898, p. 279.— Type M. lineatus, Fst. 

Synopsis of Species. 

1. (2.) Femora with a small tooth ; each elytron 

with two bare black stiipes. Elytra 
uarrowly elongate ; body with fine 
long erect hairs \. M. lineafus, Fst. 

2. (1.) Femora unarmed ; elytra with uniform 


3. (4.) Prothorax with only a few widely scat- 

tered punctures ; elytra elongate, 

oval,with long erect setae throughout. 2. M. andrcwesi, Fst. 

4. (3.) Prothorax closely and distinctly punc- 

tured ; elytra broadly ovate, the sette 
in the basal half short and depressed. 



Revision of the TanyrrliyncliinjB. 29 

•"). (0.) Elytra with brownish-grey scaling and 
with short erect setae on the de- 
clivity ; posterior tibiae very finely- 
serrate internally ; rostrum with a 
shallow central furrow in the apical 
half A. M, abyssinicits, sp. n. 

0. (5.) Elytra with green scaling, the setae 

minute and depressed throughout; 
posterior tibife not serrate internally ; 
rostrum with only a shallow fovea 
between the antenna; "i. M. arabicus, sp. n. 

1. Malosomus Uneatus, Fst. D. e. Z. 1898, p. 279. 

8. India: Belgamn (//. E. Andreioefi). 
Type in the Dresden Museum. 

2. Malosomus andrewesi, Fst. I. c. p. 280. 

S. India: Belgaum (//. E. Andreives). 
Type in the Dresden Museum. 

3. Malosomus arabicus, sp. n. 

Long. 2|, lat. 1| mm. 

I'iceus, squamulis viridibus undique vestitus, setis paucis minutis 
depressis obsitus. 

Caput valde elongatum, oculis quasi in rostro sitis, dorgalibus sub- 
oontiguis depressis longitudinalibus, fronte canaliculo parvo pone 
oculos insculpta. Rostrum capite non longins, ad basin nou 
angustius quam caput ad oculos, supra convexum, nee carinatum 
nee sulcatum, subtus nudum nitidum. Antoinife valde tenues, 
rufo-piceae ; funiculi articulus primus sccuudo multo longior. 
Prothorax transversus, basi apiceque (runcatus, latoribus rotun- 
dato-ampliatus, in m.edio latior, supra confertim punctatus, linea 
media leviore. Elytra ovata, ad basin subtruncata, huraeris 
obliquis, fortiter punctato-sulcata, interstitiis latis subplanis. 
Tcdes flavo-rufi, squamis pallidis parco iiiduti, tibiis posticis 
interne non serratis. 

Akabia : Yemen {coll. Fri/). 
Type in the British Museum. 

4. Malosoinus ahi/ssitiicus, sp. n. 

Long. 3|, lat. 1| mm. 

Nigro-picous, 8(|uamulis fusco-einorois uiuli(iuc vestitus, in elytris 
setis brevibuM, versus basin depressis, versus apicem erectis, 
obsitus. Caput ot rostrum ui in M. ambico, sod hoc sulco parum 
profundo versus ajjicem instructum. Prothorax etiam ut in 
J/, nrabico, sed punctis majoribus minus approximatisinstructus. 


30 Mr. G. A. K. Marshall— A Synoptic * ' 

Elytra late ovata, ad basia leviter emarginata, humeris rotuii- 
datis, evidenter punetato-striata, iuterstitiis latis subplanis. 
Pedes rufo-picoi, ciiiereo-squamosi, tibiis posticis iuterne subtiliter 

Abyssinia [coll. Bowring). 
Type in the British Museum. 

17. Atmesia, Paso. 

Atmesia, Pasc. Journ, Linn. Soc. x. p. 438 (1870). — Type A, mar- 
ginata, Pase, 

Synopsis of Species. 

1. (2.) Rostrum witli a very fine central stria ; 

sides of prothorax scarcely narrowed 
behind middle, the posterior angles 
strongly produced backwards ; elytra 
with sparse erect setfe ; colour pale 
sandy with a metallic reflection, pro- 
notum with three black stripes, the 
elytra variegated dorsally with irre- 
gular black markings \. A. marr/mata, Pasc. 

2. (1.) Rostrum with a broad central furrow ; 

sides of prothorax strongly narrowed 
behind middle, the posterior angles 
not produced ; elytra with minute 
eeale-like sette : colour uniform 
greenish-grey throughout 2. A. rjlaucinn, Pase. 

1. Atmesia marginata, Pasc. I. c. p. 469, pi. xviii. fig. 3. 

S. Australia : Gawler. 
Type in the British Museum. 

2. Atmesia glaucina, Pasc. op. cit. xi. p. 446 (L872). 

W. Australia : Nicol Bay. 
Type in the British Museum. 

18. Opseorrhinus, Fst. [emend.]. 
Opseorhinus, Fst. D. e. Z. 1898, p. 280. 

1. Opseorrhinus globulus, Fst. I. c. p. 281. 

India: Belgaum (//. E. Andrewes), Kanara (T. Bell). 
Type in the Dresden Museum. 

Revision of the Tanyrrhynchinai. 31 

19- EUPHALIA, Pasc. 

Eiiphalia, Tasc. Journ. Linn. Soc. x. p. 467 (1870). 

1. Euphalia pardali.s, Pasc. I. c. p. 468, 

W. Australia : Nicol Bay. 
Type in the British Museum. 

20. Tanyruhynchus, Schh. 

Tan;irhynchiis, Schh. Disp. meth. p. 212 (1826). — Type T. strigirostris, 

Owing to the unfortunate lack of adequate material, I am 
unable to give a synopsis of the species of this difficult genus. 
Of the fifteen species described by Boheman the types of no 
less than six have been lost. I have seen no example of 
T. asiaticus, Menetr., from Turkestan, or T. viridis, Fst. 
(D. e. Z. 1889, p. 114), from India; but it is probable that 
they do not really belong to the genus, for all the remaining 
species are entirely confined to Cape Colony. T. cosiirostris, 
lioh., and T. biguttaius, Boh., belong to the genus IStramia, 
Mshl. With tiiese exceptions the list of species given in the 
Munich Catalogue remains unaltered. 


o-en. nov. 

Caput subglobosum, ociilis lateralibus depressis. Eostrum a capite 
non separatum, thorace paulum longius, arcuatum, subtus nudum 
nitidum subcompres.sum, supra simpliciter convexum et squamo- 
sum ; scrobes subdorsales, late et profunde ad apieem continuati, 
postice angustati et miuua profundi, oculos vix attingente.s. 
Antenna; longse, scapo oculum superante, funicuH articiilo secundo 
quam primo duplo longioro, articulis apicalibus non trausversis, 
clava magna eloiigata. I'rothorax trausversus, antice et postice 
truncatus, prope apieem Icvitcr constrictus. Elytra ovata, ad 
basin truncata, humeris nullis, leviter punctato-striata. Pedes 
sat validi, fomoribus inermibus, corbulis tibiarum posticarum 
apcrtis, tarsorum unguiculis oonnatis. Abdominis segraentum 
primum postice truncatum, 2 = ;i-|-4; cpimeroTi mososternale 
vix perspiciendum ; episternum metasternalc angustum, sed 

Type Tanyrhynchus? pusillasj 

1. Kreniiwdes pusillus, Fst. D. e. Z. 1889, p. 111. 

Madagascar (Dr. Pipit:;). 
Type in the Dresden Museum. 

«S2 A Si/noptic Revision of the TanyiThyncliina3. 

22. Epiiimerostylus, Fst. 

Ephimerostylus, Fst. S. e. 21 1894, p. 146. — Type, E. theryi, Fst. 

Syyiopsis of Species. 

1- (2.) Colour piceous, without scaling, but with 
thin, brown, recumbent pubescence ; 
elytra without erect setae 1. E. theryi, Fst. 

2. (1.) Colour shining black, with dense greea or 
golden scaling, the elytra with the in- 
tervals 1, 4, and 5 more or less denuded ; 
elytra with long, erect, pale setae 2. E. eleyans, sp. n. 

1. Epiiimerostylus theryi^ Fst. /. c. p. 147. 

Abyssinia: Alitiena, Erytrea {Thery). 
Type in the Dresden Museum. 

2. Epiiimerostylus eleyans^ sp. u. 

Long. 5-5|, lat. 2-2 1 mm. 

Niger, squamis viridibus ant aureis dense indutus, elytrorura inter- 
stitiis 1, 4 et 5 plus minus denudatis micaiitibus ; in elytris setis 
longis erectis pallidis obsitus. 

Caput elongatum subconicum, fronte inter oculos leviter impressa 
aut striata, oculis subdorsalibus approximatis parum convexis. 
Kostrum capite lojigius, paralielum, supra squamosum, inter 
scrobes indistincte tricarinatum, subtus nudum nitidum impunc- 
tatum ; scrobes antice elongato-foveilbrmes, sed postice late et 
sat profunde ad oculos continuati, uudique viridi-squamosi. An- 
tennae prope apicem insertae, valde tenncs et clongatae, ferrugineae. 
Prothorax transversus, antice et postice truncatus, lateribus rotun- 
datus, in medio latior, supra subcoriaceus, granulis parcis depressis 
obsitus, in medio baseos interdum longitudinaliter imprcssus. 
Elytra elongato-ovata, ad basin subtruncata, evidenter punctato- 
striata, interstitiis subplanis vix aciculatis. Pedes elongati, nigri, 
dense viridi- aut aureo-squamosi, tibiis subtus pilis longis 

J angustior, tibiis anticis longioribus tenuioribus magis curvatis, 
tibiis posticis interne siuuatis et complanatis, tibiarum pilis multo 
longioribus ; $ tibiis posticis interne subtiliter serratis. 

Mashonaland: Salisbury {Q. A. K. M.)-, Gwibi River 
Types, $ ? , in the British Museum. 

23. Nastomma, gen. nov. 

Caput subquadratum, antice panlo attenuatum, oculis lateralibus 
depressis. Eostrum a capite stria transversa angulata separatum, 



On Itliopalocera from Brazil, 33 

thoraco vix brevius, versus apicem paulo atif^ustius, subhus fere 
nudum, fortiter punctatum ; scrobes dorsales, antice profundi 
curvati, apicem fere attingentes, postice late et minus profunda 
ad oculos continuati ibique squamosi. Antennae prope apicem 
inserta), elongata5, scapo curvato clavato, apicem thoracis supe- 
rante, funiculi articulo secundo quam prime multo longiore, 
articulis apicalibus elongatis. Prothorax transversus, antice 
posticequo truncatus. Elytra ovata, humeris uullis, ad basin 
subtruncata, evidcnter punctato-striata. Pedes sat validi, femori- 
bus elavatis inermibus, tibiis fere rectis, apice inermibus, corbulis 
posticis apertis, tarsorum articulo primo lato (tertio fere aequali), 
secundo angustiore sed late triaugulari, unguiculis liberis. Abdo- 
minis segmentum primum postice truncatum, secundum brevius 
quam 3-|-4; sutura episterni metasternalis ad basin tantum 

Type Sciobius squamulosus. Boh. 

The species upon which this genus is founded cannot 
remain iu Sciobius, because the mandibuhvr scar is entirely 
wanting. The niaxillte are not exposed laterally, but the 
palpi are partially visible beyond the apex of the nientum. 

1. Nastomma squamulosa, Boh. {Sciobius), Schh. Gen. Cure, 
vii. 1, p. 194 (1843) ; Marshall, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1906, 
i. p. 274. 

Cape Colony: Grahamstown. 
Type in the Stockholm Museum. 

III.— The Collections of William John Burchell, D.C.L., in 
the Hope Department, Oxford University Museum. 

IV. On the Lepidoptera Rhopalocera collected by W. J. 
Burchell in Brazil, 1825-1830. By COKA B. SANDERS, 
of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. 

[Continued from ser. 7, vol. xiii. p. 371.] 

IV. MoiiPHiNJi:. 

The following paper contains an account of the Morpliin;e 
and Brassolinae collected by Burchell in Brazil. The notes 
of habits and modes of flight are not only of the deepest 
interest on account of their early date, but even more from 
their intrinsic value and the precision conferred by the 
Ann. c& May. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. i. 3 

Hi Miss Cora B. Sanders on the Rhopalocera 

association of each record with a particular specimen. In 
checking the data in the manuscript I have had much kind 
and efficient help from Mr. J. C. Moulton, of Magdalen 
College. The probability of error is so high in a work of 
this kind, that the task of verification is both prolonged and 
laborious. The manuscript of all papers on this Brazilian 
collection requires the most careful comparison with the data 
on the specimens themselves, with those contained in Bur- 
chell's two manuscript note-books, and in Professor Westwood's 
list, while the inevitable occasional inconsistencies between 
these sources demand tlie utmost attention. 

Professor Westwood's manuscript Catalogue of " Burchell's 
Morphides " contains both Morphinae and Brassolinse grouped 
under 27 numbers, some of wliich were afterwards united by 
a bracket. With one or two exceptions the material is 
entirely unnamed. The list itself, which is neatly written in 
a clerk's hand, contains several errors, of which the probable 
corrections are indicated below. A note and two suggested 
names in Professor Westwood's handwriting are seen oppo- 
site three of the species separated out by him. A single 
number in the list " M. 21 " refers to a Nymphaline butterfly 
(a Prepona) accidentally included and afterwards detected by 
Professor Westwood; while one Brassoline butterfly was 
accidentally placed in the Catalogue of Hipparchia (H. 5) 
and two of the same group in the Catalogue of Nyniphalines 
(N. 18 and N. 20*). 

The following arrangement of numbers and dates is care- 
fully explained in Awn. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, vol. xiii,, 
April 1904, pp. 309, 310. Notes, other than numbers and 
dates, written on labels attached to the specimens are placed 
between inverted commas immediately after the numbers in 
heavy type, and immediately before the locality. They are 
found on relatively few specij^iens. When a specimen bears 
a number only, the date, recovered from Burchell's note-book, 
is placed between square brackets. " a." and " p." associated 
with the date stand for '' A.M." and " p.m." 


MorpJw laertes, Drury. 

5z.+ 23. 2. 26. = 355. Organ Mountains. Near Frech^I, 

near li, Pacaque. 
19. 3. 26. = 356. Rio de Janeiro. " In the valley of 

22. 3. 26. = 357. Rio de Janeiro. " Along the [Carloca] 

Aqueduct to the head of the valley of Laranjeiros." 


collected ly W. J. Burchell in Brazil. 35 

3. 4. 26. = 358. Rio de Janeiro. " Along the Carioca 


4. 3. 27. = 359-361. Near S. Paulo. " Morumby : over 

the hilly pastures E"^ of the house." 
Bz. 4. 3. 27. = 362. " Lente volans, secus marginem 

sylva3." Near S. Paulo. As 359-361. 
12. 3. '27. = 363. " In silvis et silvaticis." Near S. 

Paulo. " Morumby. Walk to old house." 
16. 3. 27. = 364. " Between Morumbi and S. Pdulo." 

Westwood's listj which also includes no. 365, agrees, save 
for the statement that two specimens were captured 16. 3. 27. 

Morplio catenarius, Perry. 
4. 3. 27. = 365. Near S. Paulo. (As 359.) 

Morpho perseus, Cram. 

Bz.+ 2. G. 29. =366. "Picked up floating dead on the 
river." E. Tocantins, just below Baiao : " Sitio das 
Westwood's list agrees. 

Morpho caiaxihia, Esp. 

106T. 3. 4. 26. S = 367. Rio de Janeiro. " Along the 
Carioca Aqueduct. Papilio. ^ 0. Imperador?^ Above 
entirely metallic blue, beneath a plain brown." 
Westwood's list agrees, but does not include the following 

6. 3. 27. c? = 368. " Hab. in densis sylvarum volatu lento 

altiore in cursu subrecto." Near S. Paulo; " MorumbV. 

Road N.N. W. of house." 

The tbllowing passage in the Brazilian note-book almost 

certainly refers to this species : — " 6. 3. 27. Papilio — at 

Morumby. In the interior of the forest. Flies slowly and 

steadily; generally high." 

[Three wings of this specimen with Burchell's MS. label 
fortunately still attached, were found, Feb. 2, 1904, among 
insects of entirely diftorent orders. — E. B. P.] 

Morpho adojiis, Cram. 

28. 10. 25. <S = 369. Minas Geraes. " In the Forest on 

the West and on the East side of S. Joiio de Nepo- 

29. 10. 25. 2 S = 370, 371. Minas Geraes. " In the forest 

on the S.E. side of S. Joao de Nepomuc^na." 


36 Miss Cora B. Sanders on the Rhopalocera 

29 or 30. 10. 25. S = 372. Two labels affixed to one speci- 
men. ]\Iinas Geraes. (As 370 or 373.) 
30. 10. 25. 2 c? = 373, 374. Minas Geraes. " (In the 
forest.) On the N.E. side of the Arraial of Sao Joao de 
23. 2. 26. S = 375. Organ Mountains. (As 355.) 

Westwood's list gives another individual with the data 
8 p. 15. 2. 26, and also indicates that the two labels on 
no. 372 were placed upon two individuals at the time when 
the Catalogue of Morphides was written. Burchell was near 
the R. Pacaque in the Organ Mountains on Feb. 15, 1826. 
His Geographical Catalogue reads "along the road, 1^ mile 
S. of the house." 

Morpho cytheris, Godt.,=jt?or<?5, Hiibn. 

11. 2. 26. c? = 376. Organ Mountains. " By the River 

Pacaqud." " In a walk to the Ipe trees." 
i?^.+ 20. 2. 26. c? = 377. Organ Mountains. Near R. 
Pacaqud. " Near a Rivulet East of the house." 
Westwood's list agrees. 

Morpho menelaus, Linn., f. ierrestris, Butl. 

Bz.+ 23.7.29. =378. Pard. "Between my house and 
the City." 
Westwood^s list agrees. He placed this and the following 
under the same catalogue no. 

Morpho menelaus^ Linn., f. menelaus, Linn. 

23. 7. 29. = 379. Pard. (As 378.) 

Westwood's list agrees. 

Morpho menelausj Linn., f. riestor, Linn. 
Bz. 1367.+ Bz. 22. 4. 29. Sylva mas et foem. + 22. 4. 29. 
1367^ foem. ? = 380. R. Tocantfns, Porto Real 
[Na^ionale]. The specimen bears two Brazilian labels ■ 

and one English. "P 

Westwood's list agrees, save that by a clerical error 1376 
is written for 1367. The corresponding label of the male 
associated with 380 is probably misplaced upon a female 
specimen of M. achilles, no. 404. 

Morpho achilles, Linn., f. achilleana, Hiibn. 
Bz. 30§. [14. 10. 25.] S = 381. Minas Geraes. Burchell 
was at Parahiba on Oct. 12 and " at the Discobdrto do 


collected hy W. J. Burchell in Brazil. 37 

Antonio Velho " on Oct. 15. '' Papilio. Magna. 
Supra coerulea, raargine lato nigro, punctis (albis in 
anterioribus, et rubris in posterioribus) marginalibus. 
Macula alba in niaigine anteriore alarum anteriorum. 
Subtus fusca ocellis pluribus." "This inhabits thick 
forests and hovers along alleys and openings in the 
woods, and is difficult to catch, although it flies generally 
near the ground." 

Bz. 576. [21. 10. 25.J ? = 382. MinasGeraes. ^^ Fapilio. 

In a rossa at Discoberto, and along a channel (on the 

margin of the forest) which conducts water to the house." 

Westwood-'s list gives "5^7," — almost certainly a clerical 


29. 10. 25. ? = 383. Minas Geraes. (As 370.) 

4. 11. 25. ^ = 384. Minas Geraes. Near Nepomucena at 
Francisco Manoel's. " 4th. Some tropeiros from the 
rancho seeing me catching Papilionidae, caught a few 
also for me. I afterwards ascended the hill into the 
forest northward of our Rancho and took insects, till wet 
through in a thunder shower." 

7. 11. 25. (J = 385. Minas Geraes. Near Ncpomucdna. 
On Nov. 6th Burchell was at Capitao Leite^s." 

15. 2. 26. 2 (^ =386, 387. Organ Mountains, near R. 
Pacaque. " Along the road, 1^ miles S. of the 

^2.+ 28. 2. 26. ?=388. Organ Mountains. "On the 
Rio Mage." 

7. 3. 26. S = 389. Rio. " At Catombi." 

Bz. 10. 3. 26. c? = 390. Rio. 

10. 3. 26. ? = 391. Rio. 

12. 3. 26. ^ = 392. Rio. Carioca Aqueduct. 

Bz. a 13. 3. 26. S = 393. " From Magd." Rio. 

Bz. 19. 3. 26. S = 394. Rio. " In the valley of Catombi." 

19. 3. 26. cJ = 395. Rio. " In the valley of Catombi." 
Bz. 20. 3. 26. S = 396. Rio. " Along the Carioca Aque- 

20. 3. 26. 2 c? & ? = 397,398. Rio. "Along the Carioca 


21. 3. 26. 3 ? = 399, 400, 401. Rio. " Along the Carioca 


1:1 z. 1. 4. 26. ? = 402. Rio. '' In the valley of Catumbi." 

1.4.26. c?=403. 

1367. 22. 4. 29. ? = 404. " Mas." Porto Real [Na(;ionale], 
R. Tocantins. Althuugh the word "Mas" is written 
upon the label, the specimen is a distinct female. 
In addition to the cleiieal error noted under no. 382, 

38 Miss Cora B. Sanders on the Rhopalocera 

Westwood's " Morpliides 1 " includes one more individual 
captured 10. 3. 2Q and another bearing the date "14. 1. 26 
Laranjeiros." The Brazilian note-book shows that Burchell 
visited the vallej on 14. 1. 26 and that his captures were 
" omnia insuper plantas.^' Furthermore the data of no. 404 
appear under the next number of Westwood^s Catalogue, 
while those of no. 405 apj)ear under no. 404, as though 
there had been an accidental transposition at some later date. 
Error in the data of no. 404 is also rendered probable from 
the fact that all the other examples of the achilleana form 
were captured at or in the neighbourhood of Rio, while 
22. 4. 29 indicates a locality much further north. The 
possibility of Burchell mistaking the females of two allied 
species for male and female of a single species must, however, 
also be borne in mind. 

Morflio acliiUes, Linn., f. helenor^ Cram. 

31. 10. 27. $ = 405. " In sylva opaca." E. of Goyaz : 
Sapezal to Campo Alegre. 

1247. 5 p. 7. 9. 28. r^ = 406. Between Jaraguaand Caval- 
cante ; near Eio Maranhao : FeGuardaMor. Burchell 
slept that night at Fe Guarda Mor. ^'■Papilio. This 
species hovers low among the brushwood in shady deep 
forests and is not easy to catch." 

Bz.+ 6. 4. 29. S = 407. Porto ileal (Na9ionale). 

6. 4. 29. c? = 408. 
Bz.+ 7.4.29. c? = 409. 

Bz.+ 3. 6. 29. J = 410. Rio Tocantins : N. of Sitio das 
Pedras and Baiao. 

7. 7. 29. ? = 411. Pavca. " Eastward of my house." 
52.+ 29. 7. 29. ? = 412. Para. Westwood's label on 

this specimen refers to M (Alorphides) no. 5 of his 

Catalogue, which reads 27. 7. 29, doubtless a mistake in 

Bz.^- 31. 7.29. (?=413. Para. 
7. 8. 29. c? = 414. Para. 
6. 9. 29. <J = 415. Para, S. Jose. " Walk [to] a rocinha 

near the Nazareth Church." 
15. 12. 29. S = 416. Para : " suburbans." 

In addition to the points mentioned after no. 404 and the 
clerical error in the case of 412, Westwood's list also differs in 
containing a specimen dated 1. 7. 29, when Burchell was at 
Para and took a " walk to the Caza de Pao." Westwood 
arranged the specimens under four numbers, ]\lorphides '2,-6, 
but subsequently bracketed all except 5 (containing only 

collected hj W. J. BurcMl in Brazil. 39 

no. 412), and noted of them, " Similar to No. 1, but fascia 
more distinct and reaching nearly to hind margin of h. w." 

V. Brassolin^. 
Dasyophthahna creusa, Iliibn. 

9. 2. 26. S = 417. Organ Mountains. " By the river 

9. 3. 26. ? = 418. Rio. 
No data. ^ = 419. 

Westwood's list agrees, but he separated the males and the 
female under different numbers. 

Dasyophthalma rusina, Godt. 

8. 2. 26. 2 c? = 420, ? = 421. Organ Mountains, near 

head of R. Pacaque. "In a ride to the Cattle Pounds 
and the Milho KoQa." 
" ? ? vel var. fasc. alar. ant. antea recurva." Westwood's 

9. 2. 26. ^ = 422. Organ Mountains. (As 417.) 

11. 2. 26. 2 6 = 423, 424. Organ Mountains. " By the 
River Pacaque." " In a walk to the Ipe trees." 

On 424 Westwood's note reads " JDasyophthahna Rusina 
God G D L 56. Lycaon Lucas pi. 78." The reference is to 
Doubleday's and Westwood's ' Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera,' 
London, lbo(J-2, vol. ii. pi. Ivi. fig. 1 [Pavonia rusina). 
14. 2. 26. S = 425. Organ Mountains. Near R. Pacaque'. 
No data. 3 c? = 426-428. 

Westwood's list gives another specimen captured 1-4. 2. 26, 
and three more specimens without data. 

Eryphants poly. vena, lsleevh.,=auiomedon, Cram. 

1054. [17. 3. 26.] c? = 429. Rio de Janeiro. "Along the 
Carioca Aqueduct, and descending the high hill (men- 
tioned 3L J. 26 ["the high hill N.W. of and close to 
Carioca Aqueduct"]) into the valley o£ Catombi." 
" Both tiie^e Papiliones were caught in the forest down 
the hill." The other ^^ Papilio'' was the Satyrine 
Tayyetis virgilia, Cram., no. 350. 
Westwood's list agrees : " Upsipluuics ? " is written oppo- 
site the Catalogue number. 

Caliijo heltrao, Iliibn. 

10. 3. 26. c? = 430. Rio. 

1066. 1. 4. 26. ? = 431. Rio. " In the valley of Catumbi." 
'■^ Fapilio. This Is one of the twilight tribe, but Hies 

40 Miss Cora B. Sanders on the Rhopalocera 

also by day, in the woods : whereas the other species 
nearly resembling it, flies only during twilight. The 
chrysalis of this (1066) is ovate and of a green hue, 
and hangs at one end. I saw many at the house of a 
collector for sale: and their form was tlius [rough sketch 
inserted here] but larger (2 inches?)." 
Westwood's list agrees. 

Caligo teucer^ Linn. 

31. 10. 27. S = 432. " In sylva opaca." E. of Goyaz. 
Westwood's list agrees. 

Caligo ilioneus, Cram. 

31. 12. 25. S = 433. Eio. " Excursion to the summit of 

the Corcovado ; from Catete and up the valley of Laran- 

Bz.-V l^.l.m. (^=434. Rio. "In a walk to S. 

Christovao and Eugenho Velho." 
10. 3. 26. S = 435. Kio. Westwood's note reads " var. 

fascia al. ant. magis distincta." 
Bz.+ 4. 7. 29. c^ = 436. Para. 

Nos. 434 and 436 form Westwood's " Morphides 9 " ; the 
other two are included in his " Morphides 10.'^ 

Caligo eurylochus, Cram. 

Bz.-^1032. 10. 1. 26. ? = 437. Eio. " Praia Grande and 
S. Joao de Carahy." '' Pajnlio. Flies only in the first 
part of the twilight, and makes its first appearance about 
10 or 15 minutes after the sun has set. I never saw it 
by day. It frequents woods and woody places, flying 
within 6 feet of the ground. I have seen [it] at Rio in all 
the months, and once I saw one flying in Rua Quitanda." 
The Rua Quitanda is one of the principal streets of Rio. 
1?^.+ 11. 1. 26. ? = 438. Rio. " At Laranjeiros." 
Bz. 10. 3. 26. S = 439. Rio. 

Bz.+ 18.3. 26. ?=440. Rio. "Along the Carioca 
Nos. 437 and 440 form Westwood^s " Morpiiides 6," oppo- 
site which is written " 3L Eurylochus ? " The two remaining 
specimens fall into " Morphides 10," which also includes 
two missing specimens. Both bore the same data, viz. 
" 1032. 14. 1. 26." The number 1032 evidently refers to 
the habits described for a different specimen and date under 
no. 437. On Jan. 14, 1826, Burchell collected ("omnia in- 
super plantas ") in the Valley of Laranjeiros, Rio. 

collected hy W. J. Burchell in Brazil. 41 

Opsiplianes hatea, lliihn. , = didf/maon, Feld. 

Bz.+ 21.2.20. c? = 441. Organ Mountains; near the 
R. Pacaque. " Along the road by the Rancho for 1^ 
mile from the house." 
12. 3. 27. cJ = 442. " In silvis et silvaticis." Xear 
S. Paulo ; " Morumby : walk to old house." The speci- 
men has lost the abdomen and the pencil of hairs on the 
hind wing; but the scar and the base of the tuft are 
Westwood^s list omits no. 441. 

[I do not think that didymaon can be kept specifically 
distinct from hatea. In no. 442 the black margin is wider 
and extends nearly to the cell of the fore wing, so that this 
specimen would be called didymaon by those who separate 
the two species. — E. B. P.] 

Opoptera {Opsiplianes) syme, Hiibn. 

17. 3. 26. ? = 443. Rio. (As 429.) 

Westwood's list agrees. 

Catohlepia {Opsiplianes) herecynthia, Cram. 

Bz. -h 14. 6. 29. ? = 444. Parji. 
1399. 24. 7. 29. S = 445. Pard. 

Westwood's list gives the first date as 14. 6. 27, — doubtless 
a copyist's error, lioth are placed as no. 5 of his Catalogue 
of Ilijiparchia, thus clearing up one of the difficulties in that 
part of the list (see Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, ser 7, vol. xiii.. 
May 1904, p. 370). 

Opsiplianes invira', Illibn. 

Bz. 10. 3. 26. (^ = 446. Rio. 

9. 9. 29. c? = 447. Para : S. Jose. 

6. 1. 30. ? = 448. Pard. 

Westwood's data agrees, but he fuses invirm with crameri 
and places both as no. 18 of his Catalogue of Nymphalinre. 
He also includes an additional specimen of crameri with the 
data of no. 450. 

Opsiplianes cassiw, Linn., = c;-a»icri', Fold. 

Bz. 1033. + Bz. 11. 1. 2G-{-i033. U. 1. 26. S= 449. Rio: 
" at Laranjeiros." " Papilio. This has exactly [the] 
same habits as the preceding," namely Caliyo eury. 
lochiis, no. 437. 

42 Mr. M. Burr — Notes on the Forficularia. 

^035. 14. 1. 26. c? = 450. ''Laranjeiros." Rio :" brought 

from and collected in the Valley of Laranjeiros. Omnia 

insuper plantas." 

BurchelPs 1033 attached in his notebook to the date 

11. 1. 26 evidently refers to the habits, stated under no. 449 

to be the same as those of 437. 

Brassolis astyra, Godt. 

Bz. 25. 11. 26. c? = 451. " Mrs. Whitaker." Santos. 

Tiie data correspond to those given by Westwood, but tlie 
species was placed as no. 20* of his Catalogue of Nym- 

Dynastor darius, Fabr. 

3.6.27. (? = 452. "Antennae sensim incrassatse." Near 

S. Paulo. 
i?2.+ 5. 9. 27. ? = 453. " Cachoeira." Between Rio 

Pardo and Rio Grd,nde. 
Westwood's list agrees. The specimens are placed as 
no. 23 of his Catalogue of Morphides. 

IV. — Notes on the Forficularia. — X. A Revision of the 
Nesogastrinse. By Malcolm Burr, B.A., F.L.S., F.E.S. 

This subfamily is characterized by the slender tarsi, with 
short third segment, by the antennse as in the genus Labia, 
but the segments never cylindrical, by the strongly and 
sharply carinate elytra, and by the thickened femora. 

The colour is usually some shade of deep chestnut or wine- 
colour, varied with red or with yellow. 

The wings and elytra are sometimes abbreviated and 
abortive, sometimes perfectly developed^ the two forms 
occurring often in the species. 

The group is confined to the Malay Archipelago, New 
Guinea, and Australasia. 

I cannot think why Verhoeff placed this group among the 
Forficulidaj, with which I can find no affinities. In the 
structure of tlie tarsi and of the antennte they more nearly 
approach Labia, in which genus the known species have been 
hitherto included. 

Mr. M. Burr — Notes on the Forficularia. 43 

Table of Genera. 

1. Pronotum supra elytra haud producta; 

elytra abljrt'viata ; scutuUum liberantia. . 1. Nesognstrella, Verb. 
1.1. Pronotum supra elytra productum; scutello 

nuUo .' 2. Nesogaster, Verb. 

Genus 1. Nesogastrella, VerhoefF. 
1902. Zool. Anzeig. no. 665, p. 192. 

I only know this genus from VerlioefF's description. It 
appears to differ from JSesogaster in the purely rudimentary 
elytra, which gajje along the suture and expose a triangular 
scutellum ; the pronotum does not extend so far over the 
elytra. The pygidium, in the ? at least, is prominent, with 
triangular points on each side, with two blunt processes. 

It is known only from a single female from Borneo, with 
which scanty material Dr. Verlioeff did not hesitate not only 
to describe a new species, but even to found a new genus ! 

Genus 2. Nesogastee *, Verhoeff". 

Antenna 12-segmentat8e ; segmentis 4 quam 3 multo breviori, 5 
quam 4 sublongiori, pyriformibus ; corpus glabrura, laevissimum, 
nitidum ; pronotum subquadratum, postiee quam antice pauUo 
latius ; elytra postiee truncata ; carina externa acuta instructa ; 
ala3 soepius abbreviata), rarius perfecte explicatae ; femora, prae- 
sertim antica, incrassata ; tarsi longi, graciles, tibias fere sequantes, 
segmento 1 quam 3 longiori : abdomen depressuin ac sat latum, 
parallelum, vel medio subdilatatum ; scgmentum ultimum dorsale 
rectangulare, quadratum ; $ , subaugustatum ; segmentum penul- 
timum veiitralc <5 $ , magno, margine postico late rotundato. 
Pygidium S prominens ; $ breve vel longum ; forcipis bracchia 
(S gracilia, elongata ; $ brevia, robusta. 

Body brilliantly shining, smooth, hairless : antennae with 
12 segments ; first stout and clubbed ; third long, somewhat 
clubbed at the apex ; fourth about half as long as third, 
rather stout and spindle-shaped ; fifth distinctly longer than 
fourth, but shorter than third, pear-shaped or spindle-shaped ; 
each succeeding segment longer than the preceding, distinctly 
pear- or spindle-shaped. 

Head smooth and globose, sutures obsolete. Pronotum 
quadrangular, all sides truncate, slightly broader posteriorly 
than anteriorly ; median longitudinal suture distinct ; pro- 
zona not distinctly separated from metazona j central region 

* Does tbis mean " island-bellied " ? 

44 Mr. M. Burr — Notes on the Forficularia. 

somewhat tumid, the sides broadly flattened, this flat part 
especially broad posteriorly ; lateral margins themselves 
reflexed, well produced over the elytra. Elytra perfectly 
developed and long, or, more frequently, abbreviated, and 
square; posterior margin truncate, external sharp and well 
defined, extending the whole length of the elytra. 

Wings generally abortive ; occasionally perfectly deve- 

Femora, esi)ecially the anterior pair, strongly incrassate : 
tibiae rather short ; tarsi long and slender, almost as long as 
the tibiee, first segment longer than the second and third 
united, the second small and cylindrical. 

Abdomen depressed, parallel or somewhat dilated about the 
middle ; lateral tubercles on segments 2 and 3 present ; last 
dorsal segment S rectangular, broad, posterior margin 
depressed and thickened ; ? somewhat narrowed ; penulti- 
mate ventral segment ^ ? nearly quadrangular, posterior 
margin broadly rounded, ample, completely covering the last 

Pygidium ^ very prominent and long, or rather short but 
distinct ; ? minute. 

Forceps $ generally long and slender, gently sinuate, 
rather thicker than the base, generally armed with teeth; in 
the $ short, thick, generally toothed. 

This genus is well characterized by the smooth almost oily 
lustre, by the sharp keel of the elytra, and the thick femora. 
The form of the pygidium and forceps is very characteristic 
in each species. 

Table of Species. 

1. Pj^gidium S taud valde prominens. 

2. iorcipis braccbia S valde elougata, de- 

pressa, paullo vel baud dilatata ; (elytra 

brunuea, baud maculata ; alae abortivaB). 

3. Femora annulata; forcipis braccbia S 

margine interne baud laminata. 

4, Caput fuscum; statura mediocri (long. 

corp. 7 mm., fore. 6 mm.) ; forceps 

unidentatus 1. dolichus (Burr). 

4.4. Caput rufum ; statura parva (long, 
corp. 4-7o mm., fore. I'o mm.) ; 

forceps unidentatus 2. ivallacei, sp. n. 

3.3, Femora unicoloria ; forcipis braccbia S 

margine interno prope basin laminata. 3. ^m^js (Borm.). 
2.2. Forcipis braccbia c? minus elongata, 

gracilia, arcuata, baud depressa 4. 2^i(lchripes (Borm.). 

1,1. Pygidium cJ valde prominens ; (elytra 
brevia vel perfecte explicata). 

Mr. M. Burr — Notes on the Forficularia. 45 

2. Pygidium S angustum, acuturu ; (elytra 

unicoloria) 5. aculeatus (Borm.)- 

2.2. Pygidium S liuguaeforme, apice haud 
3. Statura miiiore; forceps dente acuto 
armatus ; elytra tiavo-maculata ; pro- 
nut um unicolor nigrum 6. amcenus (StSl). 

3.3. Statura maj ore; forceps inermis ; elytra 
unicoloria nigra; pronotum flavo- 
bimaculatum 7. rujiceps (Ericbs.). 

1. Nesogaster dolichus (Burr). 

Labia doUcha, Burr, 1897, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) xx. p. 311 ; 

Bormans, Tierreich, Forf. p. 71 (1900) ; Kirby, Cat. Orth. i. p. 26 

Nesof/aster Fruhstorferi, Verhoeff, 1902, Zool. Anzeig. no. 665, p. 191 ; 

Kirby, Cat. Orth. i. p. 35 (1904). 
Nesoi/aster dolichus, Burr, Ann, & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) xvi. p. 495 


S. Celebes : Bua Kraeng, 5000 feet (taken by Fruhstorfer 
in 1896 : type in coll. mea) (cm., B.M. Mus. Berol.). 

Easy to recognize by the long sinuous forceps and generic 

2. Nesogaster loallacei, sp. n. 

Statura parva ; N. doJicho, Burr, vicinus ; ab eo diffort statura 
minore, capita rubro, elytris angulo postico interno rotundato, 
forcipis bracchiis S brevioribus, deute uuo valido acuto armatis. 

Long. cor])oris 4*75 mm. 

„ forcipis 1-5 ,, 

Celebes {Wallace). 

The type ot" this species is a unique male in tlie Hope 
Museum, Oxford ; it was taken in ihe Celebes by Wallace in 
1861; it is labelled in blue paper, in what appears to be 
Westwood's handwriting, " Celebes, Wallace, Dr. Dohrn, 

It closely resembles N. dolichus, also from the Celebes, but 
difTers in the points mentioned above. 

3. Nesogaster tristis (Bormans). 

Labia tristis, Borm. apud Burr, 1903, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) xi. 
p. 240. 

New Caledonia. 

I have not examined a specimen of this species; but 
de Bormans's description, together with a sketch in my 
{)ossession, leaves no doubt whatever that it is referable to 
this genus. It is apparently allied to N. dolichus. 

46 Mr. M. Burr — yofes on the Forficularia. 

4. Nesogaster puhhripes (Bormans). 

Labia pulchripes, Bormans, apud Burr, 1903, Ann. & Map:. Nat. Hist. 
(7) xi. p. 23G; Burr, Ees. exp. Sci. n^erl. N. Guinea, Derm. p. 10 

Northern Australia (coll. Dohrn, teste Borm.). 

I have not examined this species, but de Bormans's 
description and a coloured drawing in my possession, together 
with its resemblance to iV. amosnus, render it probable that 
its true position is in this genus. 

5. J^esogaster aculeatus (Bormans). 

Labia aculeata, Borm. 1900, Ann. Mus. Civ. (2) xx. p. 456 (1900) ; 
Kirb. Cat. Orth. i. p. 27 (1900). 

British New Guinea (Mus. Gen.). 

6. Nesogaster amosnus (Stal). 

Forjicula amcena, Stal, l8o5, (EtV. Vet. Ak. Forh. xil. p. 350. 

Labia amcena, Dobrn, Stett. ent. Zeit. xxv. p. 425 (1864) ; Dubr. Ann. 

Mus. Civ. Gen. xiv. p. 363 (1879) ; {amcenn incorr.) Borm. C. R. 

See. ent. Belg. p. Ixxi (1880) ; id. Tierreicb, Forf. p. 67, figs. 29 a, h 

(1900) ; Burr, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) iv. p. 258 (1899) ; id. 

Termesz. Fiiz. xxv. p. 481 (1902) ; Kirby, Cat. Orth. i. p. 26 (1904). 

Malay Archipelago : New Guinea ; Java ; Celebes ; 

7. Nesogaster ruficeps (Erichs.). 

Forficula oceanica, Blancbard (nee Goiiillon), Voy. Pole Sad, iv. p. 352, 

Orth. t. i. fig. 4 ( $ ) (1853). 
Forjicula ruficeps, Ericbson (nee Burmeister, 1838), in Arch. f. Naturg. 

viii. (1) p. 246 (1842). 
A})teryyida ruficeps, Borm. Tierreicb, Forf. p. 118 (1900). 
Forjicula erichsoni, Borm. C. II. Soc. ent. Belg, p. Ixxiii (1880). 
Apterygida erichso7ii, Dobrn, Stett. ent. Zeit. xxiii. p. 231 (1862). 
Sphingolahis erichsoni, Kirb. Journ. Linn. Soc., Zool. xxv. p. 529, 

pi. XX. figs. 11, 11 a (1896) ; id. Cat. Orth. i. p. 45 (1904J. 

Tasmania (Mus. Brus.) ; Australia ; Vavau. 

This well-known species is easy to recognize by the long 
simple forceps, coloration, and long tongue-shaped pygidium. 
It has been previously placed in Forjicula and Apterygida, 
but its affinities are undoubtedly with Nesogaster, though, on 
account of its more conical antennje, it may later require a 
new genus. 


Since writing the above I have had the opportunity of 
examining Verhoeff's type of Nesogastrella rujiceps in the 

Mr. 1\I. Burr — Notes on the Forficularia. 47 

Berlin Museum. It is notliiiig more or less than the female 
of Nesogaster amoenus (Stal), so that the name must fall as a 
synonym of that species. Dr. VerhoefF was misled by the 
fact tiiat the elytra are partly opened out, perhaps by the 
former insertion of a pin, so that the generic characters of 
the elytra, as set forth by him, do not hold good. 

V. — Notes 071 the Forficularia. — XI. On neio and little- 
knoion Species and Synonymic Notes. By MALCOLM BUKli, 
B.A., F.L.S., F.E.S. 

Forcipula jacohsonij sp. n. 

Statura minore : colore fusco-costaneo ; pedes testacei ; abdominis 
segmenta 3-6 tuberculis tenuibus singulis utrinque armatis : 
forcipis bracchia gracilia elongata, apicem versus seusim arcuata, 
inermia. ^ . 

Long, corporis 15 mm. 

„ forcipis 8 „ 

Size small; colour dark chestnut; antennae with 20 
segments, third long and cylindrical, 4-6 very short, the rest 
gradually lengthening. 

Head black, with yellowish pubescence, the sutures distinct. 

Pronotum nearly square, posterior margin rounded. 

Elytra black, of coarse texture, the lateral keel not very 
])rominent. Wings black, tipped with yellowish at the apex 
of the suture. 

Feet uniform testaceous. 

Abdomen parallel, slender, black; segments 3-6 with 
slender, sharp, gently recurved, spine-like tubercles projecting 
on each side. Dorsal surface finely granulated, the posterior 
margin of each segment milled. Last dorsal segment ample, 
(juadrate, smooth, with a deep median longitudinal furrow ; 
posterior margin straigiit, with a nearly obsolete tubercle over 
the insertion of the forceps. 

Ventral surface very finely punctulate, clothed with 
yellowish pubescence on tlie margins of the segments. 

Penultimate ventral segment rounded. Pygidium very 
short, tumid, and obtuse. Forceps with the branches elongate 
and slender, nearly straight, gently incurved at the apex, 
with a few obsolete denticulations along the inner margin. (^ . 

N. Java, Samarang {Jacohson). 

4S Mr. M. Burr — Notes on the Forficularia. 

This species closely resembles F. walker i, Kirby, from 
Hong Kong in size and appearance. It differs in the form 
of the forceps : when seen from above, the branches are 
laterally undulating in that species ; in this they are 
simply and gently incurved : the denticulation is more 
pronounced in F. loalkeri] the abdomen is finely punctulate 
in F. walkeri, granulose in this species ; finally, the slender 
abdominal spines are quite straight in F. loalkeri and gently 
recurved in this species. 

I have pleasure in dedicating it to its discoverer, Mr. Ed- 
ward Jacobson, of the Hague. 

Labia nigroflavida, Rehn. 
Description of the Male. 

Agrees perfectly with Rehn's description, with the excep- 
tion of characters which are purely sexual. 

The last dorsal segment is ample, rather tumid, nearly 
square, smooth, with a few shallow punctulations ; the median 
sulcus is faint ; depressed posteriorly ; the posterior margin 
itself truncate, with a row of minute tubercles above; on 
each side over the roots of the forceps there is a pair of 
elevated longitudinal ridges. 

Penultimate ventral segment large, covering the last 
segment, obtusely rounded, slightly emarginate at the apex 

Pygidium not visible. 

Forceps with the branches remote at the base, triquetrous, 
stout, and dilated at the base itself, this dilation terminated 
by a short sharp tooth in the inferior margin, then suddenly 
attenuated and excavated along the inner margin for nearly 
half their length ; at this point thickened to a sharp conical 
tooth, where the curvature is lessened ; beyond this point 
gently incurved, the apex sharp and crossing. Seen from 
above the branches appear nearly straight, gradually con- 
verging. Viewed from the side gently sinuate downwards, 
then upwards. 

Long, corporis 10'5 mm. 

„ forcipis 3 „ 

Ilah. Queensland : Cairns (in the type, a ? , U.S. Nat. 
Mus., Rehn). Kuranda, in North Queensland (1 $ taken 
by Mr. H. W. Simmons, in my collection). 

Labia nigrqflavida, Rehn, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xxis. p. 50", fig. 5 

Mr. M. Burr — Notes on the Forficularia. 49 

This species is apparently allied to L. grandis, Borm., but 
the form of the forceps of the male is quite distinctive, 
possessing many features in common with those of certain 
Anechura — for instance, the sinuation in a vertical plane and 
the thickening at the anteapical tooth ; it is, perhaps, worthy 
of note that another somewhat similar species at present 
ranged in Labia, namely L. papua, Borm., is recorded 
from New Guinea. Perhaps a new genus will be required 
eventually for their reception. 

T/ie Genus Strongylopsalis, Burr. 

In 1880 de Bormans described a female earwig from Peru 
under the name Labia cheliduroides ; in 1883 he described a 
male from Mexico as being that of the same species. Now 
these insects are incapable of flight, and it is to be expected 
that the specimens from Mexico and those from Peru are 
specifically distinct. It ap])ears now that there is no doubt 
that this is the case. In 1900 I sent de Bormans a pair of 
StrongylopsaUs inca from Peru. On April 25th, 1900, he 
replied that my specimens were undoubtedly identical with 
his Labia cheliduroides. On June 7tb of the same year * he 
wrote withdrawing this oi)inion, remarking that my specimens 
were undoubtedly distinct, so I accordingly published the 
description of S. inca, which was then in manuscript. 

I have since compared my types of S. inca with syntypes 
of L. cheliduroides ? , and they are indistinguishable : 
de Bormans had first compared the females only, and was 
therefore correct in his first opinion ; later, on comparing the 
males, he was instantly struck by the entire dissimilarity of 
the forceps, and so altered his opinion. The undoubted 
explanation of this confusion lies in the fact that his males 
from Mexico were distinct from his Peruvian females. 

It is therefore necessary to regard Strongylopsalis inca, 
Burr, from Peru, as synonymous with Labia cheliduroides, 
Borm., ? , from Peru, while Labia cheliduroides, Borm., ^ , 
from Mexico, is a distinct species and requires a new 

The genus Strongylopsalis was originally placed by me 
near to Carcinojyhora , but the structure of the feet and of the 
antennje show without doubt that it is more closely allied to 
Labia, from which it is at once distinguished by the sharp 
keel of the elytra. 

* This was the last letter I ever received written in his owu hand- 
writing ; a few weeks later my old friend was struck down by the illness 
•which 80 soon proved fatal. 

Ann. db Maq. X. Hist. Sor. 8. ]'ol. i. -k 

50 Mr. M. Burr — Notes on the Forficularia. 

The synonymy is as follows : — 

1. Strongyhpsalis cheliduroides (Borni.). 

Labia cheliduroides^, Borm, 1880, An, Soc. Esp. H. N. ix. p. 509 ( 5 ) 

(nee Borm. Ann. Soc. ent. Belg. xxvii. p. 74, pi. ii. fig. 12, 1883) ; 

id. Tierreich, Forf. p. 72 (1900) ; Kirbv, Cat. Orth. i. p. 27 (1904) 

(ex parte, 5 only). 
Stronciylopsalis inca, Burr, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) vi. p. 80 (1900) 

(c?'$) ; Seni. Rev. russe d'Ent. ii. p. 102 (1902) ; Kirb. Cat. Orth. 

i. p. 15 (1904). 

Peru {Borm., Burr). 

2. Strong ylopsalis cornuta, n. n. 

Labia cheliduroides, Borm. (nee 1880, An. Soc, Esp, H. N. ix, p. 509), 
1883, Ann. Soc. ent. Belg. xxvii. p. 74, pi. ii. tig. 12 (cT); id. 
Tierreich, Forf. p. 72 (1900) (cJ) ; Kirby, Cat. Orth. i. p. 27 (1904). 

Mexico (Borm.). 

In 8. cheliduroides the forceps of the male are slender, 
remote at the base, simple, arcuate, and unarmed. In 
S. cornuta they are elongate, depressed, and armed with a 
vertical blunt process on the upper surface. 

P salts dorice (Borm.). 

I have a syntype of Psalis guttata, Borm., from Mentawei, 
which I have been able to compare with the type of Forficula 
dorice, Borm., from the Genoa Museum, kindly lent me by 
Signer Gestro. There is no doubt that tlie two species are 

Chcetospania borneensis (Borm,). 

Signer Gestro has kindly lent me the types of Sphingo- 
lalis borneensis, Borm,, from the Genoa Museum. I have 
compared them with the types of Chcetospayiia confusa, Burr, 
which was originally misplaced by de Bormans with C.fece^ 
Borm. There is no doubt that G. confusa is identical with 
S. borneensis^ although the type is somewhat smaller and 
paler ; the pygidium is partly hidden in the type of C. con- 
fusa, and consequently very deceptive in appearance. 
Choitospania stella, Burr, is also probably identical. 

The synonymy is consequently as follows : — 

Sphingolabis borneetisis, Dubr. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. xiv. p. 381 (1879). 
Chcetospania confusa, Burr, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) xvi, p. 489 

Chcetospania stella, Burr, Termes. Fiizetek, p. 483, pi. xx. fig. 6 (1902). 



Mr. ]M. Burr — Notes on the Forficularla. 51 

Clicetos'pania hongiana (Borg). 

When I described Chcetospania escalerce horn Biafra (Mem. 
Soc. Es])an. II. N.i. p. 294, 190G) I had not seen the descri|> 
tion of Sparatta hongiana, Borg (Arkiv for Zool. i. p. 573, 
pi. xxvi. fig. 3, 1904), from the Cameroons. Professor 
Sjostedt has since kindly sent me authentic syntypes of the 
latter from the Stockholm Museum, and I see that the two 
species are identical. The name is therefore Chcetospania 
hongiana (Borg). 

This genus, with the allied Sparatta and Flatylahia, 
requires a thorough revision. 

Spongiphora assiniensis, Bormans. 
A careful comparison of the descriptions of Spongiphora 
assiniensis, Bonn, (apud Bolivar, Ann. Soc. cnt. Vr. vol. Ixii. 
p. 170, 1893), of Sjyongiphora ochracea, Borg (Arkiv f. Zool. 
i. p. 569, pi. xxvi. tig. 6, 1904), and Spongiphora rohur. Burr 
(Mem. Soc. Espan. II. N. i. p. 293, 1906), leaves no doubt 
in my mind that all these species are identical, and they are 
all recorded from West Africa. 

VI. — Notes on the Forficularia. — XII. Note on the Genus 
Apachys, Serv. By MALCOLM BuRK, B.A., F.L.S., 


Apachys corticiyius, sp. n. 

Statura minorc : corpus mimis m : colore fusco-castaneo : 
pronotum subquadratum, antico ct posticc truncatum ; elytra et 
ala) typica ; pedes typici, tarsorum segmcnto primo brovi : 
abdomen minus deprcssum, Itevc ; segmentum ultiraum dorsalo 
magnum, quadratum, punctis impressis crebris ac sat fortibus 
puiictalum : segmontum penultimum ventrale valdo acuminatum : 
process s analis obtuso-lanceolatus, margine postico obtiisaugulo ; 
t'orcipis I racchia a basi sensim angulata, iiicurva. S • 

Long, corporis sine processu anali It* mm. 

„ lorcipis cum ,, „ 1') ., 

Colour dark fuscous ; size small ; body less com[)ressed 
than is usual in this genus. 

Antennjo tyj)ical : 27 segments, first long and thick ; 2 
minute, almost globular ; 3 long, cylindrical; 4 and 5 short 
and subconical, together not longer than ',\ ; 6-9 slightly 


52 Mr. M. Burr — Xotes on the Forficularia. 

longer, subconical ; the remainder more elongate, nearly 
cylindrical ; segments 1-3 testaceous, tiie rest fuscous. 

Head triangular, a trifle broader than long; eyes not very 
})rominent, sutures distinct; posterior margin not abruptly 

Pronotum nearly square ; anteri u' and posterior margins 
truncate; prozona occupied by a tii;m();ular tumid elevation ; 
sides almost ))arallel, rather broadly reflexed ; posterior angles 

Scutellum obtusely triangular. 

Elytra ample, smooth. 

Wings very long, exposed portion quite as long as elytra ; 
dull fuscous, with apical testaceous spot ; inner exposed folds 

Feet typical ; femora rather broad and compressed ; tibiae 
slender ; tarsi short, third segment longer than tlie first. 

Abdomen not very strongly depressed ; dorsal surface 
smooth and shining, with obsolete punctulations ; ventral 
surface smoother and paler ; last dorsal segment ample, 
square, with dense and deep pittings. 

Penultimate ventral segment large, densely punctulate, 
produced posteriorly into a long, sharp-pointed, narrow lobe. 

Anal process almost j)arallel at the base ; posterior 
margin obtusangular, the margin itself finely crenulate. 

Forceps depressed ; with a rounded lobe on the inner 
margin at the base, scarcely visible from above; the branches 
straight at first, then slightly angled inwards, straight and 
hooked at the apex, c^ . 

Ceylon : Peradeniya (type in coll. mea). 

This specimen was sent me by Mr. Green. It is unfor- 
tunately somewhat bleached hy spirits and the feet are rather 
crushed ; but it is a very distinct species, which will even- 
tually require a new genus for its reception. The antennte 
have somewhat fewer segments than the normal number for 
Apachys, the body is less strongly depressed, and the head 
more tumid and not truncate posteriorly ; in the form of the 
feet, organs of flight, abdomen, anal process, and forceps it 
agrees entirely with Apachys^ but differs notably in the 
nearly square pronotum. 

Apachys murr ay i and A. reichardi. 

I can find no difference either of colour or form between 
A. murrayi, Dohrn (Stett. ent. Zeit. xxiv. p. 44, 1863), and 
A. reichardi, Karsch. Both occur in Central Africa. The 
only distinction which 1 can find, and the only distinction 

Mr. M. Burr — Notes on ilie Forficularla. 53 

which is given by de Bormans, is tlie size. In the description 
of A. reichardi (Berl. ent. Zeit. xxx. p. ^6^ 1886) Karscli 
distinguishes it from A. murrayi only by the greater size and 
testaceous pronotum. Tliis is surely insufficient. The 
colour of the pronotum is utterly untrustworthy, and conse- 
quently I am convinced that the two are but size-varieties of 
one and the same species. 

The dimensions of A. reichardi given by Karsch are 
long. Corp. 2G'8 ram., ^. 

A male in my collection measures 23 mm. 

^. 7/2 Mr m^^i measures only 17 mm. in the male. I have 
two males wliich measure 18 mm. including the forceps. 

We must, I maintain, therefore consider .4. murrayi as a 
dwarfed race of A. reichardi until advanced knowledge 
shows better reasons for discriminating them. 

Apachys beccarii and A.javanus. 

These two species appear to be very nearly allied, although 
Verhoeff (Zool. Anz. no. 665, p. 200, 1902) calls A. javanus 
a very well-characterized species. I have a pair of the latter 
from Java which agree entirely in colour with the description 
and figures of A. beccarii given by Dubrony (Ann. Mus. Civ. 
Gen. xiv. p. 3-49, figs., 1879). The only points of distinc- 
tion — apart from the fact that A. beccarii is a native of New 
Guinea and the other species inhabits Java, and that the former 
measures from 18-22 ram,, whereas the latter varies from 
12"5 ram. to 17*5 mm. in total length — lie in the form of the 
anal process. In A. beccarii ,$ this is distinctly pentagonal, 
en)arginate at the sides. In A. javanus ($ the sides are 
parallel ; the posterior border is similar in the two species. 
In A. beccarii $ the anal process has the posterior border — 
that is, the part beyond the lateral points — rounded; in 
A. javanus ? it is triangular, so that the whole lobe is 
lanceolate. Dubrony described the last dorsal segment as 
" pointille" in A. beccarii; this is true also of the male of 
A.javanut, but in the female it is strongly granulose in the 
posterior half. 

Apachys chartaceus and ^i. deprcssus. 

There arc two other species which are almost indistinguish- 
able in form. These hycA. chartaceus, Ilaan, and A. depressns, 
Pal.-Beauv., but in this case the colour is diii'erent : tlic 
iormcr S])ccies is a native of the Malay Archi[)elago and the 
latter inhabits West Africa ; so they are not likely to he 
confused, and must surely be spcciheally distinct. Probably 

54 Miss G. Kicardo on new 

when I have examined more material I shall be able to detect 
some structural difference. 

The following table of species may be useful : — 

Table of Species of Apachys. 

1, Pronotum ellipticum, lateribus convexis, an- 

tice angustatum. 

2. Processus analis S liaud rotundatus ; $ 

lanceolatus vel rotundatus, angulis ex- 

ternis acutis. 

3. Processus analis S lateribus emargi- 

natus ; $ margine postico rotundato . 1. beccarii,'Dvi\i\'. 
3.3. Processus analis cJ lateribus parallelis; 

5 lanceolatus 2. javamis, Verb. 

2.2. Processus analis S subrotundus; 5 acumi- 
S. Processus analis S rotundato-peuta^on- 
alis; 5 lanceolatus. (Statura maxima, 

46-60 mm.) 3. fecc, Borm. 

3.8. Processus analis (S rotundatus, $ sub- 
rotundus, medio subacutus. 
4. Elytra testacea, fusco - limbata. 

(Species Africana.) 4. depressus, P.-B. 

4.4. Elytra unicoloria fusca. 

5. Pronotum fuscum. (Species Africana.) 5. mtirrayi, Dobrn. 
5.5. Pronotum testaceum. (Species Sun- 

daica.) 6. chartacens, Ilaan. 

1 .1. Pronotum fere quadratum 7. corticintis, n. 

A. pascoei, Kirb. Jouru. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxv. p. 521, pi. xx. 
fig. I, (? (1896), = AyeoB, Borm. (1894). 

A, reichardi, Karsch, Berl. ent. Zeit. xxx. p. 85, pi. iii. 
fig. 3, S (1886), = ^. murrayij Dohrn (1863). 

VII. — Description of some new Species of Tabanida?, ivitk 
Notes on some llajmatopota. By Gertkude Ricardo. 

Fangonia elongata, ? , sp. n. 

A new species from Kilimanjaro (^Ilanninjton)^ 85. 60. 

Type (female) and another female. 

This species belongs to the group of South African 
Pangoniie (Kondani) with white bands on the abdomen, and 
is nearly related to F, scxfasciata, Wlk., from which it may 


species r)/ Tabani(I;e. 55 

be distinguislied by tlie narrower abdomen and by the presence 
on the underside of four narrow white bands, wliereas in the 
Walker species there are only two white bands; the palpi 
are slenderer and tapering to a longer point and the wings 
have a dark apex. From P. coiijuncta, Wlk., it may be 
distinguished by the narrower abdomen and by the greater 
number of white bands. 

Black. Abdomen with four white bands. Wings brownish, 
yellow on the fore border, the iirst posterior cell closed, 
pedunculated, with an appendix on the fork of the third 
longitudinal vein. 

Face dull black, covered with grey tomentum, the cheeks 
shining black, the tomentum is, however, continued to the 
base of the eyes as a narrow yellowish border, the few hairs 
on the face are white ; forehead covered with yellowish 
tomentum above the antennaj, posteriorly to the vertex deep 
black, furrowed, with some whitish pubescence which becomes 
yellow on the vertex ; ocelli present. Antennaj and palpi 
black, the latter long and slender, the second joint tapering 
to a lon^ point. Beard abundant, white ; hairs round the 
head white. Proboscis shorter than the thorax. Eyes bare. 
Thorax black, somewhat shining, with very short yellow 
pubescence and some grey tomentum on the sides ; scutellum 
more densely covered with tiie yellow pubescence, the breast- 
sides brown with dull yellowish hairs. Abdomen long and 
rather narrow ; the first segment with some faint yellowish 
pubescence on the posterior border; the white band on the 
second segment entire, broader than the others, with its 
greatest width at the sides; on the third, fourth, and fifth it 
is entire but much narrower and the same width throughout; 
on the sixth segment there is a narrow border of yellow 
pubescence, and on the sides of the fifth and sixth some 
yellow hairs ; the pubescence on the dark-coloured part of 
the abdomen is black ; the underside is black, with four 
narrow white bands. Legs blackish brown, some yellow 
pubescence on the middle and posterior femora and tibiae and 
orange hairs on the underside of the tirst joint of the posterior 
tarsi. Wings with the yellow fore border only continuing as 
far as the stigma and to the base of the discal cell; veins 
yellow on fore border, elsewhere brown. 
Length 16 mm. 

Corizoneura distincla^ $ , sp. n. 

A new species from Voi, British East Africa, U"). iv. to 
13. V. 1)7 {C. 8. Betton), Uti. 12. 

56 Miss G. Ricardo on new 

Type (female) and tliree other females. 

This species is distinct in colouring from any species of 
Pangonia from Africa known to me as yet. 

Blackish-brown species, with dull yellowish-grey bands on 
the abdomen ; palpi and antennae reddish. 

Face short, shining, black, with a centre band of grey 
tomentum, which also covers the cheeks and lower part of 
the face, so that the shining black portion appears as a large 
oval spot on each side. Forehead long, obscurely black, 
covered with dense yellowish tomentum, which, liowever, is 
more or less absent in the middle of the forehead and at the 
vertex. Antennae bright reddish yellow, the first two joints 
duller in colour, with a few yellowish hairs. Palpi reddish 
yellow, long and slender, the first joint longer than the second, 
which is wide at base, curved, and tapering to a moderately 
long poiiit, furrowed on the upper surface, with some black 
pubescence. Proboscis nearly as long as body. Eyes bare. 
Beard white. Thorax brown, densely covered with short 
fulvous pubescence j sides and breast with yellowish hairs, the 
scutellum the same. Abdomen blackish ; the first segment 
slightly red at the sides, densely covered with dull dirty grey 
tomentum, with some scattered whitish hairs ; on all the 
remaining segments a narrow band of the same-coloured 
tomentum is present on the posterior borders, extending in the 
middle as a triangular spot, which last is most distinct on the 
second segment, where the band is slightly broader ; the 
pubescence at the sides is whitish, on the grey bands are a 
few scattered white hairs ; underside blackish, with short 
grey pubescence, the extreme side-borders of the sixth and 
seventh segments are reddish. Legs light reddish, hind legs 
brownish. Wings hyaline, veins reddish brown, the first 
posterior cell narrowed but open ; a long appendix on the 
fork of the third vein. 

Length 17 ram. 

Corizoneura ohscura, ? , sp. n. 

A new species from Blantyre, British Central Africa, 
Nov. 1904 (Dr. J. E. S. Old). 

Type (female). 

This species is probably related to P. chrt/sopila, Macq., 
and P. nobilis, Wied., both authors apparently describing 
one and the same species, in which case Macquart's name 
must be merged as a synonym of P. nobilis^ Wied. Both 
descriptions speak of the face and forehead as being reddish, 

species of Tahawdx. 57 

wliereas in this species the face and foreliead are both black 
and the gold bands on the abdomen are absent. 

A black species with brownish wings, some golden pubes- 
cence on the thorax and on the sides of the abdomen. Legs 
yellow, femora black. 

Face black, shining, the cheeks dull black, the pubescence 
black, a few yellow hairs being intermixed. Forehead 
black, obscurely red near the antenna^ with light half-moon 
circles round their base ; from the base of the frontal heart- 
shaped callus proceed three short furrows on each side, from 
its apex spring the beginnings of four raised lines which 
resolve themselves at once into the broad shining frontal 
stripe; on the vertex is a large red, oblong, ocelligerous 
tubercle. Antennae dull red ; palpi red, large, the second 
joint twice as long as the first, broad at its base, tapering 
gradually to a point, with a furrow on its basal half. Pro- 
boscis as long as the thorax, which is dull black with golden 
pubescence on the shoulders, on the sides of the suture ex- 
tending halfway across the dorsum and on the posterior 
border, and a tuft at base of wings; the scutellum has traces 
of similar pubescence on its posterior border. Abdomen 
black, somewhat shining, very obscurely red on the sides of 
the second segment, with yellowish-white pubescence on the 
sides of the first and second segments and traces of similar 
pubescence on the third and fourth ; the fifth, sixth, and 
seventh are red on their extreme lateral margins; the dorsum 
of the abdomen is finely punctuate, apparently devoid of 
pubescence; the underside is black, shining, with fine white 
hairs on the sides of the segments, most noticeable on the 
second one. Legs yellowish, the femora reddish brown, the 
apices of the tibiae and tarsi dull red. Wings hyaline, brown 
at tlie apex ; veins red on the fore border and at base, else- 
where brown, with an appendix ; the first posterior cell is 
open, but very narrow where it attains the border. 

Length 18 mm. 

Ilamatopota cili'pes, ? , Bigot, Nouv. Archiv. Mus. llidt. 
Nat. Paris, 1890, vol. ii. p. 205. 

The type came from Laos, a district of Siam, and was seen 
by me in the Paris i\Iuseum after my paper on llccmatopota 
had gone to the printers. 

It should go in the table published on p. 114 of the 
Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) xviii. (August 190(5), under the 
heading " 15 " preceding //. lata, Kicardo, thus : — " Black 

58 Miss G. Rlcardo on new 

species, with all the tibiae densely fringed and the posterior 
femora with white hairs on their lower border." The hind 
tibise have a very thick black fringe, and with the white- 
haired femora should easily distinguish the species. The 
antennae are long, the first joint being longer than the second 
and third together and is a little incrassate ; the second is 
very small, the third rather long and slender. The wings 
are of the ordinary type and have three distinct rosettes, the 
apical band reaching across the apex ; the appendix is long. 
The frontal callus is large, reddish, with the black paired 
spots above. 

Hcematopota singularis, ? , sp. n. 

Type (female) from Nhatrang, Annam, 22. x. 1905 
(Dr. Vassal). 

This species I had placed under //. cilipes, Bigot, in my 
paper on Hcematopota in Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) xviii. 
(August 1906) p. 126; but since that was published I havii 
had the opportunity of examining the type of H. cilipes in the 
Paris Museum, and find this is quite a different species, not 
previously described ; it is related to //. rulAcla, Eicardo, 
from Burmah, in the wings and also in the fringed incrassate 
hind tibife, but differs from it in having all the femora and 
tibiae fringed, in this resembling H. cilipes, Bigot, and H. lata^ 
Ricardo, with which it should be placed in the table on p. 114. 
It is a handsome small black species with densely hairy legs, 
and is immediately noticeable by the pale streak across the 
brown wings, which have no rosettes apparent, thus differing 
with H. rubida considerably from the other described species 
of Hcematopota from the Oriental Region. In the shape of 
the antennae it resembles H. rubida, with the long incrassate 
first joint, the very small second joint, and the broad basal 
division of the third joint, the last division being small and 

Face grey, the whole upper part deep black, the lower half 
grey, with white hairs ; the beard and uuderpart of head also 
with white hairs. Palpi yellow, with short black pubescence 
and some longer white hairs. Frontal callus black, shining, 
narrow, almost reaching the eyes ; forehead brownish, with 
grey markings surrounding the two black spots and continued 
across the forehead ; there is a tuft of white hairs on each side 
of the forehead on the outer border of the black spot and 
reaching the frontal callus ; on each side of the forehead 
bordering the eyes there is a narrow grey border of tomentura. 
Antennae yellow, in shape as described above, with long black 

Species of Tabanidae. 59 

pubescence on tlie first and second joints ; the third is bare. 
Thorax black, with three short grey stripes, the centre one 
shortest, none reaching the jjosterior border; the sides grey; 
the posterior border ot tliorax is fringed with white hairs ; the 
pubescence on the dorsum black, short, with some white 
pubescence on the stripes and on the sides ; above the root of 
the wings there is a black tuft of hairs, with some long white 
hairs below. Scutellum appears yellowish, bordered with a 
fringe of white pubescence. Abdomen deep black, the second, 
third, and fourth segments with white segmentations ; the 
pubescence black, with white hairs on the sides of the dorsum 
of second segment, on the white segmentations, and on the 
sides of the lirst segment, on the sides of the other segments 
chiefly black ; underside the same, but more hairy. Legs 
all with fringes of black hairs, which are least thick on the 
middle femora ; they are brown in colour, with two yellow 
rings on the middle and posterior tibiae, and the base of the 
fore tibiae is yellow; the middle and posterior femora are 
largely yellow ; the fore tibiae and femora with wholly black 
fringes, long on each border of the femora, long on the outer 
border and short on the inner border of the tibite ; the middle 
femora with whitish pubescence forming a scanty fringe on 
their lower borders, with some thick black hairs at apex; 
the middle tibiai with a fringe of coarse black hairs on each 
border and white and black pubescence on the dorsum ; 
hind femora with very thick black and white pubescence; the 
hind tibise broad, flat, with fringes of short black hairs on 
their borders and black and white pubescence on the dorsum ; 
tarsi with short black pubescence ; the middle and posterior 
tarsi are almost wholly yellow. Wings dark brown, the pale 
streak is continuous from the round pale spot above the 
stigma to beyond the apical cell ; the pale markings of the 
apex and the external border are so placed that, viewed by 
the naked eye, a second j)ale streak is seen divided from the 
first by a brown parallel band, with a few brown markings on 
it, but no rosettes are apparent. 
Length 8 mm. 

Ikcmatopota pachycera, ? , Bigot. 

This type from Cambodia (the descrii)tion gives Laos) is 
also in the Paris Museum. 

This species would come under heading " 15 " in my tabic 
of Indian and Ceylon species next to II. lata, llicardo, from 
which it is distinguished by the hind tibice not being fringed, 
and the third joint of the antcnmc is wider and shorter. It 

60 Colonel C. Swinlioe on 

resembles //. ruhida, Ricardo, in the antennse. Bigot seems 
to have overlooked the second joint, which is very small, and 
described the third joint as tlie second one ; tlie first joint is 
long, cylindrical, and the third joint very wide, the basal 
division being large and swollen, the remaining divisions 
very small. The abdomen is black, with the segmentations 
grey ; the two rows o£ spots mentioned by Bigot are hardly 
noticeable. The legs have two rings of light colour on the 
middle and posterior tibiee, and the base of the fore tibiae is 
yellowish. The wings have two indistinct rosettes. 

VIII. — Neiv Eastern Lepidoptem. 
By Colonel C. Swinhoe, M.A., F.L.S., &c. 

Family Satyridse. 
Genus Lyela, nov. 

Fore wing triangular; costa arched, apex- somewhat 
rounded, hinder angle much rounded, lower margin straight : 
hind wing with the costa and outer margin evenly curved ; 
venation of both wings as in typical Coenonympha. Palpi 
very hairy, third joint long, with the long hairs of the other 
joints extending beyond the tips ; antennae slender, about 
half the length of the costa, the club large, oval, spatulate, 
and very flat. No secondary sexual characters. 

Type L. macmakom, nov. 

Erebia my ops, Staud., belongs to this genus and has 
similar antennas and shape. Dr. T. A. Chapman, in his 
" Review of the Genus Erehia,'' based on the examination of 
the male appendages, in Trans. Ent. Soc. 1898, p. 233, states 
that he places myops by itself. 

Lyela mucmalioni, nov. 

^ ?. Palpi blackish brown above, white beneath; antennte 
above black, with broad white rings, below white, with 
narrow black rings, the club white beneath ; head and body 
black above and below ; eyes black, white beneath, with a 
white spot behind ; legs blackish brown above, greyish 
ochreous white beneath. Wings of a uniform blackish brown, 
nearly black in some males, always darker below than above : 
fore wings with a large, blackish, subapical, round spot, with 
a broad dull orange ring round it; in two examples (a male 

neio Eastern Lepidoptei-a. Gl 

and a female) tliere is a minute white dot within tlie black 
spot, on the right wing only. The female is like the male, 
but the wings are slightly longer, and therefore compara- 
tively rather narrower, and the colour above and below is 
uniformly paler. 

Expanse of wings Ijo" inch. 

Quetta, Beluchistan ; several examples of both sexes, sent 
to me by Col. Sir A. H. McMalion. 

Family Nymphalidae. 
Cyrestis subohscwus, no v. 

S. Antennse black; palpi with first joint white, second 
and third black above, white beneath ; body and wings 
purplish blackish brown ; the ground-colour of the wings in 
most parts is really purplish grey, but there are ten dark 
pur])lish-brown transverse bands across both wings, packed 
so closely together as to give the wings a blackish appear- 
ance : on the fore wings there is a white band between the 
fifth and sixth dark bands, a large white spot with square 
upper and lower ends in the middle of the next band, a small 
white dot above it near the costa, and an orange semi-square 
spot with a black dot in it at the hinder angle, and some thin 
white transverse streaks before the outer margin : on the 
hind wings most of the narrow spaces between the dark bands 
are more or less white, the whitest being in the middle, the 
first inner space next to it, one near the abdominal margin, a 
short streak below the apex, and another very tiiin one sub- 
marginal ; the anal lobe and space above it has a large orange 
])atcii, rounded on its upper side, with three or four black 
spots in it. On the underside the wings are very similarly 
marked, but the bands are dark and white alternately, the 
ilark bands thin and much paler than they are above; body 
and legs white. 

Expanse of wings 2j1q inches. 

Sitoli, Nias ; one example. 

Allied to C. mfenalis, Erichson, and C. semin'ujm, Grose- 
Smith : it is not referred to by Dr. Ludwig Martin in his 
monograph of the genus ('Iris,' 1903, p. 71); it belongs to 
his No. 2 Nivea-Gruppe Sykoj)hages. 

Family Sphingidae. 
Genus Pentateuciia, nov. 
* Proboscis fully developed ; palpi upturned, slendc'r, 
* I owe this diagnosis to Sir Georf,'o Hampson. 

62 Colonel C. Svvinhoe 07i 

reacliino- about middle of frons, the second joint fringed with 
long hau- in front, tlie third short; frons with tuft of hair ; 
antennrc of female ciliated ; thorax clothed with long spatu- 
late hair ; tibia3 fringed with long hair, the hind tibige witli 
two pairs of spurs, the fore tarsi with three large curved 
claws on first joint ; abdomen clothed with long rough hair ; 
frenulum present. Fore wing with the apex rounded, the 
outer margin evenly curved, crenulate; vein 3 from well 
before anMe of cell; 5 from middle of discocellulars ; 6 from 
ui)pcr angle; 7, S, and 9 stalked ; 10 and 11 from cell : hind 
wino- with vein 3 from well before angle of cell ; 5 from well 
above angle; 6 and 7 from upper angle ; 8 approximated to 
7 beyond the cell. 

Pentateucha curiosa, nov. 

? . Head and thorax clothed with deep red-brown liair 
tipped with white ; pectus and legs rufous, tlie tarsi blackish ; 
abdomen blackish mixed with grey-white, forming obscure 
segmental bands, the anal tuft and ventral surface rufous : 
fore wing clothed with dark red-brown hairy scales mixed 
with white ; some rufous at base of inner area ; faint traces 
of a dark antemedial line, an oblique, elliptical, white dis- 
coidal spot ; postmedial line with oblique dark bar from 
costa, then very indistinct, recurved to vein 3, then incurved ; 
subterminal line indistinct, double, oblique, waved, bent 
inwards to costa, where there is a white mark on it, a dentate 
line beyond it arising from apex, wiiite and prominent to 
vein 6, then indistinct and forming white points on the veins; 
cilia rufous, with whitish points at the veins : hind wing 
bright rufous, the inner area whitish, cilia with some white 
scales at tips. Underside of both wings rufous ; fore wing 
with indistinct pale discoidal spot, an obliquely curved post- 
medial band and prominent dentate white band from apex to 
above vein 6 : hind wing suffused with white to beyond 
middle; an oblique, slightly waved, medial rufous line and 
indistinct postmedial line, bent outwards to just above the 
anal angle, the terminal area irrorated with whitisii. 
Expanse of wings 4 inches. 
Khasia Hills; one example of this very curious Sphinx. 

Family Syntomidse. 
Syritomis aurea, nov. 

(J ? . AntennaB black ; head, thorax, and abdomen golden 
orange ; a small black patch immediately behind the base of 

new Eastern Lepidoptera. 63 

the antennse ; a transverse black line beliincl tlie neck, three 
longitudinal black lines running- down from it on the thorax ; 
abdomen with five thin segmental black bands, tlie extremity 
shot with metallic green. Wings hyaline, with the veins 
black : tore wings with tlie base yellow, the costal line black, 
the space between the costal lino and subcostal vein yellow, 
and the basal half of the hinder margin smeared with dull 
yellow, and some yellow irrorations here and there on all the 
veins ; a black bar across the intcrno-median interspace a 
little before the middle, a thin black band on the outer margin, 
thickened into a square spot on the extremities of veins 2 and 
3, and expanding at the apex, tlie space between veins 5 and 6 
filled up with black, though in some specimens this band 
does not quite extend to the outer margin : hind wings with 
some yellow at the base and along the abdominal margin ; 
the costa and outer margins with a thin black band, ex- 
panding into a spot below vein 2, but not at the apex : legs 
black, tarsi with the upper half whitish. 

Expanse of wings, ^ 1^^, ? 1/^ inch. 

Kiiasia Hills ; many examples of both sexes. 

There are two examples in the B. M. from the Khasia 
Hills with S.fervida, Walker, from Moulmein, but it is not 
fervida ; that species has no black bar in the interno-mediaa 
interspace of the fore wings and the space between veins 5 
and 6 is quite clear, and there are many other differences. 
I have before me seventeen examples, and all of thorn are 
constant in tlie characters given above. 

Family Deilemeridaa. 
DeiJemera formosana^ no v. 

(^ . Antennai black ; head and body above and below 
yellow ; palpi with the second and third joints black, tips of 
the former yellow ; a large black spot on the frons, one on 
the to)) of the head, a pair on the collar and another pair 
behind them, a spot on the hind part of thorax ; abdomen 
with paired dorsal and lateral black spots on each segment : 
fore wings brownish mouse-colour ; a wedge-shaped white 
streak from the base; a large white discal patch which 
nearly touches the costa, expands downwards, has dentated 
sides, is joined in the middle to the outer margin by a band 
with a large brown spot in it, and a small one on the margin, 
is rounded below tlie median vein, has a tooth on the inner 
side, with a large brown spot in it, opposite the basal wedge- 
shaj)ed streak ; a white subapical spot : hind wings white, 
with a broken mouse-coloured maririnal border. 

G4 Colonel C. Swinlioe o?i 

Expanse of wings 1 ^q inch. 

Formosa ; one example. 

Veins 6 and 7 of the hind wings on a short stalk, palpi 
long, antennae with long pectinations ; hind wings as in 
D. carissima, Swinh., with an excavation before the anal 
angle, which is produced. Belongs to Section 11. of my 
monograph of the genus (Trans. Ent. Soc. 1903, p. 53). 

Family Zygaenidae. 
Isbarta padanga, nov. 

c^ ? . Palpi white, last joint black; antenna, head, body, 
and wings black ; two white spots behind the head, two on 
the thorax in front, white dorsal and lateral spots on each 
segment of the abdomen, and white bands beneath : fore wing 
with a white basal spot, all the markings white ; a thin streak 
on the basal half immediately below the costal line, a short 
thin streak immediately below this not reaching the base ; a 
streak on the subcostal vein, extending from the middle to 
the end of the cell, thickened in its centre ; an oval spot at 
tiie lower end of the cell, continued a short distance in a fine 
line on the vein inwards; two thick streaks below the cell 
from near the base to the middle, a thinner streak on the 
hinder margin from near the base for three fourths its length; 
an oval spot beyond the end of the cell, two above it in a 
triangular shape, two in the disk a little below and outside, 
a longer spot below and a little inwards, and another similar 
spot below this towards the hinder margin not far from the 
angle ; a submarginal row of spots rather close to the margin, 
but curving inwards below the apex : hind wings with streaks 
on the cell-veins, reaching the base, the upper one not reaching 
the end of the cell ; a curved row of discal elongated spots, a 
submarginal row of seven smaller spots ; three streaks below 
the cell, extending from the base and running into the sub- 
marginal spots ; a broader streak on the abdominal margin. 
On the underside the markings on the wings are as above, 
but the streaks are broader and the spots larger ; thorax 
spotted with wdiite; legs streaked with white. 

Expanse of wings, ^ '^\Q} ? '^iq inches. 

Padang, Sumatra; one pair. 

Pompelon offints^ nov. 

(J. Frons white, with pale blue reflections; antennse 
black ; head, body, and wings dark blackish brown ; a 
crimson line behind the head ; abdomen with the anal tuft 

neio Eastern Lepkloptera. 65 

and underside crimson, with lateral black spots on each 
segment: fore wings above with dull pale purplish reflec- 
tions on the costa and outer veins, the costal reflections 
expanding somewhat towards the apex : hind wings with 
similar reflections on the apical portions. Undersicle dull 
brown; fore wings with a large dull ochreous spot at the 
upper end of the cell ; blue reflections on the costa, subcostal 
vein, the veinlot within the cell, and on all the outer veins; 
liind wings without any reflections; the brown colour on all 
the wings pale towards tlie outer margins ; pectus and thorax 
crimson ; legs black. 

Expanse' of wings 2-f'y inches. 

Padang, Sumatra; one example. 

Nearest to P. amplicatum, Butler, from the Celebes ; diff*ers 
in the nature of the reflections above and is very different 

Family Lymantriidae. 

Pasychira alhiplaga, nov. 

S ? . Antonnse with the shafts whitish, pectinations 
greyish brown; palpi brown above, greyish white beneath; 
head and fore part of thorax greyish white ; thorax 
greyish brown ; abdomen greyish white : fore wing greyish 
brown, smeared in parts with whitish, more prominently 
so in the female; a broad, almost straight, whitish stripe 
from the base to the apex, through the upper part of 
the wing, more or less obsolescent in one of the females ; an 
autcmedial dentated whitish line, lined with brown on its 
outer side; a postmedlal, dentated, and recurved similar line, 
lined with brown on its inner side, curving inwards above the 
hinder margin close to the antemedial line ; a subinarginal 
lunular whitish thin l)and, which also curves inwards above 
the hinder margin ; a marginal row of brown lunules, 
margined on each side with whitish; cilia white, with brown 
l)atches ; most of these lines are almost invisible in the male, 
Imt quite distinct in the female : hind wings pale brown in 
the male, almost white in the female : body, legs, and win^i-s 
grey ; a discal, nearly straight, grey, thin band across the 
fore wing and indicated on the upper portion of the hind 

Expanse of wings, (^ ly",-,-, ? 1,'yinch. 

East Java ; one male and Ave females. 

In Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) xviii. p. 105 (1900), I 
described this female erroneously as the female of Onjyia 
nchulom^^NAkQx, with which 1 originally received it; the 

Ann.^i' Mitfj. S. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol \. 5 

66 Colonel 0. Swinlioe on 

venation being almost identical, I thought it must be the 
female of that sj)ecies, but a closer examination with the 
Dasychira male now received with a female showing similar 
markings leaves no doubt of my error. 

Family Ctuadrifidae. 

Nyctipao superha, no v. 

? . Blackish brown, the outer half the darkest and nearly 
pure black, the ocellus broader than in caprimulgus^ Fabr., 
the dull orange ring tinged with blue, and with. pale blue- 
white markings as mjaintiana, Swinh. ; a discal pure white 
complete band across botii wings, not quite touching either 
costaor abdominal margin, sinuous throughout, with two blunt 
outward projections before and above the middle on the fore 
wings, and commencing with two almost square spots below 
the costa on the hind wings. On the underside the wings 
are paler, especially towards the base and hinder margin of 
fore wings, where it has a red tinge ; the white band as 
above, except that on the fore wings it commences with three 
lunular blunt spots below the costa; cilia of both wings 
black : body above and below blackish brown ; antennae, 
palpi, breast, and legs black. 

Expanse of wings A^^ inches. 

Khasia Hills ; one example. 

A very handsome insect. 

Family Geometridae, 

Thalassodes virt'difascia, nov. 

J' ? . Palpi above and antennae ochreous ; palpi below, 
head, body, and wings above and below white ; thorax 
mostly green, and green dorsal bands on the abdomen. 
Wings thinly clothed, sparsely striated with green : fore 
wing with the costal line ochreous, the base green ; two 
straight, slightly oblique, broad green bands, ante- and post- 
medial, neither quite reaching the costa ; apex green, this 
colour narrowing down the outer margin : hind wings with 
a broad, straight, medial green band in continuation of the 
antemedial band of the fore wings ; some green on the outer 
and abdominal margins ; marginal lines of both wings dark; 
cilia white, with a pale green inner band. Underside whitish, 
without markings ; legs ochreous. 

Expanse of wings 2 inches. 

N. Borneo ; one pair. 


new Eastern Lepidoptera. 67 

Belongs to tlie group of whicli orthdesma, Lower *, from 
Queensland, albifusa, Warren, from Fergusson Island, and 
nivestrota, Warren, from N. Guinea^ are examples. 

Dysphan ia fanniita, no v. 

S ? . Yellow, of the colour of militaris, Linn. ; palpi black 
at the sides, tips yellow, last joint black ; antennae black, a 
black stripe down the middle of the frons, a black stripe 
between the antennae, one on the neck, one on the shoulders, 
and one before the middle j the abdomen above and below 
pure yellow, without any markings, except for a black stripe 
at the base above corresponding to the black stripe across 
the base of the hind wing, which runs up into the fore wing, 
expands on the interno-median interspace, is there excavated 
on its outer side, then is bent straight inwards on to the costa 
at one fourth from the base ; costal line black; a thick streak 
from the base on the median vein, coming to a point on the 
bent band ; outer third of the wing blacky with discal and 
subapical bands of nearly white semihyaline square spots, 
the spot above vein 3 being long and narrow ; the yellow 
space between the outer bhack portion and the inner bent 
band limited to four large yellow spots divided by the veins : 
the hind wings are marked much as in subrepleta, Walker, but 
the outer veins are thickly streaked with black and the outer 
margin has a lunular black line ; the hind wings are more 
ample than usual and project a little between veins 3 and 4. 

Expanse of wings 3nj inches. 

Nias; one male and two females. 

Dysphania jessiccij nov. 

^ ?. Of the same yellow colour as militaris, Linn., but 
smaller, uniformly not larger than subrepleta, Walker, = 
bellonaria, Guen. ; markings somewhat similar to the former, 
but the black subbasal band outside the basal spots is con- 
tinuous and bent round, being very slightly angled outwardly 
on the median vein, and there is an elongated spot with 
square sides on vein 1 attached to the outside of the band 
which is reduced to a small spot usually in the female ; the 
black basal stripes are broken, and not even and regular as in 
militaris ; in the hind wing the discal black transverse band 
is continuous. 

Expanse of wings Sj-^y inches. 

* Tr. Rov. Soc. S. Austral. 1804, p. 86; Xov. Zool. iii. p. 2,''3, and x. 
p. 365. 



Mr. G. S. Miller on 

Nancoury, Nicobars ; three males and two males (type). 

Pt. Blair, Andamans ; one male and two females. 

Bassein, Burma ; one female. 

There are a good many examples from the Nicobars and 
Andamans in the B. M., and all that I have seen are perfectly 
constant in the above-mentioned characters. 

Pareumelea rostrata, nov. 

^ ? . Antennae, body, and wings dark ochreous olive; the 
apex of fore wings broadly and the outer margins of both 
wings more narrowly clear ochreous yellow ; the olive colour 
thickly striated with dark brown, and a band of this colour 
extends below the apex of fore wings nearly to the outer 
margin, then the yellow marginal band narrows downwards, 
but on the hind wings it is fairly uniform in width and is 
somewhat angled in the middle, as in P. hortensiata, Guen. 
On the underside the vs^ings are olive-brown without striations, 
the band as above ; body and legs yellow. 

Expanse of wings 2^^- inches. 

Menado, Celebes ; one pair. 

It lacks the upper discal large yellow spot of Jwrtensiata 
and the yellow marginal band is of a differeut formation. 

IX. — Two new Mammals from Asia Mino)'. 
By Gerrit S. Miller. 

The British Museum contains specimens of a shrew and 
dormouse from Asia Minor, neither of which appears to have 
been hitherto described. 

Neomys teres, sp. n. 
1906. Neomys fodiens, Thomas, P. Z. S. 1905, ii. p. 522 (April 1906), 

Type. — Adult male (skin and skull). B.M. no. 5. 10. 4. 17, 
Collected at edge of brook in mountains (altitude 7000 feet) 
25 miles north of Erzeroum, Turkey in Asia, July 8, 1905, 
by R. B. Woosnam. Presented by Col. A. C. Bailward. 
Original number 53. 

Diagnosis.— ^'\m\\si\: to Neomys anomalus, Cabrera*, and 

* Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, xx. p. 214 (September, 1907). Sau 
Martin de la Vega, Province of Madrid, Spain. 

new Manwials from Asia Minor. 69 

N. milleri, Mottaz *, but larger, skull more heavily built, and 
teeth more robust. 

Colour. — Upperparts a mixture of verj dark vandjke- 
brown and slate-greyj the hairs with silvery reflections, which 
produce a noticeable " pepper-and-salt " appearance, more 
evident in certain lights than in others. Head and anterior 
halt" of body tinged with hair-brown. Underparts sharply 
defined pale cream-bufF, irregularly darkened by slate-grey 
bases of hairs. An elongated buffy-white spot, 5 mm. in 
greatest diameter, immediately behind eye. Feet bufFy grey, 
the toes dusky. Tail everywhere covered with short silvery- 
white hairs, those of ])encil dusky-tinged, the dark skin 
appearing more noticeably at sui face above than below. 

Skull and teeth. — Aside from its larger size the skull does 
not differ appreciably from that of lieomys milleri and 
iV. anomalus, except in the relatively deeper, broader, anterior 
portion of rostrum. Teeth not peculiar, except in their 
uniformly greater size and robustness. 

Measurements. — Head and body 88 mm. ; tail 58 ; hind 
foot 18-5 ; ear 5. Skull : condylo-basal length '22-4: (20-2) f; 
greatest breadth of brain-case 11*4 (10"G) ; depth of brain- 
case 6'0 (0*0); mandible, including incisor, 14'4 (13"4:); 
maxillary tooth-row J O'-i (9-4); mandibular tooth-row 9'4(8-8). 
Specimen e.xamined. — The type. 

Remarks. — This species is readily distinguishable by its 
large robust skull. In colour the type is not so dark as 
average specimens of the European forms, a character which 
may or may not prove to be of importance. By the discovery 
of Neomys teres the known range of the round-tailed group 
of water-shrews is greatly extended to the eastward. 

Muscardinus trapezius, sp. n. 

Type.— Adnh male (skin and skull). B.M. no. (>. 5. 1. 40. 
Collected at Kliotz, near Trebizond, Turkey in Asia, Feb- 
ruary 10, 190(3, by A. Robert. Presented by Oidlield Thomas. 
Urignial number 24:07. 

l)ia<jnosis. — Similar to Muscardinus avellanarius, but 
skull with audital buUai noticeably smaller and more nearly 
circular in outline. 

CWour. — Upperparts uniform buffy slate-colour, lightening 

* M(5ra. Soc. Zool. de France, xx. p. 22 (September, ]IK)7). Alpea 
Vauduises, Switzerland. Altitude ll'30 m. 

t Measuieiiients in parentheses are thi).-;e of an adult male yeomi/s 
n>wtiiu/us lium Santo Domingo de Silos, rroviiice of Burgos, Spain 
(no. 7L*lt2G. S. M.). 

70 Messrs. J. C. Melvill a7id J. H. Ponsonby on 

to ochraceous-buff on muzzle and cheeks, and with a faint 
brownish wash nlong middle of back ; underparts between 
buff and creara-bufi', slightly darkened by the slaty under- 
colour, the line of demarcation along sides of body rather 
well defined ; throat and median region of chest white to base 
of hairs ; whiskers blackish ; upper lip whitish buff except in 
region of muzzle ; feet dull greyish buff ; tail obscurely 
bicolor, similar to back above, though rather conspicuously 
darkened by a brownish suffusion through terminal third, 
light buffy below, though not so pale as belly. 

Skull and teeth. — The skull resembles that of Muscardinus 
avellanarius, except that the audital bullae are circular in 
outline and much smaller, owing chiefly to the absence of the 
inflated region between paroccipital process and bullae proper. 
This inflation is always present in M. avellanarius, destroying 
the circular outline of the bullae when viewed from the side. 
Teeth as in M. avellanarius. 

Measurements. — Head and body 80 mm. ; tail-vertebrse 66 ; 
hind foot 17 ; ear from meatus 10 ; ear from crown (dry) 5*8. 
Skull : condylo-basal length 21-2 ; zygomatic breadth IH ; 
mastoid breadth 10*6; interorbital breadth 3-4; nasal (along 
median suture) 7 ; diastema 5*6 ; mandible 12*4 ; upper 
tooth-row (alveoli) 4'4 ; lower tooth-row (alveoli) 4. 

Specimen examined. — The type. 

HemarJcs. — In all respects, except for the small circular 
audital bullae, this species so exactly resembles Muscardinus 
avellanarius that I can detect no other characters by which it 
may be recognized. While the Turkish dormouse is repre- 
sented by the type specimen only, the series of skulls of the 
European animals is sufficient to show that the outline of the 
bullae is constant enough to be of much importance in distin- 
guishing betueen closely related forms. 

X. — A Survey of the Species and Varieties of Pupa, 
Droparnaud (Jaminia, Risso), occurring in South Africa. 
By James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., and John 
Heney Ponsonby, F.Z.S. 

[Plates I. & II.] 

When Mr. Henry C. Burnup visited England recently, 
we pointed out to him that several so-called species of 
Pupa appeared to be insufficiently defined, suggesting that he 
would, perhaps, feel inclined, on his return to S. Africa, to 

the South- African Species and Varieties o/Pupa. 71 

give special attention to the genus. This he at once promised 
to do, and to him alone belongs the full credit of the survey 
now instituted. lie has, witii most infinite pains and patience, 
succeeded, firstly, in unravelling the majority of the difficulties 
arising from insufficient delineation or description, and, 
secondly, in weighing each form separately in the balance 
and judging as to its specific or varietal value. 

It is not surprising that, in tiie careful examination of 
hundreds of specimens, collected from widely distant localities, 
his observations should have led him to take a broader view 
than had heretofore been possible, enabling him to correct 
many erroneous conclusions. He has now entrusted to us 
his valuable notes and drawings with full permission to use 
tiiem. Indeed, without his aid this revision could not 
possibly have been attempted, and well has he merited, not 
our own thanks only, but the gratitude of every student of 
the South-African moUuscan fauna. 

1. Pupa crawfordiana (M. & P.). 

Fauxulus crawfordicmus, Melvill & Ponsonby, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, 
ser. 7, vol. xii. (1903) p. 605, pi. xxxi. fig. 5. 

A fine species, allied to P. layardi^ Bens., with a cylindric- 
fusiforni contour, attenuate towards the apex. It was de- 
scribed as a dextral Fauxulus, but seems better included in 
Pupa proper. 

Alt. 8, lat. 3-75 mm. 

Ilab. Mossel Bay (/. Crawford). 

2. Pu2)a cryptoplax, M. & P. (PI. I. figs. 1, 2.) 

Pupa cryptoplax, Melvill & Ponsonbv, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, 
vol. iv. (1899) p. 198, pi. iii. tigs. 11, 11 a. 

"VVe give two of Mr. Burnup's drawings, taken from a 
juvenile and mature specimen respectively, and in these will 
be seeir : — 

(a) the deep-seated and much inwardly extending parietal 
plait, with 

(i) a plait, occasionally duplicated, encircling the colu- 
mella, and 

(c) a broad, apparently transverse, labial plica ; while 

[d) there exists on the young shell an evident septum. 
We quote Mr. Burnup's remarks in lift., as follow : — 

*' Observing some strange-looking plaits or septa in some 
young shells, 1 made an internal examination, to see how far 
in the growth these were continued. Two [)laits are shown 

72 Messrs. J. C. Melvill and J. H. Ponsonby on 

in the young through the translucent sliell, and one example 
showed three. Two more mature specimens that I opened up 
exhibit none of these plicae. Have they been absorbed as the 
shell grew ? " 

In external form and size P. cryptoplax does not appear 
to vary much, being always somewhat conically pyramidal or 
turbinate, deeply umbilicate, with whorls 7^ to 8 in number, 
lip slightly eh>ngate, oblique, reflexed, white. 

Alt. 8'12, lat. 1*85 mm. (sp. min.). 
„ 3-76, „ 2-15 „ (sp. maj.). 

IJab. Kragga Kamma, Port Elizabeth. 

3. Pupa dadion, Bens. (PI. I. fig. 3.) 

Pupa dudion, Benson, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, vol. xiii. (1864) 
p. 495; Pfeifter {Pupilla) Nomencl. Helic. Viv. (1881) p. 354; 
Melv. & Pons. P. Malac. Soc. vol. iii. (1898) p. 176 ; Sturany, 
Siidafrik. Moll. (1898) p. 70. 

This interesting species never having as yet been figured, 
we take pleasure in reproducing an admirable delineation of 
Mr. Burnup's, drawn from a specimen collected by the 
author, Mr. W. H. Benson, in tlie collection of J. H. P., the 
exact measurements of this specimen being, as compared with 
the type : — 

Alt. 3-10, lat. 1-76 mm. 

rrype)_ „ 3-50, „ 2-0 „ 

Hah. Simons Bay, behind the Admiralty House, also at 
Paradise, Table Mountain (^E, L. Layard) ; Bedford, Cape 
Oolony [Ponsonhy ds Farquhar) ; Umvoti County, Natal 

Specimens from these last two localities confirmed and 
identified by Mr. H. C. Burnup. 

4. Pupa damarica, Ancey. 
Pupa damarica, Ancey, Le Naturalists (1888), p. 200. 

" Testa subcylindraceo-oblonga, sat gracilis, parva, tenuiuscula, 
perforata, subnitida, oblique confertimque striatula, apicem 
versus levior ; spira parva, attenuata, summo magno, obtusiesimo. 
Anfr. 5|, regulariter accrescentes, convoxi, sutura profunda dis- 
tincteque oblique separati, usque ad peristoma paullatim sed vix 
diametro crescentes, ultimus latere convexus, parum attenuatus, 
prope aperturam subascendens. Apertura ovalis, parum lunata, 
fere recta, intus .5-dentata, dente uno columellari parvo acuto ; 
parietal! maximo, lamellifero, torto, intrante prope angulum 
superiorem aperturae : subbasali parvo, et denticulis 2 in interiors 
marginis exterioris, primo ante, secundo post medium (hoc majore 

the South- African Species and Varieties of Pupa. 73 

efc profundius sito). Perist. expansum, marginibus callo junctis, 
albidulum ad basin et columellam, dilatatum, patulum. 
"Long. 2i, diam. Ig, long, apert. ^, lat. ^ mm. 

*' Disappointment Key, Ovampoland (Daraara). 

" Cette petite es|,^ce appavtient au m^me groupe que les 
P. rupicola, Say, pellucida, Pfr., tripunctum, Morelet, &c." 
(C. F. Ancey.) 

The journal in which this species was described not being 
very accessible, we copy the particulars above. No figure 
has been given, nor do we know where the type is located, 
but some points of affinity to P. ovampoensis appear to exist. 

5. Pupa dysorata, M. & P. (PI. I. fig. 4.) 

Pupa dysorata, Molvill & Ponsonby, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. eer. 6, 
vol. xi. (1893) p. 20, pi. iii. fig. 4 ; emend, vol. xii. (1893) p. Ill ; 
Sturany (dysorota), Siidafrik. Moll. (1898) p. 71. 

Shell very small, oblong, smoothish, minutely obliquely 
striate, apex obtuse; whorls 5^, swollen, ventricose; body- 
whorl short (in type), almost straight ; aperture squarely ovate, 
lip white, slightly retlexed, columellar tooth (in the type 
specimen) obsolete. 

Alt. 1-43, lat. 0-90 mm. (Mr. Burnup's figure). 

Hab. Griqualand East. 

Var. intradeiifata, Burnup, nov. (PI. I. figs. 5, 6.) 

Shell minute, rimate, subcylindrical, elliptic, thin, trans- 
lucent, shining, very pale brown ; spire turbinate, with greater 
width at the fourth whorl ; sutures impressed, apex very 
obtuse ; whorls 5^, very convex, closely transversely striate, 
excepting the first 1|, which are smooth, the last compressed 
round the umbilical region ; aperture nearly erect, rounded, 
nearly J the height of the shell. Peristome slightly 
thickened and reflexed, more so at the collumellar margin, 
scarcely paler than the rest of the shell, with labrum sligjitly 
straightened about the middle. Columella arcuate, the only 
tooth being cons])icuous, white, rounded, and remote ; it is 
situated inside, about midway between the last suture and 
the base, and about half a turn from the labium. 

Alt. 1-47, lat. 0-79 mm. (maj.). 
„ 1-40, „ 0-74 „ (min.). 

J Jab. Pretoria (Farquhar 6f Punsonby). 

"A pretty little shell, one of the smallest of the South- 
African group, and of a paler colour than usual. As com- 
pared \\\\.\\ perplcca, Burnup, sp. n., whioh is its nearest allv. 

74 Messrs. J. 0. Melvill and J. H. Ponsonby on 

perhaps, both having the remarkable deep-seated postlabial 
tooth, this species is smaller, smoother, paler, and less 
cylindrical, is only rimate instead of umbilicate, has the 
peristome less deflexed, and is destitute of the postcolumellar 
and parietal plaits. It would appear that intradentata and 
dysorata have the same general appearance ; indeed, I suppose 
tiiat it must be considered a toothed variety of it, and that 
the typical specimen of dysorata neglected to develop the 
tooth'." {H. C. B.) 

6. Fupa/arquhari, M. & P. (PI. I. fig. 7.) 

Pu^ja farquhari, Melvill & Ponsonby, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, 
vol. ii. (1898) p. 128, pi. vii. fig. 7." 

We would add to our original description that the outer 
lip, as well as the columellar margin, is somewhat thickened 
within. We refigure from one of Mr. Burnup's drawings. 

Alt. varies from 3'93 to 4*24 mm. 

Hah. Elandsberg Mountain, Cradock (Farquha?-). 

Mr. Burnup writes to us in reference to this : — " Good 
species ; very near to P. dadion, Bens., but distinguishable. I 
think that dadion, occurring so near to farquharPs habitat, as 
well as at the extremes, Simon's Bay, and Umvoti Oo., Natal, 
without the slightest variation, tends to support its distinct- 
ness as an inhabitant of the intermediate locality, Cradock." 

(H. a B.) 

7. Pupa fontana^ Kr. 

Pupa fontana, Krauss, Siidafrik. Moll. p. 80, pi. v. fig. 6 ; Pfeiffer 
{Vertigo, Alcea), Nomencl. Ilelic.'i Viv. (1881) p. 358; Morelet, 
Journ. de Conch, xxxviii. p. 19 ; M. & P. Proc. Malac. Soc. vcl. iii. 
(1898) p. 176; Sturany, Siidafrik. Moll. (1898) p. 69. 

Since we first undertook the description of South-African 
Mollusca, nearly twenty years ago, an immense quantity of 
this species has been gathered by several collectors, from 
widely different localities, showing extraordinary range of 
variation. Under fontana, indeed, we must now place the 
following : — 

(a) amphodon, M. & P. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xviii. 

(1896) p. 317, pi. xvi. tigs. 6, 7. 

(b) charybdica, M. & P. Ann. &• Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xiv. 

(1894) p. 94, pi. i. fig. 13. 

(c) custodita, M. & P. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xiv. (1894) 

p. 93, pi. i. fig. 9. 

(d) elizabethensis, M. & P. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. ix. 

(1892) p. 19, pi. V. fig, 13. 

(e) endoplax, M. & P. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, vol. viii. (1901) 

p. 319, pi. ii. fig. 10. 

the South- African Species and Varieties of Pupa. 75 

(f) frvstUlum, M. & P. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xiv. (1894) 

p. 04, pi. i. fi<r. 14. 

(g) kercea, M. & P. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xiv. (1894) 

p. 94, pi. i. fig. 12. 
(h) omicronaria, M. & P. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xir. 
(1894)p. 93, pi. i. fig. 11. 

Here we quote from Mr. Burniip in lilt. : — " Judging from 
the number and diversity of the specimens submitted to me 
from so many different localities, this, the first described of 
the South-African Pwpce or Jannnics, would appear to be the 
commonest, most variable, and most widely distributed 
species. Specimens now in my hands have been collected at 
Johannesburg (^McBean ^ Johnson) ; Pretoria {Ponsonby, 
Wotton, ^' McBenn) ; Potchefstroom and Heidelberg {Miss 
Livingston) ; Prieska {Lightfoot) ; Cradock {Fonsonhy 
^ Farquhar) ; Port Elizabeth {Ponsonhy, Graioford, Far- 
quhnr, Lightfoot) ; Kowie {Ponsonhy) ; Karkloof, Natal 
{McBean) . 

" Specimens also in Mr. Ponsonby's collection from 
Abyssinia can in no way be distinguished from those from 
South Africa. 

" The following measurements of a few of the specimens 
examined will give some idea of its extreme variability, both 
in size and form : — 

"Alt. 2-07, lat. 1-28 mm. 
„ 2-22, „ 1-45 „ 
„ 3-67, „ 1-66 „ 
„ 3-75, „ 1-67 „ 

" In colour, too, it varies from the brownish liorn-colour of 
the type, or even darker, through pale brown and straw- 
colour, to white, the first being the commonest, and white the 
next — the intermediate shades are rarer. The tooth-processes 
also vary, not only in development, but also in number, and 
it seems probable that some of the kindred forms described 
under different names belong properly to this species. 

'* The words ' anfr. supremo extus scrobiculum formante ' 
in Krauss's original description seem erroneous : the sulcus 
on the outer side of the labium corresponds with the lower 
labial tooth or plait, not the upper, as may be inferred from 
Krauss's own figure." {H. C. B.) 

With regard to the forms (originally deemed of specific 
rank) now necessarily merged in fontana, we would merely 
remark that : 

(a) anqihodon has the dentition, particularly the inner 
plaits, peculiarly strongly developed. 

(b) charyhdica possesses a much incrassate lip, and dental 
processes deep-seated. 

76 Messrs. J. C. Melvlll and 3, H. Ponsonby on 

(c) custodita, in addition to the usual colmnellar, parietal, 
and two internal labial ])lica3, possesses a third labial, the 
uppermost of the three in situation, very deep-seated, and 
often obscure. 

(d) elizabethensis. Nearly all the specimens seen by us 
are albino, giving a distinctive appearance. 

(e) endoplax. This may possibly be synonymic with 
Jickeli's var. gJobosa (Afr. Moll. t. 5. f. 11), also mentioned 
in Nomencl. Hel. Viv., but we have not seen the typical 

(f) frustiUum. This form is more elongate than the 
type, while 

(g) kercea is cylindric in shape. 

But we are now inclined to agree with Mr. Buriiup, that 
these names are hardly worth while perpetuating. 

8. Pupa griqualandica, M. & P. (PL I. figs. 8-10.) 

Ihipa griqualandica, Melvill & Ponsonty, Ann. & Mafr. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, 
vol xi (1893) p. 22, pi. iii. fig. 9 ; Sturany, Siidafrik. Moll. (1898) 
P- 71. 

Shell very minute, umbilicate, ovato-conical ; brown, 
whorls 5, ventricose, much compressed, uniformly, closely, 
lono-itudinally, finely striate, the body- whorl often dorsally 
contracted and sulcate behind the peristome ; aperture oval 
or roundly ovate, lip thickened, with five plaits, a sixth being 
visible in some specimens likewise, this is probably always 
present, but so deep-seated in some cases as not to be 
observed, as it is wholly internal. These plaits are disposed 
as follows : — Two parietal plaits, running parallel to each 
other, both recurved and deeply penetrating ; a third runs 
inwards from the labial sinus ; a fourth, small in the type 
and co-type, large in specimens since collected, is basal and 
dentiform ; the fifth, the columellar plait, is acinaciform, thin, 
and deep-seated ; the sixth process, so often invisible exter- 
nally, is basal and almost entirely internal. 

The measurements vary as follows : — 

Alt. 1-6 to 1-65, lat. 0-87 to 0*94 mm. 

Hah. Cradock {e coU. Rogers); Port Elizabeth {Ponsonhy); 
Botanic Garden, Maritzburg {Burnup); Heidelberg; Dargle, 
Natal {Miss Livingston ^- Burnup) ; Dukuduku, Zululand 
{Toppin)\ Pretoria {Farquhar) ; (iriqualand [coll. Sykes). 

We figure a few of the more conspicuously interesting 
forms of this w^onderful and complicate shell, selected from 
the many excellent druwings of the species executed by 
Mr, Burnup, in substitution of the original figure and Latin 
description, both of which were insufficient in detail. 

the South-African Species and Varieties of Pupa. 77 

9. Piqya hapJoa, M. & P. 

Pupa haploa, Melvill & Ponsonbv, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, 
vol. xi. (1893) p. 21, pi. iii.'tig. 7: Sturany, Siidafrik. Moll. 
),p. 70. 

A small simple-moutlied species, of which the type only 
occurred, unfortunately mLslaid soon after description, fifteen 
years ago. No example has since come to hand. Seemingly 
allied to P. pretoriensi's, M. & P. 

Alt. 1-70, lat. 0-75 mm. 

Ilab. Pretoria. 

10. Pupa iota, M. & P. (PI. I. fig. 11.) 

Pupa iota, Melvill & Ponsonby, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xiv. 
(1894) p. 93, pi. i. fig. 10; Sturany, Sudafrik. MoU. (1898) p. 70. 

" Shell very small, rimafce, snbcylindrical, elongate, thin, 
translucent, sliining, pale brown ; spire slightly narrowing 
upwards, the greatest width being at the fifth and sixth 
whorls, sutures impressed. Apex obtuse ; whorls 7^, very 
convex, closely lirate transversely, excepting the first 2^, 
which are smooth, the last whorl compressed round the 
umbilical region, and flattened near the middle of the labium ; 
aperture straight, subangularly rounded, about ^ the height 
of the shell, peristome reflexed, widely so at the columellar 
margin, slightly thickened, pale, untoothed, with labium 
somewhat incurved about the middle, columella straight. 

"Alt. 2-17, lat. 0-92 mm. (maj.). 
„ 2-10, „ 0-88 „ (min.). 

" IJab. Pretoria, Transvaal (Collier, McBean,S,- Farquhar) ; 
Heidelberg {Miss Livingston) ; Dukuduku Forest, Zululand 

" A slender cylindrical form which seems to be quite distinct 
from all described sj)ecies, though seemingly comparable 
with P. quantula, M. & P., which is less tapering upwards, 
broader in comparison to its length, and fine in sculpture, 
and also with P. pentheri, Stur., a more conical shell, with 
smoother sculpture, the whorls particularly ventricose, and 
shallower sutures." {11. C. B.) 

The original type (from Pretoria) is slightly smaller in 
dimensions than those given above, and is not in very perfect 

Var. Uvingstoncc, nov., Burnup, MS. (PI. I. fig. 12.) 
Shell very similar to the typical form, eight- whorled, 
cylindrical, impressed at the sutures, somewhat coarsely 

78 Messrs. J. C. Melvill and J. H. Ponsonby on 

longitudinally striate ; aperture simple, with one internal 
tooth opposite to the mouth, very obscurely designated in 
some specimens, which are therefore intermediate between 
this variety and the type. 

Alt. 2-02, lat. 0-84. 

Hab. Pretoria {Connolly in coll. Burnup). 

11. Pupa layardi, Bens. (PI. II. fig. 13.) 

Puna layardi, Benson, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., December'18o6 ; id. ibid, 
ser. 3, vol. xiii. (1864) p. 496 ; Mel v. & Pons. Proc. Mai. Soc. Lend. 
(1898) p. 177 ; PfeifFer, Mon. Helic. Viv. iv. p. 674, vi. p. 318; id. 
( Vertigo, Alcea) Nomencl. p. 358. 

We treat this dextral species as a Pupa, relegating the 
sinistral forms alone to the subgeneric Fauxulus { = Faula, 
H. & A. Ad., 1858 *, pr^occ.). 

In Mr. W. H. Benson's revised description (/. c. p. 496) a 
var. minor is alluded to, about which some uncertainty exists. 
What is P. stoapkora, Benson, and when described? Can 
tills be a synonym of the var. minor? Neither we nor 
Dr. R. Sturany f can trace the species. 

Alt. 5^-7, lat. 2-3 mm. {Benson). 

Hab. Bredasdorp. 

The figure is taken from a shell received by J. H. P. 
from Mr. Benson. 

12. Pupa nohei, Bttg. (PI. II. figs. 14, 15.) 

Pupa noltei (Microstele), Boettger, Ber. Senckenb. naturf. Ges. (1886) 
p. 26, pi. ii. figs. 4 a-c. 

Hab. S. Kalahari. 

We have not seen this specie^ ; the following is a copy of 
the original description : — 

" Testa minima, punctato-rimata, cylindrato-turrita, solida, corneo- 
lutea, spira elongata, turrita, apex perobtusus. Anfractus 6, 
lentissime accrescentes, sat convexi. Sutura profunda disjuncti, 
leviter oblique striatuli, ultimus penultimo vix major, | altitudinis 
testaj aequans, basi angulatus, versus aperturam parum ascendens, 
albidus, dorso distincte planatus, et circum rimam gibbus, Aper- 
tura parva, circulari-ovalis, basi parum recedens, 4-dentata. 
Peristoma acutum, plane lateque expansum, album, marginibus 
convergentibus callo ad insortionem marginis dextri tuberculifero 

• Gen. Recent Mollusca, ii. p. 171. 

t Sturany, Siidafrik. Moll. p. 68, giving only as reference Paetel's 
Catalog. Samml. ii. p. 305. 

tU South- African Species and Varieties o/Pupa. 79 

junctis, dextro supni angulatira curvato, basali et sinistro regu- 
lariter arcuatis. Dcntes 4 profundi, 1 parietalis pliciformis, 
columellaris 1 validus, palatales gcmini, punctiformes in faucibus. 
" Alt. 3|, diam. max. 1|, alt. apert. 1, lat. 1 ram." {Bcettger.) 

A copy of tlie original figure is given. 

13. Pupa ovampoensis, ]\]. & P. (PI. II. fig. 16.) 

Fupa ovatnpoensis, Melv. & Pons. Ann. &. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xi. 

(1893) p. 22, pi. iii. fig. 9 j Sturauy, Siidafrik. Moll. (1898) p. 71. _ 
Pupa ridibunda, Melv. & Pons. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, vol. viii. 

(1901) p. 320, pi. ii. fig. 11. 

Shell minute, rimate, thin, brown ; whorls 5^, the apical 
depressed, glassj, the rest very ventricose, impressed suturallj, 
microscopically finely obliquely striate, in the more typical 
form almost smooth ; occasionally lirate longitudinally ; 
aperture round, lip pale brown, continuous, especially thick- 
ened at the columellar margin, furnished with the following 
processes: a thickened, often bifid, parietal plait; two labial 
(the lower one, as a rule, the larger), sometimes situated more 
deeply back"; a prominent obtuse basal tooth ; and columellar 
plait, broad, flat, occasionally bifid, deep-seated. 

In the form ridibunda the parietal plait is very conspicu- 
ously bifid and the basal tooth usually acute, but every inter- 
mediate occurs. 

Alt. 2-25, lat. -97 ram. (maj.). 
„ 2-3, „ -86 „ (min.). 

Hah. Ovampoland {E. L. Layard); Prieska {Dr. Gibbons); 
Port Elizabeth (Farquhar) ] Rustenberg (McBean), lirate 
variety ; Potchefstroom (Miss Livingston) ; Elandsberg Mts. 
[Farquhar) , " ridibunda.''^ 

We thank Mr. Burnup for having cleared up the distribu- 
tion of this species, of which the type came from the remote 
Ovampoland. A variable shell in the disposition of its 
peristomatal processes, but to be recognized by its round 
continuous lip, long cylindrical form, with very ventricose 
whorls. P. damarica, Ancey, may possibly be identical ; see 
our remarks under that species, which has never been figured. 

We may add that Bijidaria quadridentata, Sterki, from 
the Capitan Mountains, U.S.A., and a Mauritius species 
very doubtfully referred to P. lienardiatia, Crosse, on the 
authority of Dr. Penther, come near our species, though 
both differ slightly in form and in disposition of dental 

80 Messrs. J. C. MelvIU and J. li. Ponsonbj on 

14. Papa pentherij Stur. 

Pupa pentheri, R, Sturany, Anz. k. Akad. Wissensch. Wien, 1898, 
no. xvi. Rep. p. 8 ; id.' Catal. Sudafrik. Moll. 1898, p. 70, Taf. ii. 
figs. 34-3G. 

A very minute, elongate-cylindrical, seven-wliorled species, 
with simple mouth, containing no processes whatsoever. An 
extension of its range has been made by Mr. Toppin's 
discovery of its existence at Dukuduku, Zululand. 

Alt. 1-85, lat. 0-78 mm. (maj.). 

15. Papa jyerplexa, Burnup, sp. n. (Pi. II. figs. 17, 18.) 

Shell very small, umbilicate, cylindrical, thin, translucent, 
shining, pale brown ; spire cylindrical, rounded above, sutures 
impressed, apex obtuse; whorls 6, very convex, closely trans- 
versely Urate exce])ting the first two, which are smooth, the 
fourth, fifth, and sixth of nearly equal width, the last half- 
whorl acquiring its greatest width a little below tlie suture 
and then being flattened below, forming an infra-sutural 
angle, the last whorl compressed towards the umbili- 
cus ; aperture rounded, nearly ^ the height of the shell ; 
peristome reflexed, especially at the columellar margin, 
thickened, connected by a slight callus, whitish, furnished 
with a small white parietal plait ruiniing inwards, and there 
becoming strong, and a strong white postcolumellar plait 
also running inwards, in addition to which there is a profoundly 
postlabial tooth or plait hidden by the columella ; labium 
slightly incurved about the middle; columella straight. 

Alt. 1-72, lat. 0-82 mm. 
„ 1-74, „ 0-80 „ 
„ 1-80, „ 0-77 „ 

hah. Oradock, Cape Colony {Farquhar) ; Johannesburg, 
Transvaal [McBean) ; Pretoria {Collier & Ponsonhy) ; Port 
Elizabeth [Farquhai') ; Potchefstroom [Miss Livingston). 

A very pretty and interesting little species, much like iota, 
M. & P., in colour, sculpture, and ventricosity of whorls, but 
differing in being shorter, more cylindrical, and umbilicate 
instead of rimate, and in having a more thickened and reflexed 
peristome, fewer whorls, and an armature of tooth-processes 
of which the other is, typically, destitute. 

The arrangement of the peristomatal and other processes 
in this species is very elusive, some examples viewed from 
the front showing no plaits, others one, some two, and a few 
all three ; but in most specimens they can all be seen under 
a strong lens by turning the shell round. Such specimens 

the S)iith-Afrlca'i S/jicies and Varieties 0/ Papa. 81 

as sliow in a front view only tlie columellar plait, or only the 
postlabial tooth, are easily confused with P. tntradentata, 
Burnup, which, however, is more abbreviate, with rounder 
apertiiro and (iiier sculpture. 

16. Pup'i pretoriensis, M. & P. 

Pupa pretoriemis, Melv. & Pong. Ann. Sc Mas?. Nat. Fiist. set. 6, vol. xi. 
(1893) p. 21, pi. iii. fig. 8 ; Sturany, Siidafrik. Moll. p. 71. 

A minute simple-mouthed species, with particularly broid 
apex, much flattened. 

Ilah. Pretoria, Transvaal. 

17. Pupa psichion, M. & P. 

Pupa psicMon, Melv. i^ Pons. Ann. k Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xiv. 
{imi) p. 93, pi. i. fig. 8; Sturany, Siidafrik. Moll. p. 70. 

Slightly more ventricose than the last, which it resembles 
in its simple mouth, untrammelled by any processes whatso- 
ever. The types of both these species are, unfortunately, no 
longer in existence, having baen accidentally broken. 

Hab. Pretoria, Transvaal. 

18. Pupa quantula, M. & P. (PI. II. fig. 19.) 

Pupa quantula, Melv. & Pons. Ann. Si, Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xi. 
(1893) p. 20, pi. iii. fig. 5 ; Sturany, Sudafrik. Moll. p. 70 (1898). 

Hab. Port Elizabeth. 

Evidently a rare species. We refigure it from a drawing by 
Mr. Burnup of a co-type, which gives a better representation 
than did the original figure. The measurements of this 
specimen are : — 

Alt. 1-87 mm.; lat. 4th, 5th, and 6th whorls 0*84, 6th 
whorl to labium 0*9 1. 

19. Pupa sylcesii, M. & P. 
(PI. II. fig. 20 ; var. inconspicua, fig. 21.) 

Pupa si/kesii, Melv. & Pons. Ann. & Mag. Nat. IJist. ser. 6, vol. xi. 

(1893) p. 21, pi. iii. fig. 0, vol. xii. (1893) p. Ill ; Sturany, Sudafrik. 

Moll. p. 70. 
Ihipa inco)ispicua, Burnup, M.S. 

J fab. Griqualand East (c coll. Si/kes). 

Wc refigure this species, the original description and repre- 
.sentation being faulty. The " teeth of the peristome, which 
with difficulty arc distinguished," are found not to have any 
real existence, the mouth of the type having been clogged 
with certain foreign particles. 

Ann. (0 J%. .V. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. i. 6 

82 Messrs. J. C. Melvill and J. H. Ponsonby on 

There can be no doubt that this is identical witli a form of 
which Mr. Burnup had drawn up a description under the 
name inconspicua, and \ve take leave to introduce it here, as 
being more accurate and exliaustive than the original : — 

" Shell very small, rimate, subeylindrical, elongate-oval, 
very thin, subhyaline, shining, brown ; spire slightly convexly 
narrowing upward above the fifth whorl, sutures impressed, 
apex obtuse ; whorls 1^, convex, nearly smooth, faintly 
striate, with very fine microscopic, irregular, transverse 
cuticles, becoming stronger towards the base, last whorl not 
much impressed around the umbilical region ; aperture 
slightly oblique, rounded, nearly I of the altitude of the 
shell ; peristome reflexed, especially at the columellar 
margin, slightly thickened, connected by a thin callus, pale, 
untoothed, straightened near the middle of the labrum ; 
columella arcuate. 

" Alt. 2-05, lat. 0-72 mm. (maj.). 
„ 1-94, „ 0-77 „ (inin.).^ 

" Hah. Dargle, Natal (Miss Livingstoti) ; Grahamstown, 
Cape Colony (Farquhar), 

" A very delicate, minute, and rather characterless shell, 
long and narrow, but varying a good deal in size and propor- 
tions of height to width. It is so thin and transparent that 
in a side light the whole range of the columella can be 

" Its nearest ally among South-African shells appears to be 
P. pentheri, Sturany, whose sculpture is very similar, but in 
form quite distinct, more conical, and with flatter whorls 
and shallower sutures. The rima or umbilical slit is, more- 
over, deeper. 

"It is also comparable with P. h'vingstonce {iota), much 
resembling it in form, though it narrows above more gradu- 
ally. But the comparatively coarser sculpture and more 
angular aperture readily distinguish it." [H. C. B.) 

20. Pupa tahularis, M. & P. (PI. II. fig. 22.) 

Pupa tabularis, Melv. & Pons. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xi. 
(1893) p. 20, pi. iii. fig. 3. 

A new figure is very necessary, the conspicuous parietal 
tooth not having been done justice to. A certain bulimoid 
resemblance exists in the character of the whitish reflexed 
peristome. P. dadion, Bens., is its nearest ally. 

Alt. 3'93 mm. (maj.). 
„ 3-4 „ (min.). 

Hah. Near Cape Town {R. M. Lightfoot). 

the South- African Species and Varieties of Pupa. 83 

§ Vkrtigo, Miill. 

21. Pupa {Vertigo) sinistrorsa, Crav. (PI. 11. fig. 26.) 

Pupa ( Vertigo) sinistrorsa, A. E. Craven, Proc. Zool, Soc. 1880, p. 618, 

pi. Ivii. fig. 8. 
VeHigo thaumasta, Melv. & Pons. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. aer. 6, 

vol. viii. (1891) p. 2-39, vol. ix. (1892) p. 94, pi. vi. fig. 7 ; Sturany, 

Siidafrik. Moll. p. 68. 

AU. 3, lat. li mm. 

Hah. Algoa Bay, &c. ; widely distributed. 

We consider thaumasta and sinistrorsa identical, though 
they are still left separate by Dr. Sturany [I. c. p. 68), who 
also mentions Dr. Penther having collected a form distinct 
from either of these in its tooth-processes, but concerning 
which we know no more at present. 

§§ Fauxultjs, Schaufuss. 

22. Pupa {Fauxulus) capensis (Kurr). 

Ihipa capensis, Kurr, Kiister, Conch.-Cab. p. 10, pi. i, figs. 19, 20. 

Var. kurri (Krauss). 
Pupa ovularis, Kurr, Kiister, Conch.-Cab. p. 10, pi. i. figs. 16-18. 

Var. pottehergensis (Krauss) . 

Pupa pottehergensis, Krauss, Kiister, Conch.-Cab. p, 17, pi. ii. 
figs. 20-22. 

Hah. Cape Colony. 

23. Pupa {Fauxulus) fryana (Bens.). 

Pupafryana, Benson, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, vol. xiii. (1864) 
p. 495. 

Evidently a Fauxulus, being sinistrorse. Discovered at 
Bredasdorp, at the southern siioi-e of Swellendara, by 
Mr. John Fry. Mr. W. H. Benson lays stress upon the 
deep umbilicus, extending to tho summit. We regret not 
having been able to figure this species. 

24. Pupa [Fauxulus) glanvilleana (Ancey). 
(PI. II. fig. 23.) 
Pitpa glanvilleana, Ancey, Le Naturaliste, 1888, p. 200. 

Hah, Cape Colony. 


84 Messrs. J. V. Melvlll and .1. IT. Ponsonby on 

We append a figure of tin's hitherto unfigured specie.-, 
with a copy o£ the original description : — 

" T. ovato-subconoidea, longe rimata sed itoperforata, tenuis, niti- 
dula, albida, pelhicida, sinistroraa. Spira conoideo-subventricosa, 
ambitii convcxa, ad summum parvum obtusiuscula et laevigata. 
Anfr. 8|-8^, regulariter et paulatim lenteque crescentes, vix 
convexiusculi, sutura simplice baud profunda separati, oblique 
arcuatim rcgulariterque striati, ultimus major convexus, attenua- 
tus, antice circa umbilici lociira compresso-carinatus, striis in 
medio anfractus subito abruptis, infra tamen perspicuis, spatio 
mediano angulum exilem mentienti. Apert. recta irregularis, 
valde ringeus, superne ascendens, subrhorabica, albida, lamellis 
obstructa et fere clausa, scilicet — parietali 1 intranti valida : 
palatalibus 4, supera magna prope angulum superum, obliqua et 
a ca>teris lobo iiitus quasi tubulate, extus prominente separata : 
2 et 3 suba^qualibus, infera valida contorta ; columellaribus 3 
validis subaequidistantibus. Perist. incrassato-suboxpansum, 
lamellis marginem attingentibus, margine externo superne lobu- 
lato, postea fere recto, et ante basin leviter angulato, deinde 
iterum recto, basali valde angulato, columellari longo, plane recto : 
margines callo parietali appresso continui. 

"Long. 4, diam. 2, alt. apert. 1| mill. 

" East London (District oriental de la colonic du Cap, 
prbs de la Cafrerie anglaise). 

" (Jette espece, si curieuse par la forme toute particuliere 
de son ouverture extremement grima^ante et resserr^e par de 
nombreux plis, ne pent etre compar^e k aucnne autre espfece 
du Cap. L'esp^ce la plus voisine parait §tre la P.fvyana, 

" La diagnose ci-dessus, oil je me suis efForce de men- 
tionner toutes les particularities de ce joli Papa, me parait 
suffisante pour la connaissance de cette esp^ce, dddi6e h Miss 
M. GlanviUe." [C. F. Ancey.) 

25. Pupa {Fauxulus) mcbeaniana (M. & P.). 

Fauxulus {Amsolo7na) mcbeanianus, Melv. & Pons. Ann. & Mag. Nat. 
Hist. ser. 7, vol. viii. (1901) p. 319, pi. ii. fig. 9. 

Hah. Karkloof Bush, near Pietermaritzburg, Natal (./. 
McBean) . 

26. Pupa [Fauxulus] pamplwrodon , Bens. 
(PI. IL fig. 24.) 

Piipa pamphorodon, W. II. Benson, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, ser, 3, 
vol. xiii. (1864) p. 495. 

Hah. Near Simonstown {E. L. Layard). 

the South- Africati Species and Varieties of Pupa. 85 

Through the kindness of Mr. Edgar Smith we are enabled 
to give a iigure of this species from a specimen in the Nat. 
Hist. Museum. 

27. FujKi (Fau.vulus) pereximia (M. & P.). 
(PI. II. fig. 25.) 

Pupa (Faula) pereximia, Melv. & Pons. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, 
vol. xix. (1697) p. 638, pi. xvii. fig. 3. 

Hah. Buffalo River. 

A beautiful sjjecies, of the same character as P. glanvilleana 
(Aiicey), but larger in all its parts. 

2d). Pupa {Fauxulus) ponsonhyana^ Morelet. 

Pupa ponsonbyana, Murelet, Journ. de Conch, vol. xxxvii. (1889) p. 9, 
pi. i. lig. 6, 

Hah. Port Elizabeth &c. A species of very wide distri- 

This is apparently the type of Ancey's section Anisoloma *. 

We niay add, in conclusion, that we concur with Dr. H. A. 
Pilsbry (Man. Conch, ser. 2, vol. xviii. p. 33(3) in removing 
what he rightly ternis the mouotypie genus Cceliaxis (sp. 
C. layardi, Ad. & Aug. P. Z. S. 1865, p. 54, pi. ii. fig. 1 : 
Hab. Cape Colony) to a place among the Achatinidffi, 
subfam, Coeliaxiiia'j in company with the little-known genera 
Cryptelasmus, Pilsb., from Trinidad, Thoinea, Gir., and 
Pyrgina^ Creef, from I. ISt. Thome, and likewise the Lower 
l^jocene genus lJista;chia, Crosse, irom the Paris basin. 


Plate I. 

Fi(/s. ], 2. Pupa cryptoplax, M. & P. 

Fuj. 3. dadiun, Bens. 

l'i(j. 4. dysoratu, M. & P. 

Fiys. 5, G. , var. intradimtata, Ihirnup, nov. 

Fiy. 7. farquhari, M. iK: P. 

Fiys. 8-lU. (/rifjualandiai, M. & P. 

Fiy. 11. 'iota, M. & P. 

Fiy. 12. , var. livingstonce, Hurnup, nov. 

i'idc .hnwn. clc C-nch. vol. xlix. (li>01) p. 141. 

Messrs. E. W. L. Holt and L. W. Byrne on 

Plate II. 

Fig. 13. Pupa layardi, Bens. 

Figs. 14, 15. noltei, Bttg. 

Fig. 16. ovampoensis, M. & P. 

Figs. 17. 18. perplexa, Burnup, sp. n. 

Fig. 19. quantula, M. & P. 

Fig. 20. st/A-esiV, M. & P. 

Fig. 21. , var. inconspicua, Burnup, nov. 

Fig. 22. tabularis, M. & P. 

Fig. 2.3. {Fauxulus) glanvilleana, Anc. 

i^'^r. 24. ( ) pamphorodon, Bens. 

Fig. 25. ( ) perexiinia, M. & P. 

Fig. 26. ( Vertigo) sinistrorsa, Crav. 

XI. — Neio Deep-sea Fishes from the South-ioest Coast of 
Ireland. By E. W. L. HoLT and L. W. Byrne. 

[Plate III.] 

The fislies described below were taken by Messrs. Farran and 
Kemp in the course of fishery investigations carried out in the 
' Helga ' on behalf of the Fisiieries Branch of the Department 
of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland. All 
occurred in depths of less than 1000 fathoms and, conse- 
quently, within the British and Irish marine area. 

Genus L^MONEMA, Giinther. 

The definition of this genus appears to require revision and 
should read as follows : — 

" Body of moderate length, covered with small scales. 
Fins scaleless, their bases sometimes clothed with loose skin. 
Two dorsal fins and one anal, anterior dorsal with 5 or 6 rays. 
Caudal separated by a short interval from posterior dorsal 
and anal. Ventrals apparently reduced to a single long ray, 
bifid at its extremity; ether r<.ys, if present, minute and 
closely apposed to the large ray. Bands of villiforrn teeth in 
jaws ; a small group of vomerine teeth usually present. 
Chin usually with a small barbel." 

Lcemoyiema seems, as Giinther (1887) has remarked, to 
scarcely deserve generic separation from Phycis. The most 
obvious distinction lies in the first dorsal fin, which in Phycis 
has 8-12 rays and in Lcemonema 5 or 6. The presence or 
absence of a barbel has no necessary generic value in Gadid* j 

new Fishes from the South-west Coast of Ireland. 


for instance, Gadus merlangus always lias a small barbel 
when young, very rarely when adult. Vomerine teeth also 
may disappear with age, as in Gadiculus argenteus. 

Lcemonema latifronSj sp. n.* 

Form rather massive anteriorly, compressed behind the 
shoulders ; body distinctly elevated at the nape, highest at 
origin of second dorsal, and thence tapering to a very slender 
caudal peduncle. Head broad and somewhat depressed, but 
less broad than high, its length about equal to or slightly 
less than greatest height of body and about 4;^^ in total length 
without caudal fin. Snout obtuse in vertical, broadly rounded 

Lcemonema latifrons. X \ ca. 

in horizontal profile, about 1^ times in horizontal dian;eter of 
eye, which is itself contained 3 to 3^ times in length of head 
and is slightly less than the width of the interorbital space. 
Height of caudal peduncle about I. of the horizontal diameter 
of the eye. Barbel minute. Gape rather oblique, angle of 
jaw not extending beyond centre of eye, upper jaw somewhat 
protruding; small teeth in bands in the jaws and in a small 
patch on the vomer. First dorsal, arising about opposite the 

* Absence of material of other Atlantic species of a comparable size 
makes it impossible to construct a useful key to the genus, but the 
following brief notes may be of assistance : — 

In comparison with L, latifruiis : 

L. barbatula, Goode and lioan, has a much smaller head, narrower 
interorbital space, and shorter ventrals ; 

L. globiccps, Gilch., has fewer and much larger scales ; 

Z. iiu'lanurum, Goode and Bean, has a narrower interorbital space, 
Hnialli'r scales, and much longer barbel ; 

L. ruhustiim, Gthr., has fewer tin-rajs, much longer ventrals, and a 
less broadly rounded snout ; 

And L. ynrrvUi (Lowe) has larger and fewer scales and a coujpara- 
tively narrower interorbital space. 

88 Messrs. E. W. L. Holt and L. W. Byrne on 

pectoral, with five rays, the longest about equal to the hori- 
zontal diameter of the eye and half as long as the pectoral. 
Second dorsal and anal respectively with about 67-70 and 
about 59-65 rays, their bases clothed, especially in their 
anterior parts, with loose scaleless skin. Ventrals consisting 
of a single long divided ray, extending to or slightly beyond 
the origin of the anal, and of one or more minute rays closely 
apposed to the long ray. Scales small, at least 140 transverse 
series crossing the lateral line, about 14 or more in a vertical 
series between the first dorsal and the lateral line, about 35 in 
the ventral continuation of the same series. Lateral line in- 
distinct posteriorly ; about 20 modified scales can be detected 
on the anterior five-sixths of the body. 

Coloration apparently uniform dark brown (most of the 
head and body is now scaleless and pale) ; tins blackish 
brown, without perceptible white border. 

Loc. S.R. 489, 4. ix. 07, 51° 35' N., 11° 55' W., 720 fatli. ; 

Two, 137 and 168 mm. 

Dimensions of Type Specimens. 

mm. mm. 

Total length 168 137 

„ „ without caudal fin 151 124 

Length of head 35 29 

„ snout 8 6'o 

Horizontal diameter of eye 11"5 9 

Width of iuterorbital space 13-25 11 

Snout to first dorsal fin 40 34 

,, second dorsal fin 47 41 

„ anus 49 42 

„ anal fin 59 51 

Height of body at commencement of second 

dorsal fin 37 _ 28 

Height of caudal peduncle 3-5 3 

Length of longest rav of first dorsal fin . . 11 '5 11 

, pectoral fi'n 23 16 

„ ventral fin 27+ 25 

Genus Cyttosoma. 

An examination of such examples of Gilchrist's recently 
described species as are in the British Museum and of the 
type of C. heJga', below described, has convinced us that the 
genus Cyttosoma, Gilch. (1904), requires redefinition in such 
manner as to comprehend both that genus as originally 
defined and Neocyttus, Gilch. (1906). While regarding 

new Fishes from the South-west Coast of Ireland, 89 

Boulengei's suggestion (1903) tliat Cyttosoma is merely the 
adult form of Oreosoma, C. & V., as higlilj probable, we 
prefer not to apply the latter name to the genus now under 
consideration until further material is available. 

For present purposes the genus may be defined as follows : — 

Cyttosoma (Gilch.). 

? Oreosoma, C. & V. 

Cyttosoma, Gilch. (1904 & l^QQ),-\-Neocyttus, Gilch. (1906). 

Form compressed and elevated, more or less rhomboidal ; 
body and parts of head covered with moderate or small 
ctenoid scales. Rows of bony scutes or tubercles sometimes * 
present on belly and sides. No bony scutes or tubercles 
along bases of dorsal and anal fins. Dorsal and anal fins 
similar, their spinous and articulated rays continuous but 
separated by notches. Dorsal spines VI-VII, anal III-IV. 
Upper jaw protrusible. Small teeth in the jaws and usually 
on vomer. 

Oreosoma atlanticum , C. & V., is known from two young 
specimens only (the largest G8 mm. long) in which the bony 
tubercles on the sides of the body are relatively enor- 
mous ; there is nothing to definitely connect these with any 
known adult form, but they may, as suggested by Boulenger 
(1903), prove to be the young of some fish closely allied to 
C. verrncosum. 

Of Pseudocyttus maculatus, Gilch. (190G), we have seen no 
specimen, and the figure referred to in the original description 
is as yet unpublished. The species is imperfectly characterized, 
but is stated to have two anal si)ines only and cycloid scales, 
and therefore does not not fall within the definition of 
Cyttosoma above suggested. 

The characters which may prove to be valid for the 
distinction of species of Cyttosoma at all stages are somewhat 
uncertain. No reliance can be placed on the lines of bony 
tubercles which occur in the young of some and, perhaps, of 
all species, since, while in C. verrncosum they persist in large 
examples, they disappear at a comparatively early stage in 
C. hoops and are not present in any of the hitherto observed 
stages of the other species. The scales probably maintain 
tluir number, but it is not improbable that they become 
smootlier with age and their asperities are rather easily 
rubbed off, as, for instance, in the type of C. helga^, of wliicli 

* Probably always in young, but some species are known only from 
speciuieus of a size at which the scutes have ahcadv beiii lost in others. 

90 Messrs. E. W. L. Holt and L. W. Byrne on 

the anterior parts were certainly rougher when first observed 
than at present, after several journeys between Dublin and 
the British Museum. 

The shape of the back, dependent on the degree of eleva- 
tion of the body at the origin of the dorsal fin, will probably 
be a good character in all but the youngest stages, the genus 
being divisible into forms in which the profile between eyes 
and dorsal fin is concave and those in which the profile is 
either straiglit or slightly convex. The pattern of the inter- 
orbital area, depending on the relative form and positions of 
the frontal and prefrontal bones, and the consequent outline 
of the scale-clad area overlying the ethmoid region, probably 
also offers a constant character. 

In the development of the dorsal and anal spines, relative 
to the size of the individual, C. boops is intermediate between 
C. verrucosum and the other species ; but while this character 
has no doubt a constant specific value, its application at 
different phases of growth requires considerable caution, 
because the length of the spines, relative to that of the 
individual and of the longest articulated rays in the same fin, 
no doubt undergoes considerable reduction as the fish increases 
in size. 

So far as our knowledge at present extends, the species of 
Cytiosoma may be distinguished as follows : — 

1. Dorsal spines VI, anal III, all compara- 

tively feeble and (in a specimen 200 mm. 
long -without caudal) much shorter than 
the longest articulated rays. Dorsal profile 
from back of head to origin of dorsal fin 
straight or slightly convex. Tubercles on 
sides of belly persistent at a length of 
200 mm. (without caudal). L. 1. ca. 95 . . 1. C verrucosum, Gilch. 

2. Dorsal spines VI-VII, anal III-IV, one or 

more in each fin thickened and produced. 
Dorsal profile from back of head to origin 
of dorsal fin more or less concave. 

A. Second, third, and fourth dorsal spines 

(in specimens of 95 and 150 mm, without 
caudal) moderately stout and produced, 
but shorter than longest articulated rays 
of same fin, second or third the longest, 
the third but little longer than fourth. 
Tubercles on sides of belly obsolescent 
at 95 mm., absent at 150 mm. L. 1. ca. 
100. A conspicuous horizontal I'idge on 
operculum 2. C. hoops, Gilch. 

B. Second dorsal and first anal spines (in 

specimens of 108 to 200 mm. without 
caudal) much longer and stouter than 
others, and as long as succeeding articu- 
lated rays. {Xeoci/ttus, Gilch.) 

neio Fishes frovi the South-west Coast of Ireland. 91 

i. L. 1. ca. 102. Tnterorbital area over- 
lying ethmoid region and bounded by 
prefrontals and t'rontals, almost rectan- 
gular. No tubercles on belly at [(Gilch.). 
108 mm. (without caudal) 3. C. rhomboidalis 

ii. L. 1. ca. 80- 8o. Interorbital area over- 
lying ethmoid region and bounded by 
prefrontals and frontals, lanceolate. 
No tubercles on belly at 200 mm. 
(without caudal) 4. C. helgcp, sp. n. {infra), 

Cyttosoma helgcf, .sp. n. (PI. III.) 

Head moderately, body greatly elevated and compre.ssed ; 
greatest width in opercular region ; anterior profile from 
above eyes to origin of dorsal fin concave ; bases of dorsal 
and anal fins nearly straight. Length of head without jaws * 
about 3 in total length (witiioiit jaws * and caudal fin), about 
twice in distance from origin of second dorsal spine to origin 
of ventral spine, and about 2i in distance from origin of 
second dorsal spine to origin of first anal spine. Snout 
(without jaws) about twice in horizontal diameter of orbit f 
and nearly 4i times in head (without jaws). Vertical 
diameter of orbit about f of horizontal diameter and about 
equal to width of interorbital space. Caudal peduncle about 
as long as orbit; its length about double its depth and three 
times its width. 

Median area of interorbital space lying between the rather 
broad frontals and prefrontals and bounded posteriorly by 
the frontals, lanceolate, slightly convex, and covered with 
small very rough scales. All the exposed bones of the head 
and gill-cover granular or rugose, with their exposed margins 
finely but bluntly and irregularly denticulated. No distinctly 
projecting ridge on operculum. MuxiUa extending to below 
front of eye, with a central rugose area not extending to its 
edges. ]\routh protrusible, when completely closed projecting 
but little (about ,\ horizontal diameter of eye) beyond pre- 
orbitals. Botli jaws with a few small and obsolescent teeth ; 
vomer toothless. Suborbital wide, its vertical measurement 
below centre of eye about \ vertical diameter of orbit. 

Dorsal fin originating slightly behind vertical from vontrals, 
VII 34 ; the second spine very stout, longitudinally striated, 
and as long as horizontal diameter of eye ; articulated raya 

* It seems best to adopt this standard of length, as the jaws are often 
protruded in preserved specimens and cannot bo closed without risk of 
injury. The front edge of the preorbital is always well defined. 

t The marked bulging of tne eyes in some species of this genus is 
plainly, in part at least, caused by" circumstances attending capture in 
(le(<p water. 

92 Messrs. E. W. L. Holt and L. W. Byrne on 

unbranched. Anal fin originating below fifth spine of dorsal, 
IV * 30 ; its first spine similar in all respects to second dorsal 
spine and its articulated rays unbranched. Pectoral fin 
broadly ovate and as long as eye, with 19 unbranched rays. 
Ventral fins inserted rather close together, each with one 
spine, similar in all respects to second dorsal spine, and 6 f 
branciied rays. Longest articulated rays of dorsal, anal, and 
caudal as long as second dorsal and first anal spines. 

Lateral line with a bold anterior curve passing into the 
straight posterior part witliout any approach to an angle, 
composed of about 82 modified scales, including about 4 which 
overlie the base of the caudal fin, and crossed by about the 
same number of transverse series of scales. About 16 scales 
in a transverse series between the second dorsal spine and the 
highest part of the lateral line and about 18 between the 
bases of pectoral and ventral fins. Scales ctenoid, those on 
the posterior part of the body of moderate size ; nearly 
smooth, with finely denticulate margins, which form a fairly 
regular net-like pattern, the exposed parts of scales being 
much higher than wide ; scales wider on the caudal peduncle, 
where there are 3 above and 3 below the lateral line in a 
lateral view ; a row of somewhat enlarged scales, forming a 
bead-like pattern at the bases of the dorsal and anal fins, the 
number of scales approximately corresponding to the number 
of rays. Scales smaller and crowded on the anterior parts of 
the sides. 

On the upper part of the body in front of the origin of the 
dorsal fin, on the belly and isthmus, and on the scale-clad 
parts of the head, the scales are covered with asperities 
(which are somewhat easily rubbed oflf), and these portions of 
the head and body are consequently much rougher than the 
remainder of the body. There is no trace of any series of 
bony scutes or tubercles. 

Coloration J grey, mouth-parts and gill-membranes bluish 
black; fin-membranes dark purplish brown or black, au.l 
articulated rays dark brownish grey. 

* The fourth ray has been broken and is now a mere stump, but appears 
to have undoubtedly been a spine. 

t The two distal articulated rays orig-inate together and may be fairly 
regarded as either a single bifid or two rays {i. e. either hve or six in all). 
\\e follow what seems to have been the general pi-actice in describing 
allied forms in reckoning them as two rays. 

X " Pale grey, bluish on gastric region, dark bluish grey on caudal, 
dorsal, ventral, and anal. Branchiostegal membrane deep black, showing 
beyond operculum. Iris black, pupil transparent (black), mouth black " 
(Note taken at time of capture by Mr. Kemp). Since its capture the 
specimen has been stained a reddish yellow by the colouring-matter 
extracted from some echinoderms preserved in the same vessel. 


new Fishes from the South-ioest Const of Iraland. 93 

Longtli of specimen 239 mm., 201 mm. without can lal 

Loc. S.E. 487, 3. ix. 07, 51° 36' N., 11° 57' W., 540-G60 
fath.; trawl. 

The above diagnosis is based on a single specimen, which 
has the following dimensions : — 


Total length (with mouth closed) 239 

„ „ without jaws* or caudal fin 198 * 

Length of head without jaws * (55 * 

„ snout „ „ 15 * 

Horizontal diameter of orbit 29 

Vertical „ „ 23 

Interovbital breadth 22 

Vertical liei^ht of body at origin of dorsal .... 131 
Distance from second dorsal to first anal spine . , 148 

Depth of caudal peduncle 15 

Width of head at gill-cover 3o 

„ caudal peduncle 10 

Length of second dorsal spine 81 

„ first anal ,, 31-5 

„ ventral „ 30 


Oneirodes megaceros, sp. n. 

Body ovoid and compressed, covered with smooth skin, its 
greatest height about 1| in total length without caudal fin ; 
belly tumid. Head very large, somewhat compressed, its 
hmgth (to hind edge of gill-opening) about 12 in total length. 
Frontal and mandibular spines well developed ; breadth of 
liead between tips of former about twice and between tips 
of latter about 1^ times in its length ; distance from tip of 
frontal spine to tip of mandibular spine about l.V in length 
of head. Snout blunt, lower jaw slightly projecting, gape 
nearly horizontal. Eyes minute, lying vertically below 
frontal s])ines. Teeth in jaws slender, curved, of unequal 
size, and dejiressible ; a few similar teeth on either side of 
vomer. Caudal peduncle very short, its height about 4 times 
in length of head. D. T, I, 6 ; anterior spine situate far 
forward on head and developed into a tentacle which is longer 
than the head ; second spine vestigial and reduced to a small 
tubercle midway between the anterior spine and the articu- 
lated rays, which are feebly developed and opposite the anal. 
A. 4, feebly developed. The tentacle is jointed at about | of 
the distance from its origin to its tip, which is clavate and 
bears on its upper edge anteriorly a short digitiform limb with 

* To include jaws (with mouth closed) 3 mm. should be added to 
those measurements. 

9-4 Neio Fishes from the South-west Coast of Ireland. 

several short branches ; behind this a tuft of very slender 
filaments, followed by a luminous organ in the form of a 
backwardly directed truncated cone, and posteriorly a rather 
stout filament a little longer than the clavate head of the 
tentacle (the whole apparatus resembling that of 0. esch- 
rtchtii). Pectoral above and in front of gill-opening with 
14 feeble rays, the longest about a quarter as long as the 
head. Caudal with 8 rays, the longest more than half as 
long as head. 

Coloration dense black, fin-membranes and tip of tentacle 
with its appendages colourless. Stalk of tentacle (in present 
condition of specimen and perhaps normally) pale. 

Loc. S.R. 497, 10. ix. 07, 51° 2' N., 11° 36' W., 775-795 
fath. j ooze, trawl. 

Dimensions of Type. 

Total length, including lower jaw aud caudal tin . . 89 

„ without caudal hn 67 

Length of head (tip of snout to hind edge of gill- 
opening) 41 

Tip of snout to base of pectoral fin-rays 36 

„ „ eye (between verticals) ca. 12 

„ „ angle of jaw (between verticals) . . ca. 19 

Horizontal diameter of eye ca. 3 

Breadth between tips of frontal spines 20 

,, „ mandibular spines * 34 

Distance from tip of frontal to tip of mandibular 

spine (actual) 31 

Greatest height (a little anterior to gill-opening) . . 47 
Height of caudal peduncle 10 

It is with some hesitation that we treat our specimen as 
specifically distinct from 0. eschrichtii, Liitk. (1871), which 
is at present known from a single specimen, about 8 inches 
long, taken oflf Greenland. The two species agree in all 
essential particulars, and the only obvious differences lie in 
the lengths of their respective tentacles (that of 0. eschrichtii 
being less than half as long as the head and that of 0. mega- 
ceros longer than the head) and in the reduction of the second 
dorsal spine (which in 0. eschrichtii is as long as the 
tentacle) to a mere vestige in 0. megaceros. It is possible 
that these difi'erences may be of a developmental or sexual 
nature only, as the type of 0. megaceros is less than half the 
length of' that of 0. eschrichtii. We have, however, no 
evidence of any reduction in length of the tentacle of Geratiids 
with growth, and the tentacle of 0. megaceros is actually 
about a third as long again as that of 0. eschrichtii. More- 
over, in the very small known specimens of 0. niger^ Brauer, 

* This dimension can be reduced by slight pressure. 

On a new Genus and Species of Cleiidse. 95 

and 0. fjlomerosus, Alcock, the tentacles are relatively very 
short. The tubercle representing the second dorsal rays in 
0. megaceros is certainly not the result of any recent absorp- 
tion of a large ray. A row of similar tubercles is apparently 
present on tlie fore part of the back of 0. niger, and is shown 
in Brauer's figure but not mentioned in the text. 

To the other species formerly referred to Paroneirodes, 
Alcock (1890), and Dolopichthys, Garman (18i)9), but now 
included by Alcock (1899) and Brauer (1906) in Oneirodes 
(the original definition of which must in consequence be 
modified by omitting all reference to the number and position 
of the dorsal spines), 0. megaceros shows no very close affinity. 


Alcock. (1890.) Cat. Deep-sea Fishes in Indian Museum. 
BouLENQKii. (1903.) C. K. Ac. Sci. cxxxvii. 523. 
Brauer. (1906.) ' Valdivia ' Deep-sea Fishes. 
Garman. (1899.) 'Albatross ' Expedition Fishes. 
Gilchrist. (1904.) Marine Investigations S. Africa, iii. 

. (1906.) Marine Investigations S. Africa, iv. 

GtJNTHER. (1887.) ' Challenger ' Deep-sea Fishes. 
LiJTKEN. (1871.) Overs. K. Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. Forh. 6G. 


Cyttosoma helgce, type, X \ ca., based on a photograph. 

XII. — Description of a new Genus and Species of Cleridse. 
By C. J. Gahan, M.A. 

DiEROPSis, gen. nov. 

Eyes with a deep subtriangular emargination in front, 
from which a line passes backwards almost up to the hind 
border, dividing each eye into two jiarts : a more finely 
facetted upper part and a more coarsely facetted lower part. 
Antenna3 rather short, 11-jointed, the last three joints dilated 
and compressed, forming a somewhat triangular club. 
Labrum distinct, transverse, with a more or less deep sinuate 
emargination in front. Last joint of maxillary and labial 
palpi triangular. Prothorax with a more or less strongly 
developed tubercle at the middle of each side. Elytra elon- 
gate, somewhat parallel-sided, obtusely rounded at the apex. 
Legs moderately stout, subcqual in length in the female, the 
front pair greatly elongated in the male; the hind femora 
much shorter than the abdomen ; tarsi moderately long, with 
the first joint very short, the second a little shorter than the 
two succeeding joints united j the claw-joint rather broad, 

96 On a new Genus and Species o/CleriJae. 

only sliglitly narrowed towards the base, tlie claws simple, 
widely divergent, with a rather distinct setose onychiiini 
showing between them at their base ; the second, third, and 
fourth joints lamellate beneath, the lamellse truncate at the 
apex. Metasternum produced anteriorly about halfway 
between the middle coxae, and furnished on the intercoxal 
process with a more or less prominent tubercle. Fifth ventral 
segment of the abdomen semicircularly emarginate at the 
apex in the male, rounded at the aj^ex in the female. 

Tiie male of this genus is readily distinguishable from 
the female by the very long front legs; the tibial of these 
legs are furnished at the apex on the posterior side with an 
obtuse process, and the tarsi are rather densely fringed on 
each side with long hairs. A sexual difference is also to be 
found in the form of the last joint of the palpi ; in the 
female this joint is short and very broad, in the male more 

The genus is to be placed in the subfamily Olerinse. In 
its general form and in the structure of its antennae it shows 
an affinity with Trichodes, Herbst, but differs from the 
latter by its tuberculate prothorax, the peculiar character of 
its eyes, the somewhat differently formed tarsi, and the 
tuberculated intercoxal process of the mesosternum. 

Dieropsis quadriplagiataj sp. n. 

Nigra, hirta ; prothorace utrinque tuberculo eburneo munito ; 
elytris dense fortiterque punctatis, utrisque fasciis duabus flavo- 
testaceis, ornatis — una prope basin, secuuda angustiore pone 

Long, d 26, lat. 9 mm. ; long. 5 25-30, lat. 8-10 mm. 

Hah. British Central Africa: Kondowe {A. Whyte), 
Niomkolo {A. Carson), and Fwambo (TF. H. Nutt). 

Black ; the head, prothorax, base of elytra, body beneath, 
and legs rather densely covered with long black hairs. Head 
and prothorax thickly punctured, the latter furnished on each 
side with a smooth ivory -yellow tubercle of somewhat 
variable size (in the male type from Kondowe it is scarcely 
prominent, whereas in the female example from Fwambo it 
is quite prominent and in form conical). Elytra very 
closely and strongly punctured, except on the posterior third 
or fourth part; each with two transverse testaceous-yellow 
bands, which extend from the lateral border to within a 
short distance of the suture; tiie anterior band is consider- 
ably the wider of the two, but narrows towards its inner end, 
its hind border being nearly straightly transverse, while the 
anterior border is oblique or slightly curved. 

The Recent Voles of the Microtns nivalis Group. 97 

XII I. — The Recent Voles of the Microtus nivalis Group. 
By Gerrit S. Miller. 

Although probably once more generally distributed, the 
voles of the Microtus nivalis group are at the present day 
rather strictly confined to the mountains of the ]\[editer- 
ranean-Black Sea region. They are known to occur in the 
Pyrenees, Alps, Apennines, Carpathians, and Caucasus*, as 
well as at considerable altitudes in Asia Minor and Palestine ; 
while at only a single locality in Southern France has a 
living species been found in the plains. The supposed 
occurrence of a member of the group in Kashmir t is the 
result of a misdetermination of generic characters J ; and 
there seems to be no sufficient reason to regard Microtus 
strelzoivi, Kashstchenko §, from Central Altai, as anything 
but a somewhat aberrant Alticola. The seven forms repre- 
sented in the collection of the British Museum show that 
the group is sufficiently extensive and well-defined to be 
recognized as a distinct subgenus : — 

Chionomys, subgen. nov. 

1858. Paludicola, Blasius, Saugethiere Deutsclilands, p. 334 (part.). 

Not of Wagler, 1830. 
1847. Pratieola, Fatio, Les Campagnols du Bassin du L^man, p. 34 

(part.). Not of Swainson, 1837. 
1896. Microtus, Miller, North Amer. Fauna, no. 12, p. 62 (part.) 

(July 23, 1890). 

Type species. — Arvicola nivalis, Martins. 

Characters. — Like the subgenus Microtus, but third upper 
molar with only two re-entrant angles on each side, as in 
Arvicola and some forms of Pitymys; skull with broad, 
rather flat, smooth brain-case and wide interorbital region, 
the temporal ridges low and inconspicuous ; posterior ter- 
mination of palate essentially as in Microtus, but with the 
elements usually less well defined. 

« Satunin, Zool. Jabrb. ix. p. 302 (1896). Dagestan. 

t Microtus imitator, JJonhote, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 7th ser. .\v. 
p. 197 (February I90o). 

\ The structure of the palate shows that the animal is an Alticola. 
The teeth are peculiar in their somewhat generalized form, as com- 
pared with those of the previously known members of the genus. 

§ Results of the Altai zoological e.vpeditiou of 1898, p. 50 (Russian 
text), pi. ii. hgs. 2 & 3 (1899) ; Annuaire du Mus. Zool. de I'Acad. Imp. 
des Sci. de St. P^tersbourg, iv. p. 37 (Uussian text), ligs. 2 b Si, '3 b. See 
especially figure of molar teeth in original description, and side view 
of skull in later account (where the species is made type of the new 
subgenus* Plnfycraniuf). 

Ann. d' Mag. A'. Hist. Ser. 8. VoJ.'u 7 

98 ^Ii-. 0. S. Miller on (he 

Key to the Members of the Subgenus Chionomys. 

Pterygoids with inner faces not parallel ; width of 

mesopterj'goid fossa anteriorly much greater 

than distance from edge of fossa to alveolus of 


Ear about 16-5 mm. ; molars with salient angles 

unusually acute, (Northern Asia Minor ; 

Caucasus ?) Microtus pontius. 

Ear about 13'6 mm. ; molars with salient angles 

not unusually acute. (Palestine.) M. hermonis. 

Pterygoids with inner faces parallel (vertical) ; 

width of mesopterygoid fossa anteriorly never 

more than equal to distance from edge of fossa 

to alveolus of m^. (Europe.) 

Hind foot iu adult less than 20 mm. ; back clear 

light grey or with very slight brownish tinge ; 

tail always white M. lebnmii. 

Audital bullse lai-ge and strongly inflated 
(normal) ; back with slight brownish 

tinge. ( Basses- Alpes.) M. I. leucurus. 

Audital bullae small and flattened ; back clear 

light grey. (Gard.) M.J. lebrunii. 

Hind foot in adults 20 mm. or more ; back de- 
cidedly brownish ; tail often not entirely 
Posterior border of palate with median ridge 
sharply defined, its width less than that of 
deep lateral -pit ; back strongly clouded with 

blackish ; tail usually dark above M. ulpius. 

Posterior border of palate with median ridge 
seldom sharply defined, its width always 
at least equal to that of shallow lateral pit ; 
back slightly or not clouded with blackish ; 

tail usually not dark above M. fiivalis. 

Anterior loop of first lower molar with 
postero-external salient angle usually nar- 
row and sharply pointed, never obsolete. 

(Alps.) M. n. nivalis. 

Anterior loop of first lower molar with 
postero-external salient angle usually 
broad and rounded, sometimes obsolete. 
(Pyrenees.) , M. n. aquitanius. 

Microtus nivalis (Martins). 

(Synonymy under subspecies.) 

Geographical distribution. — Pyrenees, Alps (except extreme 
south-western portion), Apennines, and Tyrol. 

Characters. — Size large (hind foot 20 to 22 mm., condylo- 
"basal length of skull in adults 28 to 30-4 mm.). Skull with 
pterygoids vertical, their inner surfaces parallel ; meso- 
pterygoid fossa narrow, its width anteriorly never more 
than equal to distance between fossa and alveolus of third 

Recent Voles of the Microtus nivalis Group. 99 

molar ; posterior border of palate with median ridge usually 
flattened and ill-defined, its width at least equal to that of 
shallow lateral pit. Colour smoke-grey above, strongly 
washed with bister on back, and usually tinged with pale 
buff along sides ; underparts dull white, irregularly clouded 
by the slaty under-colour; feet and tail whitish, the tail 
usually (in about two-thirds of the skins examined) tinged 
with brown above, but apparently never sharply bicolor. 

Microtus nivalis nivalis (Martins). 

1842. Arvicola nivalis, Martins, llevue Zoologique, p. 331. (Faul- 
horn, Switzerland.) 

1843. Arvicola a/pinus, Wagner, Schreb. Saugth., Suppl. iii. p. 570. 
(Andermatt, Switzerland.) 

184.5. Arvicola nivicola, Schinz, Synops. Mamni. ii. p. 236. (Highest 

Swiss Alps; probably near Andermatt.) 
ISoS. Hypudceus petrophilus, Wagner, Mlinch. Gelebrt. Anzeiger, 

p^ 307 (March 28, 1853). (Obersdorf, near Sonthofen, Allgau, 


Type locality. — Faulhorn, Switzerland. 

Geograpliical distribution. — Alps, Apennines, and Tyrol. 
(Probably includes more than one geographical race.) 

Characters. — Anterior loop of tirst lower molar tending 
to assume an arrow-head-like outline, owing partly to the 
general narrowness of the loop, but more especially to the 
form of the postero-external salient angle, which is usually 
narrow and sharply pointed, and rarely if ever * obsolete. 

Remarks. — The form of the anterior loop of the first lower 
molar appears to be characteristic of the Alpine race of 
Microtus nivalis, as the specimens that I have examined 
are immediately recognizable by this character alone. In 
two skulls from the type locality of Hypudceus petrophilus, 
kindly placed at my disposal by Dr. C. I. Forsyth Major, 
and in the single specimen in the British Museum from the 
Apennines t (Mt. Cimone, collected by Dr. jNIajor), this 
loop is of the broadly crescentic form characteristic of the 
Pyrencau race. The Mt. Cimone specimen also appears to 
have the rostrum unusually robust. The material is, how- 
ever, iiisulHcicnt for satisfactorily determining the exact 
status oi' /jetrop/rilus and the Apcnnine animal. 

Microtus nivalis uquitanius^ subsp. n. 
Type. — Young adult male (skin and skull) collected near 

* Never in the material thus far examined. 

t See also the ligures of Apennine specimens published by Ilinton, 
rroc. Geol. Assoc, x.v. pt. 2, pi. i. tigs. 1-4 (1907). 


100 Mr. G. S. Miller o« <Ae 

I'Hospitalet, Arie^^e, France, altituele 4800 feet, August 27, 
1906, by G. S. Miller. Original number 7082. 

Geoprnphical distribution. — Pyrenees ; at present known 
from the eastern half of French side only (Pyrenees Orientalcs, 
Ariege, and Hautes Pyrenees). 

Characters. — Similar to Microtus nivalis nivalis, but 
anterior loop of first lower molar broadly crescentic in 
outline, the posterior external salient angle broad and 
rounded, occasionally obsolete. 

Measurements. — Type: head and body 111 mm. ; tail 59; 
hind foot 21; ear from meatus 16. Skull: condylo-basal 
length 28 ; zygomatic breadth 17"4; interorbital constriction 
4*27 ; occipital breadth 14 ; occipital depth (median) 7'8 ; 
nasal 8-6 ; diastema 9*2 ; mandible 186 ; maxillary tooth- 
row 7*0 : mandibular tooth-row 7"0. 

Remarks. — Among the fourteen skulls examined there is not 
a specimen which shows any near approach to the characters 
of the typical Alpine race. As already pointed out, the form 
of the anterior loop of the first lower molar in the Pyrenean 
animal is essentially duplicated in specimens from Tyrol and 
the Apennines. 

Microtus ulpius, sp. n. 

Ttjpe.— Adult female (skin and skull). B.M. no. 3. 2. 2. 48. 
Collected at altitude of 2000 feet near Hatszeg, Hunyad, 
Eastern Hungary, November 20, 1902, by C. G. Danford. 
Original number 13. 

Geographical distribution. — Known only from the vicinity 
of the type locality, but probably occurring throughout the 
Transylvanian Alps, and perhaps in the true Carpathians 

Characters. — Similar to Microtus nivalis, but colour darker 
and tail usually brown above (often distinctly bicolor 
throughout); posterior border of palate with median ridge 
sharply defined, its width less than that of deep lateral pit ; 
anterior loop of first lower molar as in M. nivalis aquitanius. 

Measurements. — Type : head and body 131 mm. ; tail 58 ; 
hind foot 20; ear 17. Skull: condylo-basal length 30-4; 
zygomatic breadth 18; interorbital constriction 4*4; occi- 
pital breadth 15; occipital depth (median) 7-4; nasal 8-0 ; 
diastema 92; mandible 19"4; maxillary tooth-row 7'2 ; 
mandibular tooth-row 7 0. 

Remarks. — This species is well differentiated from Microtus 
nivalis by the peculiar form of the palate and by the dark 
colour of the upperparts. Among the thirteen skins ex- 
amined all show traces of brown on the upper surface of the 

Recent Fo/e^ r/ Me Mi crol us nivalis Group. 101 

tail, Avhile in seven (including the type) the tail is distinctly 
bicolor throughout. 

Microtus lebrunii (Crespou). 
(Synonymy under subspecies.) 

Geographical distribution. — South-eastern France (Depart- 
ments of Gard and Basses- Alpes). 

Characters. — Like Microtus nivalis, but smaller (hind foot 
less than 20 mm. ; condylo-basal length of skull in adults 
less than 28 ram.) and paler, the tail always pure white 
throughout ; the back a light grey without conspicuous 
brownish suffusion. 

Remarks. — This species, although described more than 
sixty years ago, has remained of very doubtful status until 
within a few months. Mr, Charles Mottaz, of Geneva, 
Switzerland, has recently visited the Departments of Gard 
and Basses-Alpes in the interests of the British Museum, 
and, thanks to his successful work, it is now possible to form 
some definite opinion as to the animaFs relationships. 

Microtus lebrunii lebrunii (Crespon). 

1844. A\_rvicold]lehrunii, Crespon, Fauue M^ridiouale, i. p. 77. 
1857. Arvicola nivalis, b. Arvicola leucurus, Blasius, Saugethiere 
Deutschlands, p. 359 (part.). 

Type localitij. — Neighbourhood of Nimes^ Gard, France. 
Altitude about 550 feet. 

Geographical distribution. — Known only from the type 

Characters. — Back a clear, very pale smoke-grey, without 
evident wash of wood-brown. Skull with audital bullae 
small and flattened, noticeably dill'erent in both form and 
relative size from those of Microtus nivalis ; other cranial 
characters as in M. nivalis, except for the smaller general size 
of the skull; teeth rather smaller than those of J/, nivalis, 
the anterior loop of the first lower molar resembling that of 
M. nivalis aquitanius. 

Measurements. — Adult male, no. 5519 {Mottaz) : head 
and body 122 mm.; tail 66 ; hind foot 18-8; ear 14. Skull: 
condylo-basal length 27-1 (ca.) ; zygomatic breadth 15 (ca.) ; 
interorbital constriction 4-6; occipital deptii (median) 7'4; 
nasal 8 ; diastema 8*2 ; mandible 18 ; maxillary tooth-row 6*4; 
mandibular tooth-row 6*2. 

Remarks. — The typical form of Microtus lebrunii is easily 
recognizable by its small size, pale colour, and flattened 

102 Mr. G. S. Miller on the 

audital bulla}. It is, however, remarkably similar to Microtus 
nivalis, when one considers the peculiarities of its habitat in 
the midst of the vine and olive region of the Mediterranean 

Microtus lebrumi leucurus (Gerbe). 
1852. Arvicola leucurus, Gerbe, Revue Zoologique, 2nd ser. iv. p. 260 

(June 1852). ^, . 

1857. Arvicola nivalis, b, Arvicola leucurus, Blasius, baugethiere 

Deutschlands, p. 359 (part.). 

Ttjjie locality. — Barcelonnette, Basses-Alpes, France. Alti- 
tude about 4000 feet. 

GeograjMcal distribution. — South-western Alps. 

Characters. — Back a pale smoke-grey, slightly but evi- 
dently washed with wood-brown. Skull with audital bullse 
large and well-inflated, essentially as in Microtus nivalis, 
with which the other cranial characters agree. 

Measurements. — Adult female topotype, no. 5623 [Mottaz) : 
head and body 120 mm.; tail 68; hind foot 19; ear 14;8. 
Skull : zygomatic breadth 16 (ca.) ; interorbital constric- 
tion 4*6 ; nasal S'O ; diastema 8-8 ; mandible 18 ; maxillary 
tooth-row 7"0; mandibular tooth-row 6-8. 

Remarks. — The two topotypes secured by Mr. Mottaz 
show that this animal resembles M. lebrunii lebrunii in its 
small size and pale colour, but that the skull remains essen- 
tially as in M. nivalis. The specimens were taken among 
rocks near water in a locality which seemed perfectly 
adapted to the needs of Microtus nivalis. 

Microtus jjontius, sp. u. 

Type.—M\x\i male. B.M. no. 5. 10. 4. 53. Collected at 
altitude of 7000 feet, about 25 miles north of Baibort, 
Turkey in Asia, July 21 , 1905, by R. B. Woosuam. Original 
number 62. Presented by Col. A. C. Bailward. 

Geographical distribution. — The species is known from the 
type locality only. 

Characters. — Size about as in Microtus lebrunii. Skull 
with pterygoids inclined outward, their inner surfaces not 
parallel; mesopterygoid fossa broad, its width anteriorly 
much greater than distance between fossa and alveolus of 
third molar ; posterior border of palate and form of audital 
bullae as in M. nivalis ; general outline of skull rather more 
slender than in the other members of the group ; teeth 
peculiar in the small size and very marked alternation of 
the triangles in the upper molars and the unusual slenderness 

Recent Voles of the Microtus nivalis Group. 103 

and acuteness of all salient angles, though the aetual number 
of elements is in no way abnormal ; anterior loop of first 
lower molar in the single known specimen essentially as in 
M. nivalis aquitunius ; general colour above a pale buffy 
grey, the middle of back rather strongly tinged with dull 
buff; tail and feet dull white. Underparts white, irregularly 
clouded by the slaty under-colour. 

-Measurements. — Head and body 112 mm.; tail 67 ; hind 
foot 19 ; ear 16-5. Skull : condylo-basal length 28-6 ; zygo- 
matic breadth 16 ; interorbital constriction 4--2 ; occipital 
breadth 12-6; occipital depth 7*0; nasal 80; diastema 8'6; 
mandible 18; maxillary tooth-row 6'6; mandibular tooth- 
row 6"4. 

Remarks. — This species, though represented by the type 
specimen only, is strikingly characterized by the peculiarities 
of the mesopterygoid fossa resulting from the unusual tilting 
outward of the pterygoids. The light buffy colour is also 
different from that in any other known form. 

Microtus hermonis, sp. n. 

1884. Arvicola nivalis, Tristram, Survey of Western Palestine, Fauna 
and Flora, p. 13, 

Type.—MuM male (in alcohol). B.M. no. 64 8. 17. 31. 
Collected on Mount Hermon, Palestine, by the Rev. H. B. 

Geographical distribution. — Known from the type locality 

Characters. — Differs from Microtus pontius, its nearest 
geographical ally, in tlie decidedly shorter ear (13"6 mm. 
instead of 16-5 mm.) and the less acute, less strongly alter- 
nating triangles of the upper molars. Distinguishable from 
the European members of the group by the narrower, more 
elongated outline of the third upper molar. Structure of 
palate not known. 

Measurements. — Tail 56 mm,; hind foot 19; car 13"6 ; 
upper tooth-row 6*2. 

Remarks. — Nothing remains of the skull of the type and 
only known specimen except the right upper tooth-row. It 
is therefore impossiljle to decide whether the pterygoids 
resemble those of Microtus pontius or of the Eurojiean mem- 
bers of the subgenus. Ou geographical grounds the former 
seems the more probable, though the latter altciiiative is not 
impossible in view of the general character of the teeth. 

101 Dr. W. B. Bcnluim on an 

XIV. — An Erroneous Kchinodermal Identification. Cor- 
rected by W. B. BenhaM, D.Sc, F.R.S., Otago University, 
New Zealand. 

Nearly thirty years ago, some specimens of a sea-urchin 
were received from Stewart Island, New Zealand, at the 
Otago University Mustum, and were identified by the late 
Capt. Button as "■ Salmacis glohator, Agassiz/' and briefly 
described in the Trans. N. Z. Inst. xi. p. 306. 

I was recently engaged in identifying specimens of 
Echinoderms handed to me by Mr. Edgar Waite, who had 
collected them during an experimental trawling-trip off the 
New Zealand coast, and having read Mr. Farquhar's note in 
the current volume of the 'Transactions N. Z. Institute ' 
(xxxiv. p. 130), wherein he suggests that our " Salmacis " 
may probably belong to Bell's species S. alexandri (P. Z. S. 
1880, p. 431), I proceeded to look into tiie matter, with the 
result that I find that our New Zealand urchin does not 
belong to the genus Salmacis ^ wox t\ en to the family Temno- 
pleurida^, but is a member of the family Echinidse. In fact, 
it is a species of Pseudecfnnvs, ]\Iortensen, 1903, of which 
the genotype is P. albocinclus, Hutton (Cat. Ech. N. Z. 1872), 
which he later regarded as a synonym of Echinus rnagel- 
lanicus, Philippi (Trans. N. Z. Inst. ix. p. 362). 

Although I have not been able to refer to Mortensen's 
work, yet the diagnosis of this given in Bronn's ' Class, und 
Ordn. d. Thier-reichs,' by Otto Haniann, enabled me to 
place it in that genus at once — not only by the arrangement 
of the pores, but also by the character of the '' globiferous 

FseudtcJiimis huttoni^ sp. n. 
(= Salmacis ylobator^ Hutton, non Agassiz.) 

" The test is white with pink tubercles ; the integument 
pale brownish yellow. The spines in the upper portion are 
reddish purple with white tips ; on the lower portion they 
are white, getting yellow towards the base " (Hutt. Tr. xi. 
p. 307). 

The specimens thus briefly described by Hutton are still 
mounted on a tablet and labelled in his handwriting ; they 
are two in number, one with spines, the other denuded. 

The former measures 52 mm. in diameter and 35 mm. in 
height ; the latter 42 and 34 respectively. 

In the latter the interambulacrum at the ambitus measures 

Erroneous Echinodermal Identijication. 105 

18 mm., tlie ambulacrum 9 mm., and tlie poriferous zone 
1'5 mm. The tubercles are nearly all of the same size, and 
arranged in transverse rows occupying the entire widtii of 
the plate, usually a single row in each plate, and are pinkish 
orange in colour. 



Pseudechinus huttoni. 

Fig. 1.— Portions of ambulacrum and interambulacruni, showintr arranpe- 
ment of tubercles at the ambitus (A) and immediately above 
X 2. 

Fig. 2. — An ambulacval and an iuterambulacral plat*, x 4. 

The form is more ov less globular, with a slight tendency 
for the apical region to be subconically elevated; at the same 
time T have specimens which are distinctly depressed, so as 
to be somewhat bun-shaped. 

Inter ambulacrum. — In each plate tlie tubercle situated in 
the middle of the plate is rather larger than the rest, and 
may be termed a primary ; on each side of this are three 
slightly smaller ones, which may be termed secondaries. In 
some instances a fourth secondary occurs near the external 
(ambulacral) margin — so that at the ambitus there are usually 
seven tubercles in a row, less usually eight. 

In about every alternate plate this row is duplicated on 
the ambulacral side of the primary. 

Near the abactinal region the number of tubercles decreases 
rather suddenly : the upper five or six jjlates bearing less than 
seven ; the topmost having only one or two secondaries in 
addition to the primary. 

106 Dr. W. B. Benham on an 

Above the chief row is a short imperfect and irregular row 
of quite small tubercles (tertiaries) — about six at the ambitus 
and below it, irregularly spaced, but rapidly diminishing 
above to three, two, and one. The miliaries are not at all 
well marked and are few in number. 

Ambulacrum. — Each ambulacral plate carries a single 
primary situated immediately within the poriferous zone, 
with two secondaries, of nearly the same size, forming a 
transverse row on its mesial side. Below the ambitus the 
second secondary soon disappears, and close to the actinostome 
only the primary remains. 

Above the ambitus the reduction occurs at about the fifth or 
sixth plate from the abactinal circle, while in the two upper- 
most plates only the primary remains. 

Thus, while the interambulacral tubercles form distinctly 
transverse rows, the ambulacrals form a vertical series, all 
the tubercles being of nearly the same size. 

The poriferous zone is somewhat depressed, and this gives 
the appearance to the narrow ambulacra of being raised 
above the general level of the plates. 

(In a large specimen, 67 x 41 ram., the interambulacra are 
very noticeably swollen, while the ambulacra appear as flat 

As Mortensen's diagnosis of the genus states, each ambu- 
lacral plate bears three couples of pores, which are arranged 
in a slightly zigzag line — the inner pore of the middle 
couple being vertically below the outer pore of the upper 
couple, while the outer pore of the lower couple is vertically 
below the inner pore of the upper couple. 

The spines are short, the longest 5 mm. in length — fine, 
pointed, grooved and coloured as described by Hutton 
(though in other specimens they are uniformly white). 

In the apical ring the oculars are excluded from the peri- 
proct ; the madreporite is prominent; the genital pores large; 
and a row of secondary tubercles occurs near the apical 
margin of each of these plates. 

The actinostome is nearly circular, the notches being very 
slight, wide, and shallow. 

In addition to these two specimens which served for 
Hutton's brief description, and one of which serves as type 
of the new species, I have received several others, the largest 
of which is 70 mm. by 50 mm. Some of them are paler 
than the type, the spines being a dirty white, but all have 
the tubercles pinkish orange. In the larger ones the number 
of tubercles at ambitus is 9-10 in a transverse row, and the 

Erroneous Echinodermal Identification. 107 

difference in size between " primary " and " secondary " is 
scarcely recognizable. 

In others from Cromarty, Preservation Inlet, N.Z., which 
are white, though the size is about the same as the type 
(46x35 mm.), the number of tubercles is less; for in the inter- 
ambulacrum only five tubercles occur in a transverse row, at 
the ambitus, and this soon becomes three above and below ; 
while on the ambulacrals two occur at ambitus, but only one 
over the greater part of test. 

This species is readily distinguished from P. alhocinctus 
by the small size and transverse arrangement of the many 
tubercles on the interambulacral plates, as well as by the 
colour of the test. 

Pseudechinus albocinctus, Hutton. 
I do not know whether P. albocinctus has been described 
in detail by Mortensen. But my specimens, some o£ which 
were labelled by Hutton (as E. magellanicus), agree in general 
with the above, but the tubercles are larger and fewer ; the 
colour of shell purple; the primary more conspicuous than 

Fscudechimis albocinctus. 

Fig. 3. — Portions of ambulacrum aud interambiilacrumattlio ambitus (A) 

and immediately above it. X 2. 
Fig. 4. — An ambulacral and an interambulacral plate, x -J. 

in P. huttoni. The railiaries are larger and more numerous, 
while in the ambulacrum there are only two tubercles at 
ambitus, e^c. 

108 On an Erroneous Echinodermal Identification. 

A specimen labelled by Hutton, denuded of spines, 
measures 34 mm. in diameter, 22 mm. in height. The 
interambulacrum, at the ambitus, measures 12 ram., the 
ambulacrum 8 mm., and the poriferous zone 1*5 mm. 

Button's account of the type in the Colonial Museum, 
Wellington, will be found in ■■ Catalogue of the Echinoderraata 
of New Zealand,' 1872, p. 12. As this publication may not 
be widely accessible 1 quote it : — 

^' Height f of the diameter ; pores forming a rather 
irregular zigzag row of single pairs ; ambulacral plates with 
one primary tubercle ; interambulacral with three on the 
lower half, but near the apex with one central tubercle sur- 
rounded by smaller ones on the edge of the plate ; ambulacra 
narrow ; tubercles moderate ; spines tapering, longitudinally 
grooved; grooves much broader than the ridges. Shell 
brownish purple ; spines reddish purple, broadly tipped with 

" Diameter 1 inch." 

It may be as well to give details of this co-type now before 
me. Each interambulacral plate at the ambitus bears one 
primary, of a diameter nearly equal to the height of the 
plate ; on the mesial side one secondary ; and on the ambu- 
lacral side two secondaries, of about half the size of the 
primary : i. e. four tubercles in a row. Every alternate plate 
bears two horizontal rows of two secondaries on the ambu- 
lacral side of the primary. 

The tertiaries and miliaries are numerous. Above the 
ambitus the secondaries decrease in size and lose the linear 
arrangement, so that near the abactinal ring each plate bears 
only one primary. 

Each ambulacral plate bears one primar}', rather smaller 
than that in the interambulacrum and situate about the 
middle of the plate. On each side a secondary, the mesial 
being the larger ; above the ambitus that on the side of tlie 
poriferous zone becomes much smaller, while the other 
secondary also decreases in size towards abactinal ring, to be 
replaced ultimately by a miliary. The pores are arranged 
much as in F. huttoni. 

I have other specimens of larger size than this, the greatest 
being 50 mm. diameter X 30 mm. high. They all agree 
in colour of test and spines, though the extent of the white 
tip varies, and the colour of the base is rather red than reddish 

The general form is that of a depressed spheroid. 

November 6, 1907. 

On new Fresh icater Fishes from China. 


XV. — Descriptions of Three new Freshwater Fishes from 
China. By C. Tate Regan, M.A. 

[Plate IV.] 
The fishes described below were collected by Dr. Martin 
Kreyenbero;, and have been received from Dr. W. Wolter- 
storff, of Magdeburg. 

Gymnostomus kreyenhergii. (PI. IV. fig. 1.) 
Pharyngeal teeth hooked, slightly compressed, 5, 3, 2 — • 
2, 3, 5. Depth of body 3| in tiie length, length of head 4. 
Breadth of head If to 2 in its length, length of snout 2^ to 
2|, diameter of eye 4 to 5, interorbital width 3 to 3/3. Snout 
not projecting beyond the upper lip. Width of mouth 
slightly more than ^ the width of head ; horny covering of 
the lower jaw with evenly rounded anterior edge; folds of 
the lower lip separated anteriorly by a narrow interspace ; 
4 barbels, the anterior 5 as long as the posterior, wiiicli are 
as long as tlie eye. 41 or 42 scales in a longitudinal series, 
5^ in a transverse series from origin of dorsal to lateral line, 
3^ between lateral line and base of ventral fin. Dorsal III 8, 
not or scarcely higher than long ; origin nearly equidistant 
from tip of snout and base of caudal ; third simple ray not 
enlarged, articulated in its distal half, more or less distinctly 
serrated, especially in the young ; free edge of fin sligiitly 

Heads of Gymnostomus kreyenhergii [a) and G. styani (b), 
seen from below. 

concave. Anal III 5. Pectoral g to ^ the length of head, 
extending f to ^ of the distance from its origin to that of the 
ventral, which is below the second branched ray of the dorsal. 
Caudal forked. Claudal peduncle 1^ as long as deep. 

Olivaceous, silvery below, the edges of the scales darker ; 

no On new Freshwater Fishes from China. 

membrane of dorsal fin dusky. Young with a dark longi- 
tudinal lateral band and 5 dark vertical bars on the back. 

Ilah. Nankancho, near Tinghsiang. 

Two specimens, 90 and IGO ram. in total length. 

I have compared these with the types of G. styani, Blgr. 
{Crossochilus shjani, Bouleng. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1901, i. p. 268, 
pi, xxiii. fig. 1), from Niug Po, three specimens measuring 
100 to 130 ram. in total length. 

In these the anterior edge of the horny sheath of the lower 
jaw is nearly straight, the folds of the lower lip are separated 
anteriorly by a wider interspace, and the mouth is wider, ^ the 
width of the head. Tiie snout is considerably shorter than 
the postorbitai part of the head in G. styani, whereas in 
G. kreyenberyii it is equal to it in length. Other slight 
differences are the somewhat shorter head, shorter pectoral, 
and different coloration of G. styani. 

G. fasciatus, Stdr. (Crossochilus fasciatus, Bteind. 'Denk- 
schr. Ak. Wien, lix. 1892, p. 372, pi, iv. fig. 2), from 
Shanghai, is very similar to C. styani. 

Other Chinese species of Gymnostomus are G. macrolepis, 
Blkr,, from the Yang-tse-kiang, and G. lepturus, Blgr., 
from Hainan ; in these barbels are absent. 

Gohio icolterstorffi. (PI. IV. fig. 2.) 

Pharyngeal teeth compressed, hooked, 5, 3 — 3, 5. Depth 
of body 4i in the length, length of head 41. Snout a little 
shorter than eye, the diameter of which is 24 in the length 
of head ; interorbital width 4^ in the length of head. Mouth 
subterminal^ extending to below the nostrils ; barbel as long 
as the eye. Dorsal II 7 ; origin nearer to tip of snout than 
to base of caudal ; longest ray a little shorter than the head ; 
free edge slightly concave. Anal II 6. Pectoral | the 
length of head ; origin of ventrals a little in advance of the 
middle of the dorsal. 33 scales in a longitudinal series, 3^ 
in a transverse series from origin of dorsal to lateral line, 
2^ between lateral line and base of ventral fin. Brownish ; 
a silvery lateral stripe; upper scales with dark edges; fins 

Hah. Nankanclio, near Tinghsiang. 

A single specimen, 90 mra. in total length. 

This species is nearest to G. nitens, Gthr., from Shanghai, 
in which barbels are absent and the eye is smaller. 

Ghjptosternum sinense. (PI. IV. fig. 3.) 
Depth of body 5^ in the length, length of head 3f. 
Brcadtii of head 1;^ in its length; snout as long as the post- 

On new South- American Reptiles. Ill 

orbital part of head ; interocular width 3 times the diameter 
of eye and twice the distance between the nostrils; maxillary 
barbel extending a little beyond the base of pectoral. Skin 
of head and anterior part of body covered with small 
tubercles. Dorsal I 6 ; spine not serrated, \ the length of 
head ; length of adipose fin l-^- in its distance from the dorsal. 
Anal 12. Pectoral as long as the head, nearly reaching the 
ventral, its spine | as long, and with 8 or U strong serra- 
tions on the inner edge. Caudal deeply notched. Caudal 
jieduncle 2^ as long as deep. Olivaceous ; two broad dark 
brownish transverse bands, one below the dorsal, the other 
below tiie adipose fin ; dorsal with an intramarginal series of 
dark spots ; anal and pectorals with similar but less distinct 
spots; small dark spots on the caudal. 

Hah. Tunting. 

A single specimen, Go mm. in total length. 

This is the first Chinese species of the genus Glypto- 
sterjium to be described. Of the Indian species with \vhich 
1 have compared it, it is nearest to G. botia, Ham. Buch. 


jFk/. 1. Gymnostomiis kreijenberyii. 
Fig. 2. Gobio ivolterstovffi. 
Fig. 3. Glyptosterman sinetise. 

XVI. — Descriptions of new South-American Reptiles. 
J3y (i. A. BouLENGER, F.R.S. 

Lepidohlephavis p>eracca^. 

Upper parts and throat covered with uniform very small 
granules, smallest on the back of the head and on the throat, 
largest on the sr.out*; lower parts and tail covered with 
large, imbricate, cycloid, smooth scales (18 across the middle 
of the body). Rostral and symphysial shields large, the 
former with short median cleft above, the latter with two 
clefts behind ; four upper and three lower labials, first very 
large. Upper eyelid and limbs as in L. festo', Peracca. 
Dark brown above, paler brown beneath, blackish on the 
upper part of the sides ; a whitish streak on each side, from 
the eye to the base of the tail, where it unites with its fellow; 
upper surface of head with dark symmetrical markings. 

* In L. festcp, of wliich one of the types has been entrusted to me for 
comparison by Count Peracca, the largest granules are on the back. The 
specnnen from Cliimbo, N.W. Ecuador (Coll. Rosenberg), in the British 
Museum, di libra in having the dorsal granules unequal in size 

112 Mr. G. A. Bouleng-er on 


Total length 40 

Head 7 

Width of head 4 

Body 16 

Fore limb 7 

Hind limb 9 

Tail 17 

A single specimen of this new species, named in honour of 
tlie founder of the Eublepharid genus Lepidohlepharis, was 
obtained at Los Mangos, S.W. Colombia, altitude 300 m., 
by Mr. M. G. Palmer. 

Anolis palmeri. 

Head twice as long as broad, slightly shorter than the tibia ; 
forehead concave; no frontal ridges; upper head-scales 
small, rugose or feebly keeled ; scales of the supraorbital 
semicircles feebly enlarged, keeled, separated by three or four 
• series of scales ; supraocular scales small, the larger distinctly 
keeled; occipital enlarged, nearly as large as the ear-opening, 
separated from the supraorbital scales by five or six series of 
scales ; canthus rostralis angular, canthal scales five ; loreal 
rows five ; five upper labials to below the centre of the eye ; 
ear-opening moderate, oval. Gular appendage large; gular 
scales small. Body scarcely compressed; no dorso-nuchal 
fold. Scales on the back and sides minute, granular ; ventrals 
much larger, juxtaposed, rather strongly keeled. The 
adpressed hind limb readies between tlie ear and the eye ; 
digital expansions moderate; 16 or 17 lamellse under phalanges 
ii. and iii. of the fourth toe. Tail rounded, covered with 
keeled scales, without enlarged dorsal series. Male with 
enlarged postanal scales. Uniform green above, whitish 

6. $. 

mm. mm. 

Total length 165 167 

Head 14 14 

Width of head 7 7 

Body 38 38 

Fore limb 25 24 

Hind limb 40 40 

Tail 113 115 

Two specimens, male and female, from Los Mangos, S.W. 
Colombia, collected by Mr. M. G. Palmer. 
Resembles A. chloris, Blgr. 

new South. American Rejjtiles. 113 

Anolis scapularis. 

Head not quite as long as broad, slightly shorter than the 
tibia; forehead concave; frontal ridges distinct; the larger 
upper head-scales strongly keeled ; scales of the supraorl)ital 
semicircles enlarged, separated by two series of small scales; 
about twelve enlarged, strongly keeled supraocular scales ; 
occipital large, larger than tiie ear-opening, separated from 
the supraorbital scales by three series of scales ; canthus 
rostralis sharp, canthal scales four ; loreal rows six ; seven 
upper labials to below the centre of the eye ; ear-opening 
moderate, oval. Gular appendage large ; gular scales small. 
Body compressed ; no dorso-nuchal fold. Scales granulai-, 
very minute on the sides, larger and keeled on the vertebral 
region, larger still and smooth on the belly. The adpressed 
hind limb reaches the posterior border of the eye; digital 
expansions moderate; 14 lamellai under phalanges ii. and iii. 
of the fourth toe. Tail slightly compressed, with keeled 
scales, tli,e median dorsal series of which is enlarged. Male 
without enlarged postanal scales. Pale golden, with bright 
yellow gular appendage ; a brown cross-band between the 
eyes, some dark blotches on the back, and an oval blackish 
spot above the insertion of the arm ; tibia with dark and 
light oblique bars. 


Total length 110 

Head 12 

Width of head 7 

Body 31 

Foro limb 18 

Hind limb 31 

Tibia 10 

Tail 77 

A single male specimen from the Province Sara, Eastern 
Bolivia, altitude tJOO metres. From the collection of Mr. J. 

Allied to A. ortonii, Cope. 

Polychrus Uogaster. 

Agrees in most respects with P. marmoratus, L., but ventral 
scales smooth or very faintly keeled. Dorsal scales feebly 
uni-, bi-, or tricarinatc; gular crest very distinct in the male, 
less so in the female. 10 to 12 femoral pores on each side. 
Male green, with a broad reddish-brown vertebral band; 
females olive or reddish brown with angular dark(u- 
on tlu' back ; two black lines from the eye to the neck, 

Ann. d- Miuj. X. Hist. Scr. S. Vol. i. 6 

114 Mr. G. A. Boulenger on 

widening behind, the upper passing above, the lower below 
tl e ear-opening ; a black longitudinal streak on each side of 
the throat. 

S- 2- 

mm. mm. 

Total length 505 520 

Head 31 33 

Width of head 18 20 

Body 104 117 

Fore limb 54 62 

Hind limb 70 78 

Tail 370 370 

Three specimens (male, female, and young) from the 
Province Sara, Eastern Bolivia, altitude 750 metres, collected 
by Mr. J. Steinbach, and two (females) from Cliancamayo, 
Eastern Peru, collected by Mr. C. Schunke. Tlie female 
from Bolivia laid ten white eggs with parciiment-like shell, 
regularly elliptical in shape ; longitudinal diameter 29 mm., 
transverse diameter 14. 

Polychrus acutirostris, Spix, is also represented in 
Mr. Steinbach's collection from the Province Sara. 

Lioph's opisthotcenia. 

Eye moderately large ; snout short. Rostral broader than 
deep, visible from above, internasals broader than long, shorter 
than the prefrontals ; frontal once and two thirds as long as 
broad, longer than its distance from the end of the snout, a 
little shorter than the parietals ; loreal deeper than long; one 
prajocular (exceptionally divided) and two postoculars ; 
temporals 1+2; seven upper labials, third and fourth 
entering the eye ; four lower labials in contact with the 
anterior chin-shields, which are a little shorter than the 
posterior. Scales in 17 rows. Ventrals 149-151 ; anal 
divided ; subcaudals 64-66. Olive above, bluish grey on 
the sides, with or without black and light spots ; a black, 
light-edged lateral streak along the posterior part of the 
body and the tail; upper lip white, edged with a blackish 
line above, which may expand into a nuchal spot ; lower 
parts white. 

Total length 395 mm. ; tail 95. 

Two specimens from Merida, Venezuela, 1600 m.^ from 
Sr- Briceno's collection. 

Atr actus melas. 

Snout pointed. Rostral small, a little broader than deep, 
]ust visible from above ; internasals small, as long as broad ; 
preefrontals longer than broad ; frontal as long as broad, as 

new South- American Reptiles. ]1.) 

long as its distance from the end of the snout, mucli sliorter 
than the paiietaJs ; loreal tliree times as \o\\^ as deep ; no 
praeocuhir ; two postociilars ; temporals 1 + 2; seven upper 
labials, tiiird and fourth entering tjie eye; a sin^^le pair of 
large chin-shields, in contact with the symphysial and, on 
each side, with four lower labials. Scales in 17 rows. 
Ventrals HG ; anal entire; subcaudals 25. Uniform black. 

Total length 235 mm. ; tail 'lb. 

A single female specimen from Los Mangos, S.W. 
Colombia, altitude 300 m,, by Mr. G. Palmer. 

Leptognathus schunkii. 

Body slender, strongly compressed. Eye large. Rostral 
broader than deep, just visible from above ; internasals about 
half as long as the praifrontals ; frontal as long as broad or a 
little broader tiian long, as long as its distance from the end 
of the snout, much shorter than the parietals ; nasal divided; 
loreal as long as deep or a little deeper than long, bordering 
the eye; a ])ra3ocular above the loreal; two or three post- 
oculars; temporals 1 + 2 ; eight or nine upper labials, third, 
fourth, and fifth, or fourth, fifth, and sixth entering the eye; 
first lower labial in contact with its fellow beliind the sym- 
physial ; three pairs of cliin-shields, anterior longer than 
broad. Scales in 15 rows, vertebrals much enlarged but not 
twice as broad as long. Ventrals 177-188; anal entire; 
subcaudals 90-102. Black, witii whitish irregular annul!, 
which may be interrupted on the back and belly; these 
annuli may be speckled with black, and tiie black specks may 
become so crowded on the posterior part of the body as to 
reduce the white annuli to mere outlines; head black above, 
with yellowish spots or dots and a yellowish line across the 
snout ; sides of head yellowish, spotted with black; a whitish 
band dotted with black across the nape. 

Total length 1»20 mm. ; tail 210. 

Three specimens from Chanchamayo, E. Peru, collected by 
Mr. C. Schunke. 

Apparently closely allied to L. boettgeri, Werner, from the 
same locality. 

Mr. Schunke's collection from Chanchamayo also contains 
a snake agreeing in every respect with Tschudi's JAopkis 
tceniiirus, as figured by Jan. This shows that the species 
must be referred to the genus Aporophis, as proposetl by Cope. 
The specimens referred by me to Liopkis hcniuras in the 
'■ British Museum Catalogue of Snakes ' cannot be separitcd 
from L. albiventris, Jan. 


IIG On Tivo new Forms of Vi\\yi\'\o. 

XVIT. — Descriptions of Tioo new Forms of Papillo in the 
Collection of Mr. Grose- Smith. By H. GrOSE-Smith, 
B.A., F.E.S., F.Z.S., &c. 

Papilio pando.vus. 

Male. — Upperside. Black as in P. pandion, Feld., with the 
grey rays on the anterior wings towards the apex less pro- 
nounced. Posterior wings with a lemon-yellow band in place 
of the white band of P. pandion, a Immlar mark of blue 
scales above the anal angle, and indistinct markings of grey 
scales beneath the band between the median nervules. 

Underside. Anterior wings as in P.pandion,hMi the apical 
grey rays rather shorter. Posterior wings with band of 
markings on the disk as in P. pandion, the upper row of 
lunules yellow ; a yellow indistinct bar between the first and 
second median nervules, about halfway between the band 
and the outer margin. 

Expanse of wings 5-^ inches. 

Ilab. Astrolabe Bay, German New Guinea. 

Described from two specimens ; in the posterior wings of 
the second specimen there are no grey scales beneath the band 
on the upperside, and the bar towards the anal angle is 
represented by a minute spot of yellow scales. 

Parnassius nivalis. 

Male. — Upperside. Anterior wings white, devoid of scales 
at the apex and along the outer margin ; a broad irregular 
grey band from a little beyond the middle of the costal 
margin, extending across the wings to a little below the third 
median nervule. Posterior wings with a minute grey spot 
about the middle of the costal margin, a black spot at the 
end of the cell, smaller than in P. nubilosus^ Ohristoph., and 
a grey bar across the wings from the second median nervule, 
where it is narrow, becoming broader on the first median 
nervule and thence to the inner margin ; the base and basal 
portion of the inner margin densely covered with grey scales^ 
but not reaching the grey bar. The veins on both wings 
across the disk are white, the ends of which towards the cell 
and the median nervure are black. 

Underside as above, but all the veins are black. 

Expanse of wings 2f inches. 

Hah. Tsian Shan, Turkestan. 

The specimen was a single one among a large number of 
P. nuhilosus. It appears to be intermediate between 
P. mnemosyne^ Linn., and P. felderiy Brem. 

Oil the Male r^/Dexamine thea, Boech. 117 

XVIII. — ^ome Notes concerning the Male of Dexamiiic thea, 
Boeck. By Alexander Patience. 

Plate v.] 

Family Dexaminidae. 

Genus Dexamine, Leach, 1814. 

Dexamiae thea, A. Boeck. 

1860. Dexamine thea, Boeck, Forhl. ved. de Skand. Natuif., 8 m<^de, 

p. 0.58, ?. (I.) 
I8ti2. Dexamine tcnuicornk (err., non Ainphitho'e tenuicorms, 11. 

JIathke, 1843 !), Bate & Westwood, Brit. Sess. Crust, vol. i. p. 240 f, 

?. (^O 
1870. Dexamine thea, Boeck, Crust. Amplii. bor. et arct. p. 107, 

$• (3-) 
1881. Dexamine chlicho7iijx, Nebeski, Beitriige zur Kenntniss der Am- 

phipoden der Adria, p. 35, fig. 40, d" $ . (a.) 
]88o. Dexamine thea, J. S. Schneider, Eiu Beitrag zur Kenntniss der 

Anipbipodou der arktischen Norwegens, p. 20, t. 2, J . (5.) 

1887. Dexamine dolichomjx, Cheyreux, Assoc. Fran^. pour I'avance. 
des Sciences, p. 2 (separate copy), (5 J. (6.) 

1888. Dexamine dolichonyx, Cbevreux, Bull, de la Soci^td d'^tudea 
sci. de Paris, IP auuee, l"semestre, p. 8 (separate copy), S $• (?•) 

1888. Dexamine then, Robertson, Cat. Amphi. & Iso. of Firth of 

Clyde, Glasgow Nat. Hist. Soc. p. 34 (separate copy), 5 . (8.) 
189."). Dexainine thea, Sars, Crustacea of Norway, -vol. i. p. 168, fig. 1, 

p. 477, 2. (9.) 
1006. Dexamine thea, T. Scott, Crust, of River Forth & Est., Proc. 

Roy. Phys. Soc. Edin. vol. xvi. p. 161, $. (10.) 
1906. Dexamine thea, Stebbing, Das Tierreich, Amphipoda Gamma- 

ridea, p. 516, $. (11.) 

TritcEta gibbosa ( Bate) . — The male of this species which 
has the hand of the first gnatliopod incised on the front 
mavf^in, and is in fact very like the same organ in D. thea (^ , 
has been regarded by northern authors hitherto erroneously 
as the D. ilitlichonyx of Neheski. From the following 
references it Mould seem that Mr. Stehbing first fell into 
the mistake and has hecn followed by others. This male of 
Tritceta gilihusa has been figured by Walker (13) and by 
Sars (15). 

1888. Tritceta i/ibOosa (Bate), c? as =:dolicho7it/x, ^Sebeski, Stebbing, 

Rep. Voy. ' Challenger,' pp. 520, 941, 945. (12.) 
1890. Tritceta dolichamjx, A. O. Walker, Report Higher Crustacea of 

Liverpool I?ay taken in 1889, Trans. Biol. Soc. Liverpool, vol. iv. 

p. 249, pi. 16. figs. 4-6, J . (13.) 
1892. Tritceta ffiljba'<n (liuti?), cJ as = r/o/joAony.r, Nebeski, Robertson, 

2iid Coi/fr. Aniphi. & Iso. of Firth of Clyde, Glas. Nat. Hist. Soc. 

p. 16 (separate copy). (14..) 
18!i5. Tritteta f/ihhdsa (Bate), S «9 = dolichoni/x, Nebeski, G. 0. Sars, 

Ciiist. Norway, vol. i. p. 698, Siipp. pi. viii. iig. 1. (15.) 

]18 l^rr. A. Patience on the 

1895. Trifcsta cjihhosa (Bate), ,5 as = doUchom/.r, Nebeski, A. O. 

Walker, Rev. Amphi. L. M. B. C, p. 306 (separate copy). (i6.) 
1900, Trit(cta (phbosa (Bate), (5" as = dolichotiyx, Nebeski, Stebbing, 

Das Tierreicb, Ampbi. Gam. p. 518. (17.) 
1906. Tritceta gibhosa (Bate), c? as = dulichomjx, Nebeski, Nomian & 

Scott, Crustacea of Devon & Cornwall, p. 77. (18.) 

While examining lately some Amphipoda I had taken in 
the Firth of Clyde last summer I came across some speci- 
mens of Dea-amine thea, Boeck, in which the propodal joint 
of the first gnathopods was peculiarly constructed, having 
a deep sinus on the upper margin, and in this respect 
showing an approach to the structure of the same joint of 
the first gnathopods of the male o£ Tritata gibhosa (Bate). 
This peculiarity I found to obtain in the male sex only. 

Boeck, in his descriptions of the species (i, 3), makes 
no mention of this sexual character, the male evidently not 
having come under his observation. Nebeski (4) seems to 
have been the first to observe the peculiar formation of the 
hand of the first gnathopods in D. thea, but evidently being 
unaware of Boeck's description of this species, he redescribed 
it under the naxwQ oi Dexamine dolichonyx, n.s. The Rev. 
Thos. R. R. Stebbing (12), ha^dng in view the peculiar hand- 
formation of the male of Tritceta gibbosa, assumed that 
Nebeski was in error in referring dolichonyx to the genus 
Dexamine, and remarks : " The deep narrow cavity in the 
back of the hand of the second gnathopod was only found 
in the two male specimens, not in the females. A specimen 
of this curious species, from the Clyde, sent me by Mr. David 
Robertson, of Glasgow^, shows in the perseopods a short hand 
and wrist preceded by a very long joint, which is character- 
istic of Boeck's genus Tritata. The species should, I think, 
be named Tritata dolichonyxy Nebeski's figure, however, 
of the extremity of the second pereeopod (fig. 40) makes it 
clear that he was right in ascribing the species to Dexamine. 
Moreover, a reading of the text "das 2., 3. und 4. Segment 
des Abdomens am dorsalen Hinterrande in einem spitzen 
Zahn ausgezogen,"' which Stebbing himself quotes, puts the 
matter, I think, beyond doubt. The tooth on the Jirst 
segment of the metasome is rarely nearly obsolete, especially 
in the male, and this probably accounts for Nebeski having 
failed to notice it on that segment. 

Mr. Stebbing has as lately as 1906 (17) included '-'Dexamine 
dolichonyx, Nebeski," in his synonymy of Tritceta gibbosa 

Mr. A. O. Walker (13) has also erred in this matter. He 
records " Tritceta dolichonyx, Nebeski,-" from Puffin Island 
and Port Erin, Isle of Man (p. 241), and in a note (p. 249), 

Male 0/ Dcxamine tliea^ BoecJc. 119 

under the headin^jf of *' Tntoita doUchonyx, Nebeski," he 
states : " I have little doubt that this is the adult male of 
T. gibhosa (Bate). Only the males appear to have the 
ciiaracteristic excavation in the anterior edge of the hand of 
the second gnathopods, and both Mr. D. Robertson and 
myself have taken them associated with T. fjibbosa.'' Again, 
he observes in referring to Tritceta gibbosu (Bate) (16) : "It is 
remarkable that the emargination of the propodos of the first 
gnathopod in the adult males of this species, which caused 
Nebeski to make a distinct species of it (T. dolichonyx) — the 
italics are mine, — should have escaped the notice of so many 
carcinologists, including even so careful and accurate an 
observer as Professor G. O. Sars." Sars, in describing 
D. thea in the first part of his great work (9), makes no 
reference to the male sex ; but in his Supplement (15), where 
he describes the male of T. gibbosa (Bate), he evidently 
accepts Walker's view, for he observes: "According to 
Mr. Walker, this j)cculiar sexual character has given rise 
to the establisliment of a spurious species, viz. 7'. dolichonyx 
(Nebeski), which is nothing but the male of T. giUiosa." 

Both Nebeski and Chevreux have made a rather curious 
mistake in observation in ascribing the peculiar formation 
of the hand to the second gnathopods, whereas it really 
occurs in the first. Nebeski (4) says " das breite Handglied 
des zioeiten Gnathopodenpaares beim Mannchen am Ober- 
rande tief ausgebuchtet/' Chevreux (6), in recording 
Z). dolichony,v,'Neh., from the coast of France, observes: "Le 
male se reconnait immediatement a Techancrure si carac- 
teristique du bord antcrieur de la main des pattes de la 
seconde paire" ; and again (7) he says : " Cette forme a peut- 
etre ete quelquefois confondue avec D. thea, Boeck, dont 
elle se rap[>roclie par Tabsence d'une dent an premier article 
des autenncs su|)eiieures. Les males relativement peu 
nombreux se distiiiguent au premier coup d'oeil de ceux de 
I'espece voisine par I'echancrure si caracteristique du bord 
anterieur de la main du deuxihne gnathopod, echancrure qui 
n'existe jjas chcz les femelles. L'espece est bien nettement 
caracterisee pas les dentelures qui bordent les opimcres des 
quatrc premieres paircs." 

Walkci* has made a similar mistake in observation (13),, 
but subsequently (16) he rightly ascribes the peculiar 
formation oP the hand to the liist gnathopods. 

Kolicrtson (14) drew attention to Ncbeski's error in this 
connection, but, curiously enough, he also regarded Ncbeski's 
sj)ccies as identical with the male of T. gihhosa (Bate). He 
remarks : " The (^l\ de spreiiuciis oF T. r/ibbosa agree with. 

120 Mr. A. Patience on the 

Dexamine dolicJwnyx, Nebeski, in having the peculiar iucision 
in the upper or front margin of the hand of one of the 
gnathopods, but according to our experience the peculiarity- 
belongs to the first gnathopods_, not to the second to which 
Nebeski ascribes it.'^ 

Neither Sclincider (5) nor Scott (10) makes any reference 
to the sexual character of the male here referred to, although 
the former has lully described and figured the species. 

In endeavouring to clear up this matter I sent males of 
D. thea to Professor G. O. Sars, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, 
and Canon Norman, and enquired whether they were aware 
of the peculiarity of the incised gnathopod iu that sex, but 
it had not been observed by any of them. Professor Sars, 
however, having examined his specimens, kindly sent me 
the two sexes from Norway, and Canon Norman wrote that 
on examination he now found the characteristic male in his 
collection from several British localities, including the two 
extremes Shetland and Jersey, and also among his last 
Finmarkian gatherings ; and that the male was evidently 
the true Dexamine dolichonyx, as was evident by Nebeski^s 
description of the spines on the metasome and his figure of 
the extremity of the second perseopod ; and therefore those 
English authors who have regarded Nebeski^s species as the 
male of Tritceta yibbosa have been in error. Subsequently 
to this he has informed me that in answer to his request 
M. Chevreux had sent him specimens of what he had called 
J>. dolichonyx, and that these also were the males of Tritceta 
i/ilbosa. A reading of Chevreux's text (7), however, in 
which he says " L^'espece est bien netteraent caracterisee 
2)ar les dente/urcs (pii bordeut les e/Anieres des qiudre premieres 
jjuires" leads one to the belief that he had then under 
examination D. thea, the characters of which he had rightly 
appreciated. Thus all references to Nebeski up to the 
present time, with probably the doubtful exception of 
Chevreux''s, have been erroneous. 

The two genera here under consideration comprise three 
Briti>ih species : Tritata gibbosa (Bate), Dexamine thea, 
Boeck, and D. spinosa (Mont.). The following short 
synoptic table may be useful for the discrimination of these 
genera and species : — • 

iPerfeopods l-o, 4tli joint longer tliau 6tli 
and 6t]i combined I. Tnttbta ijihhosa. 
Peraeopods l-o, 4tli joint shorter than oth 
and 6th combined." — 2, 

iy \ Perfeopod 6, 2nd joint sublinear 2. Dexamine thea. 

' \ Peiseopod 0, 2ud ioint lamiuar .,..,...,, 3, D. sjnnosa. 

Male o/Dexamine tlieu, Boech. 121 

Remarks on the Male of D. thea. 

The body is much more slender than in the female and 
also somewhat more compressed. The eyes are compara- 
tively very slightly larger, the pigment being very dark 
brown with a lighter coating. Both pairs of antennte are 
comparatively more slender and elongated. Antenna 1, 
flagellum 14-1 6- jointed. Antenna 2, ultimate joint of 
peduncle subequal to penultimate^ flagellum slightly longer 
than peduncle and 11-12-jointed. The pro[)odos of the first 
pair of gnathopoda * is peculiarly modified, having on the 
upper margin a somewhat deep sinus. Although somewhat 
resembling the propodos of the first pair of gnathopods of 
the male of Tritata gihhosa (Bate), yet it appears to differ 
in one or two points. The notch in the hand of the last- 
named S2)ecies appears to be deeper, and the upper margin 
is not so much rounded as in D. thea, while the disposition 
of the setse is somewhat different, and these setic are also 
more numerous than in the just-named species. The 3rd to 
5th peraeopods are of similar construction to those we find in 
the female^ although they are not so setous, while the 
uropoda are not so spinous as in the opposite sex. The 
telson is cleft nearly to the base, each half with three lateral 
spines, one subdorsal and one on each finely serrated apex. 

Colour yellowish, semipellucid, mottled with pink and 

Length 2'5 to 3*5 mm. 

The reason why the male had not been previously known 
is probably due to the facts : 1st, that the male is always 
apparently of smaller size than the female, and thus might 
be passed by as younger specimens ; and 2ud, because the 
first gnathopod, when not in use, seems to be habitually 
tucked away among the mouth-organs and is not visible 
without dissection. 

It may be interesting to state that I have taken T. gihhosa 
from the outer integument of Ascidia mentula, O. F. M., 

* IJoLertsou (14) lias drawn attention to the occurrence of tliis notch 
ill the/t »/«/«' of TrH(cia (jihhuMi (Bate). lie ."states: "Moreover it ha^ 
been observed in female specimens, so tliat probably the unnotched form 
of the hand belonjrs to individuals not adults, unless the species //iiit)*vi 
and dolkht'mjx are distinct." Stebbing- (17) observes, "occasionally also 
in $ , perhaps a copulatorv feature." In my invesligations among the 
Clyde Crustacea during the past tAvelve years, I have come across two 
female specimens of this species where the propodos of the first gnatho- 
pods had a slight notch only (I'l. V. iig. yn. 1. $ ), but the hnnd was of 
the normal structure otherwise, and unlike that of the male. 1 have Uut 
come across this pcculiaritv iu tlie female o( Uf.vatiiiiic thea. 

122 Mr. O. Thomas on the 

from Kames Bay, Loch Fyne, 10/25 fathoms. Walker (12) 
also records this species from Puffin Island and Port Erin, 
"encysted in the outer integuments of ascidians.-'^ 

Both T.gibhosa and D. thea are widely distributed through- 
out tlie Clyde sea-area in depths up to 35 fathoms. 

^Yhile preparing this paper, I have been much indebted 
to Canon Norman, F.R.S., who kindly gave me assistance 
and advice and put at my disposal some of the literature on 
the subject, which was not otherwise available to myself. 


C. Ceplialon and anteniipe of male of Dexamine thea, Boeck. 
gn. 1. S • First giiathopod of male of ditto, 

gn. 1*. Part of first giiathopod of male of ditto (greatly enlarged). 
gn. 2. S ■ Second gnathopod of male of ditto. 
gn. 1. 5. Propodal joint of first gnathopod of female of Tritceta 

gibbosa (Bate), showing abnormal structure. 
gn. 1. Tg. Part of first gnathopod of male of T. gibbosa. 
prp. d, 3, 4, 5. 3rd, 4th, and 6th peryeopods of male of Be.icmiine thea, 
ep. 3. J . 3rd epimeral plate of male of ditto. 
rip. 3. J . 3rcl uropod of male of ditto. 
T. Telson of male of ditto. 

XIX. — The Species of the Oenus Dactylopsila. 
By Oldf'ield Thomas. 

A RENEWED examination of the specimens in the British 
Museum hitherto referred to Dactylopsila tnvirgata shows 
that they may be readily separated into three species by the 
coloration of tlie hands and feet, as indicated in the following 
synopsis of the genus : — 

A. Fourth finger rather longer than others. 

a. Hands and feet wholly white. (N.VV, 

New Guinea and neighbouring is- 
lands.) 1. I), trivirgata, Gray. 

b. Hands and feet not wholly white. 

d^. Hands and feet wholly black. (S.E. 

New Guinea.) 2. D. melamptis, sp. n. 

ft-. Metapodials and toes black, fingers 

and a band across ankles white. 

(N. Queensland.) 3. D. picata, sp. u. 

B. Fourth finger enormously longer than 

others 4. D.palpator,^l.-'EdiVf. 

Descriptions of the new Species. 
Dactylopsila melamjnis. 
General characters as in D. trivirgata, but in all the 

Species of the Genus Dactylopsila. 123 

members of this genus there is a certain amount of variation 
in the details of the colour-pattern. Cheeks and upper lips 
varying, either white in continuation of the white belly- 
colour, or black owing to the broadening downwards of tlie 
lateral dark facial stripe. Chin and interramia black, not 
divided mesial ly by a light line. Fore limbs with the dark 
band that runs down from the lateral dorsal line continued 
on to and including the whole of the hands, though there 
may be a few light hairs near the tips of the fingers. Hind 
feet similarly black, except that the tine hairs of the hallux 
are generally light. Tail with or without a white tip. 

Skull apparently quite like that of D. trivirgata, except 
that the muzzle is rather broader and stronger, not so sharply 
and narrowly pointed. 

Dimensions of the type (taken from skin) : — 

Head and body 285 mm. ; tail 3.30 ; hind foot 4.5. 

Skull : upper length 60 ; basal length 54 ; greatest 
breadth 41 ; three anterior molariform teeth 8*9. 

Hah. South-eastern British New Guinea. Type from 
Kokoda, Mambare li., alt. 1000'. Others from Tamata, 
Mambare R. {Stalker) ; Albert Edward Ranges, Central 
B. N. (Jr. (Euhu), and Owgarra, Angabuiiga R. (.1/ee/c). 

Ti/pe. Old female. B.M. no. Collected 12th 
July, 190G, and presented by C A. W. Monckton, Esq. 
Seven specimens examined. 

Dactylopsila picata. 

Most like D. melampus in general characters and skull, 
but the dark patch on the chin and interramia is smaller, and 
the colour of the hands and feet is not so completely black. 
On the fore limb the dark band which runs down its front 
narrows abruptly on the upper side of the wrist, so as to 
leave two white patches on each side of it, then broadens 
again so as to cover the metacarpal region, and then comes 
to an end, leaving the uj)per side of the fingers inconspicu- 
ously whitish. On the hind limb a white baud passes across 
the u|)per side of the tarsus, separating the block of the leg 
from tiiat of the metatarsals, the latter dark patch, however, 
continuing on to the upper surface of the toes, the hallux 
reuuiining, as usual, white. Tail white-tipped in both 

Skull apparently as in D. melampus, or the tooth-row a 
little longer. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in skin) : — 

Head and body 275 mm. ; tail 320 ; hind foot 44. 

124 Bibliographical Notice. 

Skull : upper length 59 ; greatest breadth 42 ; length of 
three anterior molariform teeth 9*6. 

Uah. Cape York, N. Queensland. Type from Port 

Type. Old female. B.M. no. 66. 4. 23. 1. Collected by 
Mr. Coxen. Two specimens examined. 


Wild Life on a Norfolk Estuary. By Arthur H. Patterson. With 
a Pr'efatori/ Note by Her Grace the Duchess of Bedford. 
London : Methuen & Co., 1907. 10s. 6d. net. 

This latest of Mr. Patterson's books is most certainly his best. 
He has, in fact, provided us with a most delightful series of word- 
pictures of scenes a^d men of bygone times, the likes of which we 
shall never see again. 

As a storehouse of facts concerning the bird-life of his district, 
Mr. Patterson's book will long be treasured. His remarks are 
almost entirely confined to observations on that ornithologists' 
paradise, " Breydon Water " — an area, of no inconsiderable size, of 
mud-flats and water, bounded on all sides by " ronds," whereon grow 
coarse grass, sanfoin, " southern-wood," and Michaelmas daisies. 
It is traversed by the river Yare, so that at high tide it becomes 
transformed into a great but shallow lake, and at low water into a 
seiics of more or less extensive mud-islands, whereon, even to-day, 
a rich variety of wading-birds and water-birds generally are 
constantly to be met with. And of these the author may claim to 
possess an almost unique knowledge, for he has haunted this happy 
bunting-ground for years. Happily gifted with very considerable 
powers of observation, infinite patience, and an innate, unfailing 
instinct for selecting the right facts for his chronicles, we may turn 
to his pages confident that much that is new will be found therein, 
though the facts may not be startling in their novelty. 

It has not fallen to the lot of many men during the last thirty 
years or so to watch flocks of Avocets and Spoonbills, yet this 
Mr. Patterson has done, and in leisurely fashion too, on more than 
one occasion, on his beloved Breydon Water. But it is not his 
account of the habits of these rarities — though they were once 
common enough here — that will be treasured so much as bis 
faithful and vivid descriptions of more common frequenters of this 
favoured spot. 

The author, more than once, deplores the thirst for killing which 
possesses the meaner spirits who hunt this water-way. And in 
this we join him, especially in regard to the use of that barbarous 

Geological Society. 125 

and unsportsmanlike weapon, tlie " punt-gun " : on one occasio.i, 
he remarks, no less than 285 Dunlin and 5 "Wigeon fell to one 
shot ! And this in the name of Sport 1 1 

The illustrations, which are numerous, are drawn by the author 
himself, and are really the most admirable and spirited pen-and-ink 
sketches which we have seen for a long time. In a word, this 
is a book to read and a book to keep, W. P. Pyckaft. 



June 19th, 1907.— Aubrey Strahan, Sc.D., F.R.S., Vice-President, 
in the Chair. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. 'The Inferior Oolite and Contiguous Deposits of the Bath- 
Doulting District.' By Linsdall Richardson, F.G.S. 

In this paper a detailed description is given of the Inferior Oolite 
of the country between Doulting and Bath. The beds have been 
studied at ditibrent localities within the area by several geologists, 
but in most cases only the actual facts observable were recorded — 
there was little or no attempt at correlation. Xow it is shown 
that there is within the area no Inferior-Oolite deposit of earlier 
date than the Uj)per Trigoiiia-(}nt — a deposit of Garantiano' 
hemera. In the hills south of the Avon Valley at Bath, and as 
far south as a line drawn east and west through Carnicote, near 
Timsbury, this deposit rests upon the Midford Sands. South of 
this line, and between it and one similarly orientated about half- 
a-mile farther south, it rests upon the local Cephalopod-Bed : here 
of greater antiquity than the ' Sands ' (Midford) ; not younger, as 
in the case of the Cotteswold Cephalopod-Bed. South of the latter 
line, the U])per Trigonia-(^JV\i, often conglomeratic, rests upon the 
non-arenaceous Liassic deposits, until in the more immediate 
neighbourliood of tlie !Mendip Hills it is overstepped by the 
Doulting Stone, which rests directly upon the well-planed, bored, 
and oyster-strewn surface of the Rhtetic White Lias and tlie Car- 
boniferous Limestone. On the south side of the Mendip Hills the 
Upper Trir/onia-Grit comes in again. 

The Fullers' Earth at Midford, at least the lower part, is of 
zif/zat/ hemera. The intervening Inferior Oolite between it and 
the Upi)er Trigonia-Grit may be thus divided, dated, and com- 
pared : — 

126 Geological Society. 

Fullers' Earth {zigzag) . 

r.S ./ r I- ^^^bWy Beds. ^ ,. , . ^ Clypens-Gvit of the 

\ ^%-l II. ^«a6acia-Liniestones. ^ ^'"^^''-^'f.^ff l Mid and North 
Inferior J | « llll. Doulting Stone. J -^--''"■) J Cotteswolds. 

IV. Upper Coral-Bed {TriieUn) 



C =' Coralline Beds' 

(. of Dundry. 

V. Dundry Freestone {Usually absent.) 

VI. Upper Trigonia-Gv'it (GarantiancB). 

In oue appendix Mr. S. S. Buckman indicates the deposits in 
Dorset equivalent to the ahove ; in another the late Mr. J. F. 
Walker and Mr. Ptichardson deal with the Brachiopoda of the 
Fullers' Earth, naming seven new species ; and in a third, 
Mr. Richardson describes a new Amherleya and Sjnrorbis. The 
micro-fauna of the Upper Coral-Bed is dealt with by Mr. C. Upton, 
who obtained from material fui'nished him from Midford and 
Timsbury Sleight most of the micro-brachiopoda such as were 
found by Charles Moore at Dundry Hill. 

2. ' The Inferior Oolite and Contiguous Deposits of the District 
between the Rissingtons and Burford.' By Linsdall Richardson, 

This paper is presented with the preceding, because there are 
several points of similarity between the two districts described. 
Both are near lines of country along which movements of upheaval 
were frequent during the time of formation of the Inferior-Oolite 

In the Bath-Doulting district, above the Upper Trigonia-Gnt 
(which rests upon the Upper Lias) over a restricted area is the 
Dundry Freestone, and over a greater the Upper Coral-Bed. Then 
come the Doulting Beds. The Doulting Beds are equivalent to the 
Cly2:>eus-Gr\t of the district here dealt with : the Bubbly Beds to the 
Rubbly Beds, and the .4na6aHa-Limestones, plus the Doulting Stone, 
to the ' Massive Beds' of the C1ypeus-Gv\t. The basal portion of the 
Fullers' Earth in the neighbourhood of Midford is of ziyzag hemera. 
There is no reason for assigning the thin clay-bed, with its median 
band of Ostrea-acuminata Limestone at Great Rissington, to any 
other hemera. Whatever is the case elsewhere, there is no deposit 
in the Rissington district between the Clypeus-Grit and the 
Fullers' Earth. 

3. ' The Flora of the Inferior Oolite of Brora (Sutherland).' By 
Miss M. C. Stopes, D.Sc, Ph.D., Lecturer in the Victoria Univer- 
sity of Manchester. 

This paper is to place on record the discovery of a bed containing 
impressions of plants, which represent a flora bearing a strong like- 
ness to that of the Inferior Oolite of the Yorkshire coast. Previously, 

Miscella neons. 127 

but one species and a second doubtful one were known from these 
coal-bearing beds. The bed in which the plants were found was a 
thin shale-band cropping out below high-tide level on the coast, about 
1| miles south of Brora. According to Prof. Judd's mapping, this 
reef would come within the boundary of the Lower Oolite, although 
from the more recent Geological-Survey map it appears to come in 
the position of the Middle Oolite. It forms a band 2 or 3 inches 
thick in a barren grey shale, and the impressions are fragmentary 
except in the case of Ginlr/o, some of the leaves of which are 
practically perfect and show the veining of the lamina, and in some 
cases (after suitable treatment) the minute detail of the epidermis. 
Seven species of plants are identified, one of them being new, and 
four other species admitting of generic identification ; and most of 
these species are identical with those obtained from the Inferior 
Oolite of Yorkshire. The minute structure of the leaves of Ginlyo 
is compared with those of G. hiloha, and proves the species to be 
quite distinct. The plants found are those of a land-area, probably 
with firm ground surrounding pools or shallow water, as indicated 
by the fact that Ginl-go and Equisetites are the two commonest 


Altuiii's Squirrel Names. By Gerkit S. Miller. 

Dr. Ernst Harxert has caUed my attention to some overlooked 
names for squirrels proposed more than thirty years ago by Altum, 
in the second edition of the ' Forstzoologie.' The technical account 
of Sciionis vulgaris occupies pages 73-75 of the volume on mammals, 
and, as the typical red German form is considered too well-known 
to need special description, is chiefly concerned with a detailed 
account of the peculiar varieties or special colour-phases of the 
species. Three of these phases occur in Central Germany together 
with the red form, while three others are considered as definite 
geographical subspecies. All are technically named in a short 

fuscoatra, tief castauieubraun [Ilarz, 

niffrescens, die schwiirzlichen in Fichteu- 

reviereu [Schlesieu]. 
brunnea, erdig graubraun (" t/raca, al- 

pina ") [Elsass-Lothringen]. 
quadricolor, dieibenhorster Form [Ibeu- 

horst, Ostprussen]. 
cincrea, die westsibirischeu, hellgrau mit 

rothlicher Uiickoninitte [Kasan]. 
atrocinerea, die tielgriuien ostsibirischeu 

[aussersteu Osten]. 

table on 

page 75 : — 

(a) [Sciurus vulgaris], 




L » J 


[ .. ] 


L »» J 


L » J 

128 ^fisceUaneous. 

The names fuscoatra, nigrescens, hrunnea, r/ro'ca, and alpina (the 
last two cited as a dealer's catalogue names for specimens of 
hrunnea) all refer to the common bright red squirrel of Central 
Europe, which I described, in the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History' for November 1907, as Sciurus vulgaris rittilans. The 
full synonymy of this form, so far as at present known, will be as 
follows : — 

Sciurus vulgaris fuscoater. Ahum. 

1804. Sciurus vulgaris, var. cinerea, Hermauu, Observ. Zool. p. 6o, 

Not Sciurus cinereus^ Linnseus, 1766. 
1876. ^Sciurus vulgaris^ var. fuscoatra, Altiun, Forstzoologie, 2ud eil. 

i. p. 75. 
1876. [^Seiurus vulgaris] var. nigrescens, Altum, Forstzoologie, 2iid ed. 

i. p. 75. 
1876. \^Sciurus vulgaris] var. brunnea, Altum, Forstzoologie, 2ud ed. 

i. p. 75. 
1876. [Sciurus vulgaris] grceea, Altum, Forstzoologie, 2nd ed. i. 

p. 75. 
1876. [Sciurus vulgaris] alpina, Altum, Forstzoologie, 2nd ed. i. p. 75. 

Not Sciurus alpinus, F. Cuvier, 1842. 
1899. Sciurus vulgaris rufus, Barrett- Hamilton, P. Z, S. p. 5. Not of 

Kerr, 1792. 
1907. Sciurus vulgaris rutilans, Miller, Ann, & Mag. Nat. Hist. 7th ser, 

XX. p. 426 (November, 1907). 

The name quadrieolor is based on a peculiar geographical form, 
specimens of which from Poland are in the British Museum 
collection. These have been referred by Mr. Barrett-Hamilton to 
the Sciurus vulgaris varius of Kerr. It seems probable that the 
Polish East Prussian animal may prove to be distinct from true 
varius of Northern Scandinavia, in which event Altum 's name would 
be available for it. 

The name cinerea is antedated by the Sciurus cinereus of Linnaeus 
and the S. vulgaris cinereus of Hermann. It should be placed in 
the synonymy of *S. vulgaris argenteus, Kerr. 

The status" of Altum's atrocinerea cannot be satisfactorily deter- 
mined until the identity of the squirrel whose skins are brought by 
the Siberian fur trade from the " most extreme East " is definitely 
known. This animal has recently * been referred to Sciui-us 
vulgaris calotus (Hodgson), in the synonymy of which atrocinerea 
may for the present remain. 

* Barrett-Hamilton, P. Z. S. 1899, p. 6 ; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat, 
Hist. xix. p. 134 (March 31, 1903). 

hu/.(^ . Mcuj. , Vf,l . Ill St. S. S.Vo/.I. PL I. 



A7,i,A- Ma.l.Nfvt.Hu'^t.^.n. Vrl I. ri.II. 




>J. Green, lich 

1 1 

lIoi.T & BvRNE. Aim. if Maij. Nat. Ilht. S. b. l^ul. I. PL 111. 

AruvAMouf. .Notl. Hist. S. i3 . Vol .1. PL.IV 


Artn.c^ j\fcfxj..Nal.Hist. S.8. Vol. I. Pi . ]] 


I ep.3d 



qrv 7. Tg . 
lex. Patience del 


J.Green hth. 




No. 2. FEBRUARY 190S. 

XX. — Descriptions of Nine Terrestrial Mollusca fi-om 
South Africa. 13y Jaimes Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., 
and John Henry Ponsonby, F.Z.S. Includiruj Anatomi- 
cal Descriptions of Two proposed new Genera (Afrodonta, 
M. & P., and Pelfcatus, G.-A.), by Lt.-Col. H. H. 
Godwin-Austen, F.R.S. 

[Plates VII. & VIIL] 

During the past year a good many interesting forms of 
land-mollusks have been submitted to us by various corre- 
spondents, notably ]\Ir. IT. C, Buriiiip, enabling us to offer a 
further (the twentieth) paper on this extensive and varied 

As might, perhaps, have been expected, a h\v fresh 
Ennece have thus come under our notice, and, amongst the 
Hclicoids, two very extraordinary, though minute species, 
both nearly allied, for which it apiJcars necessary to ])ropound 
a new genus (Afrodonta). Col. II. II. Godwin-Austen, 
F.R.S., with his customary kindness, has examined the 
anatomical details and allowed us to incorporate the results of 
his investigations in the following pages. The family 
Endodontida*, to which they both belong, has not, till now, 
been known in this region, excejiting in the form of the 
simple-mouthed Phasis, Albers, and Trachycystis, Pilsbry. 

Col. Godwin-Austen has likewise requested us to include 
in this paper his description of Pe/tatus, gen. nov., proposed 
for '^ IJelix" hudsoni(v, Benson*, a not uncommon, but 
variable mollusk, with peculiar anatomical organization f. 

* Auu. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, vol. xiii. (18G4) p. -493. 

t Op. at. ser. G, vol. vi. (1890) p. 467. 
Anil, d: Mag. N. I list. Ser. 8, Vol. i. D 

130 Messrs. J. C. Melvill nnd J. II. Ponsouby on 

Ennea darglensis, sp. n. (PI. VII. fig. 1.) 

E. testa parva, rimata, obtusa, cylindrica, pellucida, alba, delicata ; 
anfraetibusad 6, quorum tres apicales fere Iseves, cpeteris longi- 
tudinaliter suboblique tenuistriatis, ad suturas impressis, ventri- 
cosulis ; apertura ovata, fere clausa ; peristomate iucrassato, albo, 
nitido, quatuor plicis dentibusve preedito ; plica parietal! promi- 
mila, acuta, dente labiali bifido, incrassato, basali obtuso ; plica 
columellari sinuosa, duplice, multum intrante. 

Alt. 2-55, diam. 1-20 mm. 

Ilah. Dargle, also Riclimond, Natal {Burnup). 

Framed upon a smaller scale than the variable E. isi- 
jnngoensis, Sturany, which in some points it resembles. The 
columellar plait is, however, more prominent and remarkably 
sinuous, rectangularly projecting below the front margin, 
and the labial tooth more decidedly bifid. The measurements 
of E. isipingoensis average over 3*00 mm. in altitude. 

Ennea kosiensis, sp. n. (PL VII. fig. 2.) 

B. testa cylindrica, breviter rimata, pellucida, l^evissima ; anfractibus 
7, quorum apicalis obtusus, caeteris apud suturas impressis, 
ventricosulis, omnino Itevibus ; apertura ovata ; peristomate albo, 
nitido, dentibus plicisve 4-5 muuito ; plica parietali acinaciformi, 
magna, acuta, intrante ; dentibus labialibus 2, interdum connexis, 
interdum separatis, acutis, quorum superior major, dente basali 
acuto ; plica columellari ommino interna, raammaeformi. 

Alt. 5, diam. 2 mm. 

Hab. Kosi Bay, Zululand (Burnup). 

A very pleasing little species, smooth, as is tlie charac- 
teristic of so many Zululand species, and allied to E. ohovata, 
Pfr., from Natal, from which it differs in some peristomatal 

Ennea vitreola, sp. n. (PL VII. fig. 3.) 

E. testa perminuta, translucida, nitida, tenui, obtuso-ovata ; 
anfractibus 5|, deplanatis, baud multum ad suturas impressis, 
infra, juxta suturas, delicatissime at breviter striatulis, striis 
mox evanidis, aliter imdique laevissimis ; apertura parva, ovato- 
sinuata ; peristomate albo, nitido, quatuor dentibus plicisve 
munito ; plica parietali prominula, magna, intrante ; dente labiali 
biiido, intus marginem extenso, basali obtuso ; plica collumellari 
conspicua, multum intrante. 

Alt. 1-87, diam. 0-94 mm. 

Hah. Hilton Koad, Natal, December 1905 [Burnup). 
A particularly minute Entiea, with a peculiarity of form 
that renders it at once recognizable. It is completely 

"MoVufica from South Africn. 131 

smootli and slihiiiif^j save ibr a slight sutural rim of fine 
strise, wliich soon disappears. For the size of tlie shell, the 
peristomatal processes are unusually well developed. 

On Peltaius, gen. nov. Zonitidarum : Type P. ItuJsoni'ce 
(Benson). Uy Lt.-Ool. H. H. GoDWiN-AuSTEN, F.R.S. 

I have very recently received for examination from 
]yir. John Ponsonby a single minute South-African shell, 
preserved in spirit, and my best thanks are due to him, for it is 
an interesting little endodontine form. This has led me to 
turn again to another larger South- African species he was 
good enough to send me, I am sorry to say, now many years 
back. The animals were not in the very best state for 
dissection, but I made some drawings in the hope of getting 
better material at some time er other. The shells and slides 
were put on one side — in truth, I had been puzzled to know 
in what genus to locate it. I now find, after reference to 
Mr. John Ponsonby, that in * The Check-list of Non- 
Marine Mollusca of South Africa ' it is placed in the genus 
Ilelicarion^ but it cannot be retained there, and had best be 
separated under the generic name of Peltatus, G.-A. 

Pehatus hudsonice (Benson). 

Locality. Neighbourhood of Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony. 
Three specimens {^fr. John Ponsonby). 

Shell (PI. VIII. fig. 1) globose, not umbilicated, thin, 
rather glassy surface, smooth, crossed by transverse lines of 
growth ; no longitudinal striation under high power. Colour 
pale horny ; spire deprcssedly conoid ; apex blunt ; suture 
moderately impressed. Whorls -i, the last much expanded ; 
aperture semioval, oblique; peristome simple, thin; colu- 
mellar margin vertical, neither thickened nor reflected. 

Size: nijijor diam. IH, minor 12, alt. axis 7 mm. Largest 
specimen 1") mm. in major diameter. 

Animal. Has a mucous pore at the extremity of the foot, 
with a long overhanging pointed lobe. The right neck-lobe 
is small, the left narrow in front, widening behind ; there is 
a small tongue-shaped right shell-lobe on the body-side of 
the aperture, and a small left shell-lobe which in the living 
animal evidently extends back over the outer margin of the 

The genitalia (PI. VIII. fig. 1 a). — The penis has a long 
tajjering kale-sac close to the junction of the vas deferens; 

132 Messrs. J. C. Melvill and 3. H. Ponsonby on 

it is bent on itself as extracted and mounted, and contained a 
spermatophore (fig. \h) in a nearly complete stage of formation. 
The spermatheca is rather short with a globular termination. 
There is no amatorial organ. The oviduct is of large tube- 
like form, with a covering very dark in colour, which, under 
high power, has a granulate appearance. The spermatophore 
is very interesting ; it consists of a large sac or capsule set 
on one side with rows, at intervals, of short blunt projections, 
which possibly mature into sharp spines, as in otiier species, 
I show a row of these spinules much enlarged (tig. 1 c). 
Towards the distal end of the kale-sac the capsule decreases 
in diameter and merges into a long tube filling the kale- 
sac [k) up to the extreme end. It maybe compared with the 
spermatophore oi Ariophanta [Xestina) ti-anqueharica, Fabr. 
(Moll. Ind. ii. p. 135, pi. xciv. figs. 5-5 e), also to that of 
Euplecta hinoyaensis, G.-A. (pi. xcvii. figs. Ih, 1 c). 

In the radula (tig. 1 d) the centre and admedian teeth are 
on narrow plates, both have outer basal cusps ; the laterals 
are bicuspid, the inner points the longest, many of these are 
seen to have serrated edges below the outer points. The 
formula is 35 . 17 . 1 . 17 . 35, or 52 . 1 . 52. 

Jaw (fig. 1 e) is concave on the cutting-edge, without any 
central projection. This radula is quite characteristic of the 
family Zonitidse. Comparing the animal with those of 
other genera, I was led at first, by the presence of shell-lobes 
and general form of the teeth of the radula, to consign this 
species to the Macrochlamyin^e, but recent and closer exami- 
nation of the generative organs shows that these differ much 
from what characterizes that subfamily — in fact, they are 
distinct from any I have seen hitherto. 

In three characters certainly, perhaps four — viz. : (1) the 
radula, which has the same formula as Xestina ; (2) the 
short, small spermatheca ; (3) the spermatophore ; (4) the 
presence of a straight cgecum of the retractor muscle of the 
penis (not satisfactorily seen, vide dotted part (r.m.p.) fig. la) , — 
this species approaches the form of similar parts in the sub- 
family Ariophantin«. The absence of the amatorial organ is 
opposed to this. I have never found this organ absent in 
any of the Indian species of the subfamily. However, I can 
point to dissimilarity of a like kind occurring in species of the 
Macrochlamyinse — for instance, in Macrochlamys splendens^ 
prona, cacharica, and hala. The most important character is 
the form of the oviduct and the junction of the vas deferens 
near w^here the albumen-gland would be situated. This 
would indicate an ovoviviparous habit of the animal not met 
xvith in any genus of the above-mentioned subfamilies. TJie 

MoUusca from South Africa. 133 

habit occurs in some geneva of the Zonitidse — such as 
Microcystis, in myops and amhce for instance, — and in a dry 
climate such as South Africa it would very likely be brought 

Although dealing with a single specimen, scanty and poor 
material to go by, there is enough to show it cannot remain 
in Helicarion. The characters now described will be suffi- 
cient to indicate it, and we must wait for further material to 
clear up the doubtful points and what local forms in Sjuth 
Africa approach it. 

ILslicarion vitalis, sp. n. (PI. VI [. fig. 4.) 

H. testa perteaui, vitrea, viride ochracea, rimata, globoso-conica ; 
aufractibus 4|, apice ipso obtuso, cseteris ad suturas impressis, 
ultimo rapido accrescente ; apertura rotundo-luuari ; peristomate 
papyraceo, tenuissirao, apud regionem umbilicarem paullum 
incrassato et reflexo. 

Alt. 12, diam. 15 mm. 

Ilab. Port Shepstone, Natal (Burnup). 

A very beautiful globose, transparent shell, tinted with 
pale ochre, which seems distinct from all the species hitherto 
enumerated from this region. 

Kaliella euconuloides, sp. n. (PI. VJI. figs. 5, 5 a, 5 b.) 

K. testa parva, anguste perforata, delicata, pellucida, cornea, 
nitida, conica ; anfractibus ad 6. apicalibus obtusis, ceeteris 
ventricosulis, ultimo apud peripheriam subangulato, basi convexa ; 
apertura anguste lunari, peristomate tenui, 

Alt. 2' 19, diam. 2-.57 mm. 

Hub. Dargle, Natal {fJ, C. Bumup). 

A shining, snionth, horny, and glassy species, with very 
small and narrowly perforated umbilicus, base convex and 
brilliantly glossy ; the last whorl subangled at the periphery, 
yome resemblance to Euconulus fulvus, Drap., a European 
and British species, exists; but the general form approxi- 
mates rather to Kaliella than Euconulus, conchologically 
speaking only, the animal not having yet been examined, 
though we hope shortly to be able to do so. 

AfkODONTA, genus novum Enddddntidaium. 

Ti'Hta parva, cornea, tenuis, late et profuiido umbilicata, depresso- 
(.onica, vel plaiiorbula ; anfradus 4-5, apud suturas impresei, 
vcntricosi ; apertura lumuis, fauce bi- vcl trihuucUata, lamella 

134 Messrs. J. C. Melvill and J. H. Ponsonby on 

vel plica altera margincm ad medium columellarcm, altera 
basaliter,tertia (in una specie) plica crassiuscula, extensa, interna, 
pone labium contra aperturam extensa. 

Afrodonta hilamellaris, sp. n. (PL VII. fig". 6.) 

A. testa uti supra, conioo-depressa, tenni, cornea, profunde umbili- 
cata, microscopice longitudinaliter striatula ; anfractibus 5, 
vcntricosulis, angustis ; apertura lunari, peristomate tenui, bi- 
lamellata, lamella vel plica altera margiuem apud columellarem 
in medio valde intrautem, altera basali, conspicua, dentiformi. 

Alt. 0-84, diam. 1-48 mm. 

Bab. Dargle, Natal; Edendale Falls, June 29, 1907 
{H. G. Burnuj)). 

Afrodonta trilamellaris, sp. n. (PL VII. figs. 7, 7 a, 7 b.) 

A. testa charact. uti supra, minuta, cornea, late umbilicata, plan- 
orbula ; anfractibus 4|, ventricosulis, undique microscopice longi- 
tudinaliter tenuistriatis ; apertura lunari; peristomate tenui, tribus 
lamellis plicisve prtedito, altera obscura ad basin, interdum 
iucrassata, extensa, interdum dentiformi, altera collumellarem 
apud marginem medium, louge intrante, tertia interna, iucrassata, 
contra aperturam extensa. 

Alt. 0-80, diam. 1-39 mm. 

Bab. Dargle, Natal, January 1907 (B. C. Burnup). 

Two of the most noteworthy discoveries in the South- 
African mollupcan fauna made during recent years, and 
both due to Mr. Burnup, who is much, on this account, to be 
congratulated. Both species are, conchologically, very nearly 
allied, differing only slightly in form and arrangement of 
wliorl. The chief distinction lies in the second species 
described possessing an extra lamella or peristomatal appen- 
dage, internal, extending a little distance behind the outer 
lip, while the basal tooth-like plait is not always distinct (as 
seems to be the case in A. bilamellaris) , though Mr. Burnup, 
who has examined many specimens, is convinced the three 
lamellae are always present, though not always equally 
developed in individual specimens. 

As already mentioned in our prefatory remarks, the new 
genus it has been considered necessary to establish will find 
a place among the Endodontids, a family of Helicoids abun- 
dant in many parts of the world, but hitherto not known to 
occur in South Africa, excepting in the form of the some- 
what solid xercophilous PAasz's, Menke, to which the delicate, 
horny, simple-mouthed Trachi/ci/sti's, Pilsbry, is at present 
considered subgeneric *. We may mention that we recently 
* Man. Couch, ix. p. 37, 

Mollusca from South Africa. 135 

described under tliis latter name, aa Tr. rotula, a very minute 
species, remarkable for a broad spiral groove on the centre 
of the body-whorl. This merits more study, and, though 
not, probably, an A/rodonta, it may have to be removed from 

Notes on the Anatomy of Afrodonta, M. & P. : Type A. bi- 
lamellaris, M. & P. By Lt.-CJol. H. H. Godwin- AusTEN, 
F.R.S. (PI. VIII. figs. 2-2 c.) 

Locality. Edendale Falls, South Africa. 

Animal. The foot of the animal showed no detail on its 
surface ; the extremity was not very pointed, but no gland 
could be made out ; there was indication of a peripodial 
groove close to the edge of the foot. The radula was 
got out complete ; it is 0*43 mm. in length, long and 
narrow. The central teeth are all of the same form and size, 
on quadrangular plates, a central oblong cusp with small 
cusps at the base on either side ; the lateral teeth are on 
narrow oblong plates, with irregular minute cusps, but they 
are so small it was very difficult to see much of their shape. 
The formula is 7 . 9 . 1 . 9 . 7 or 16 . 1 . 16, in 85 rows. The 
jaw was indistinct, and composed of narrow plates set side by 
side. The two otoliths were observed, touching each other. 
The form of the jaw and teeth of the radula recall those of 
genera of the Endodontinaj. 

Trachycystis ordinaria, sj). n. (PI. VII. figs. 8, ^ a, S b.) 

T. testa parva, ovato-conica, profunde et anguete umbilicata, 
riifo-cornea, undique pcriostraco tenui vcstita ; anfractibus 4^, 
apicali nitido, laivi, obtuso, coeteris ad suturas iiupressis, undique 
tcnuissime longitiulinaliter obliquistriatis ; aportura ovato-liinari, 
peristomatc tenui, marginem apud collumcllarcm triangulatim 
paullum extcnso. 

Alt. '2, diani. 3"0o nun. 

I lab. Potchcfrftroom, Transvaal, Nov. 24, PJ06 {Miss 

Only a third of the size of T. simplex *, M. ^t P., but 
agreeing with it in some details. 

Trachycystis rutilans, sp. n. (PI. VII. tigs. 9, 9 a, db.) 

T. testa couico-depressa, parva, late et profunde umbilicata, 
omnino corneo-rutilante ; anfractibus 44, apice ipso mamillato, 
♦ Ann. & Map. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, vM. xii. (lf>0.?) p. fi04, pi. xxxii. 

136 On Mollusca from South Africa. 

obtuso, cseteris multum ad suturas impressis, tiimidulis, irregu- 
lariter sed arete liratis ; apertura ovata, peristomate tenui. 
Alt. 1-53, diam. 2-65 mm. 

Bah. Alexandra Park, Maritzburg, Natal, November 1906 
[H. C. Burnup). 

A small species, with uniform corneous epidermis with 
decidedly ruddy tinge, closely longitudinally Urate, the Mxm 
somewhat irregular. Allied to T. ordinaria (described iu 
this paper), T. iiricostata, laticostata, &c., and also possessing 
some affinity to T. paula, M. & P., described in January 
1907 *, from Johannesburg. From all of these, however, it 
can be differentiated very easily. 


Plate VII. 

Fiff. 1. Ennea darglensis. 

Fiy. 2. kosiensis. 

Fig. 3. vitreola. 

Fig. 4. Helicarion vitalis. 

Fi(js. o, o a, 5 b. Kaliella euconuloides. 

Fig. 6. Afrodonta bilamellaris. 

Figs. 7,1 a, 7 b. Afrodonta trilamellaris. 

Figs. 8, 8 a, 8 b. Trachycystis ordinaria. 

Figs. 9, 9 a, 9 b. rutilans. 

Plate VIII. 
Peltatus Jmdsonice (Bens.). 

Fig. 1. Shell. X 1-4. 

Fig. 1 (I. Genitalia. X 37. 

Fig. 1 b. The kale-sac, with spermatophore forming within it. x 11. 

Fig. 1 c. Spinules, immature 1" x 53. 

Fig. 1 d. Teeth of the radula. X 340. 

Fig. 1 e. Jaw. X 84. 

alg, albumen-gland, position of; ep, epiphallus ; crp, caeeum of 
the retraetor penis ; k, kale-sac ; ov, oviduct ; p, penis ; rmp, re- 
tractor muscle of penis ; sp, spermatheca ; vd, vas deferens. 

Afrodonta bilamellaris^ M. & P. 

Fig. 2. Shell, xl-7 ; basal side, xlO. 

Fig. 2 a. Shell from above with animal, drawn before it was broken to 

extract its radula. 
Mg. 2 b. Teeth of the radula. X about 1000. 
Fiff. 2 c. Jaw. X 167. 

* Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, vol. xix. (1007) p. 99, pi. vi. 
fiff. 11. 

On Mammals from the Batu Islands. 137 

XXI. — On a Collection of Xrammals from the Batu Islands, 
tcest of Sumatra. By MarcUS W. Lyon, Jun., United 
States National Museum. 

I HAVii been asked by the authorities of the British Museum 
to work out and compare with the specimens obtained by 
Dr. Abbott a small series of mammals from tlie Batu Islands, 
which liad been collected by i\Ir. Kannengieter and purchased 
by that Institution. 

Dr. Abbott's specimens from the islands were described 
by Mr. Genit S. Miller, and most of the Kannengieter 
examples are referable to forms named by him. There is, 
however, among them a new species of flying-lemur. 

Sciurus tctericus, Miller. 

Tiie adult female from Tana Massa and the adult male 
simply niHiked " Batu Islands " differ in no respects from 
the original series of Sciurus ictericus, Miller (Smithsonian 
Miscall. Coll. xlv. p. 12, November 6, 1903), the type of 
which came from Tana Bala. 

Ratifa jnniensis, Miller. 

The two brown giant squirrels from Pulo Pini (or Pinie) 
are typical of liafufa piniensis, Miller (Smithsonian Miscell. 
(^oU. xlv. p. 8, November 6, 1903). 

Ratufa massoi, Miller. 

The pair of brown giant squirrels from Tana Massa are 
typical of Ratufa massa', Miller (Smithsonian Miscell. Coll. 
xlv. p. 7, November (5, 1903). 

Ratufa palUata, Miller. 

The three sjjecimens from Tana Massa are not quite 
typical, but too close to be separated satisfactorily. The 
hind feet (with claws 76-81 nnn.) average somewhat smaller 
than they do in li. palliata (see table of measurements, Lyon, 
Proc. U.S. Nat. I\lus. xxxii. p. 445, May 23, 1907), 80-90 mm., 
but have about the same size as they do in A', lanata, Miller 
(Proc. U.S. Nat. ]\lus. xxvi. p. 4^1, February 3, 1903), 
72-79 mm. The skulls of the three Tana Massa specimens 
are a trifle shorter as to total length than skulls of similar 
age from Sumatra. The arrangement of the nasals and the 
prcnu\xillai is not different from that found in Ratufa palliata. 

138 Mr. M. W. Lyon, Jun., on 

Petaurista batuana, Miller. 

The three flying-squirrels, one from Pulo Pini and two 
from Tana Massa, I have identified as Petaurista batuana, 
Miller (Smithsonian Miscell. Coll. xlv. p. 27, November 6, 
1903). There are probably two colour-phases in this species. 
The original series, seven from Tana Bala and one from 
Tana Massa, are all of a ferruginous colour, while the three 
Kannengieter specimens are almost seal-brown in colour, 
similar to specimens in the U.S. National Museum from Java. 
1 can detect no differences between the skulls of individuals 
from the various islands of the Batu group. The original 
series was collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott in February, and 
they are evidently in an unworn pelage. No date appears on 
the Kannengieter labels, but the skins are evidently in an old 
pelage with a new and darker one coming in in places. The 
old pelage, while distinctly redder than the new, in no sense 
approaches the bright and ferruginous tints in Dr. Abbott's 
series of Petaurista batuatm. 

? Arctogalidia inornata, Miller. 

No. 7. 6. 18. 7, a young male from Pulo Pini, probably 
represents a new sj)ecies of Arctoyalidia. The specimen is 
too young to determine definitely its characters and relations. 
In point of colour it is very similar to an adult female para- 
type of Arctogalidia inornata^ Miller (Proc. Washington 
Acad. Sci. iii. p. 131, March 26, 1901), from the Natuna 
Islands (Bunguran), Cat. no. 104S60 U.S. N. M. It differs 
mainly in being less tawny along the sides of neck, in having 
darker ears and feet, and in the possession of three stripes on 
the lower back. Although these stripes are absent on the 
adult female Natuna Arctogalidia, they are present on a very 
young specimen from the Natunas. 

Tupaia cervicalis, Miller. 

The tree-shrew from Tana Massa may be referred to 
Tupaia cervicalis, Miller (Smithsonian Miscell. Coll. xlv. 
p. 59, November 6, 1903), although it is not typical. The 
light colours of the neck are not so pronounced as in the type, 
nor do they extend so far back posteriorly. The sharply 
defined black area of the back, as well as all other points of 
coloration, are practically the same in the type and the 
Kannengieter specimen. The skulls of the two specimens are 
indistinguishable from each other. "Were it not that a name 
has already been given to the tree-shrew from the Batu 


Mammals from the Batu Islands. 139 

Islands, I would hesitate to separate the Tana Massa specimen 
from Tupaia tana. 

Cynocephalus tellom's, sp. n. 

Tf/pe, — Skin and skull of adult female, no. 7. 6. 18. 2, 
British ]\Iuseum. Kannengieter Collection, collected on 
Piilo Telle, Batu Islands, west coast of Sumatra. 

Diagnosi'w characters. — A mediuin-sized flying-lemur, very 
similar to Cipiocephalus tuancus (Miller) (Smithsonian 
Miscell. Coll. xlv. p. 53, November 6, 1903) of the Banjak 
Islands, north-west coast of Sumatra, but with the nasals 
more pinched up inio a ridge. on tlie rostrum and with the 
squamosal root of the zygoma deeper. 

Colour. — The colour of the type and of a paratype. Cat. 
no. 7. G. 18. 3, Brit. Mus., differs in no essential respects 
from that of tlying-lemurs, in the grey pelage phase, from 
the j\Ialay Peninsula. Tiie skin of a male. Cat. no. 7. 6. 18. 4 
Brit. Mus., is very dark and shows no essential differences in 
colour from a paratype. Cat. no. 114376 U.S. N. M., an 
adult male, of Cynocephalus tuancus (Miller) from the Banjak 
Islands. A young male, Reg. no. 7. 6. 18. 5 Brit. Mas., is 
almost uniformly cinnamon-rufous, very light on the under- 
parts, darker about the fore limbs, antebrachial membrane, 
and head ; the usual white flecks are found on the feet and 
legs and a few on the back. 

Skull and teeth. — The skull and teeth of Cynocephalus 
tellonis are very similar to those of C. tuancus, the chief 
difference being that the new form has slightly larger teeth, 
nasals more pinched up into a ridge on top of rostrum, 
squamosal root of zygoma much deeper, 6-7 mm. instead of 
4 mm. in C. tuancus. The mastoid inflation is much less in 
the Batu animal than in the Banjak specimen. The tem- 
poral ridges in the tliree Tello skulls are much more closely 
approximated than they are in the single adult skull from 
Pulo Tuaiigku, although the latter skull, as judged by the 
teeth, is the oldest. There is practically no diflerence in size 
between the skulls of the two sexes in G. tellonis^ the two 
females measuring, greatest length, 70 and 69*3 mm., and 
the male 67 mm. 

Measurciiiciits. — The three adults give the following 
nieasurcments respectively (7. 6. 18. 2, female, type ;, female; and 7.(3.18.4, male): — Hind foot 
(measured from dried skin) 67, 66, 62 mm. ; greatest length 
of skull 69-3, 70, 67 ; zygomatic breadth 44-5, 42-6 (!),44-5 ; 
palatal length 32, 31'8, 32'4 ; width of rostrum at prcmaxillo- 

140 Mr. C. J. Gahan on 

maxillary suture 19"5, 20, 19*5; iiiterorbital constriction 
18*5, 18, 18'2 ; breadth of brain-case above roots of zv^o- 
raata 21-6, 21-6, 21-3; mastoid breadth 29-9, 29-4, 29-8; 
upper tooth-row (all teeth) 34*3, 33' 9, 33. 

Sjjecimens examined. — Four, three adults and one young, 
all trom Pulo Tello. 

Remarhs. — The small size of Cynoceplialus tello7iis at once 
serves to distinguish it from its geographical ally, C. saturatus 
(Miller) (Smithsonian Miscell. Coll. xlv. p. 51, November 6, 
1903), from Tana Bala and Pulo Pinie of the Batu Islands, 
of wliich it is a diminutive and lighter-coloured form. Its 
close resemblance to C. tuancus is probably fortuitous and 
does not indicate a phylogenetic relationship. 

XXII. — Notes on North- American Longicorjiia, with Descrip- 
tions of some 7iew Species. By C. J- Gahan, M.A. 

Among the better known of the North- American Longicornia 
are two species of Clytini, one of which is very injurious to 
the locust-tree (Robinia pseudacacia) and the other just as 
destructive to the hickory (Carya alba &c.). In reference to 
the second of these species, Packard, in his ' Forest Insects ' 
(Fifth Report of the United States Entomological Cora- 
mission, 18i:i0), writes: — "Of the 170 species of insects 
which live at the expense of the hickory, the most annoying 
and common borer is the Cyllene picta, or common hickory 
borer." This species has, however, been wrongly identified 
by American entomologists as the Leptura pictus of Drury. 
It is described below as a new species under the name of 
Cyllene caryce. For many years Leptura pictus, Drury, was 
correctly regarded as a synonym of Leptura robinice, Forst. 
It was only when the hickory borer was discovered to be a 
distinct species from the locust-tree borer {Cyllene robinice) 
and a separate name was required for it that it began to be 
known as Cyllene j^icta, Drury. How the mistake arose of 
giving it this name is difficult to understand, because Drury's 
figure and description are clearly those of the species pre- 
viously described by Forster (the latter, in fact, quotes 
Drury's figure), and Drury distinctly states that he " received 
it from New York, where they are found on the locust-tree." 
The synonymy of Cyllene robinice, the locust-tree borer, is 
as follows : — 

North' American LonQicornia. 141 

Ci/Uene robinue, Forst. 

Leptura rohini<e, Forst. Nov. Sp. Insect, p. 43 (1771). 

Ze;;/?<;rt ;<2r^«s, Drury, Illust. Ex. Insects, i. p. 91, pi. xli. fig. 2 ; ii. 

Index (1773). 
C'allidiumjlexmsum, Fab. Syst. Eut. p. 191 (1775). 

Callidium angulatum, Fab. Syst. Ent. p. 192, wliich was 
added to tlie above synonymy by Olivier (Encycl. Meth. v. 
p. 262), may or may not be identical witli 0. robinue; but I 
have satisfied myself that it is not the species wliich I now 

Cyllene caryce^ sp. n. 

=-CyUene picta, Horn (nee Drury), Tr. Amer. Ent. Soe. viii. p. 134. 
= Clytua pictus, Packard, Guide to the Study of Insects, p. 497, fig. 485 ; 
id. Forest Insects, p. 287, fig. 112. 

Dark brown above, marked with pale yellow or yellowish- 
white pubescent bands — two on the head, four on the pro- 
thorax, and seven on the elytra ; the first thoracic band 
placed at the anterior border and very narrow ; the first and 
second elytral bands almost directly transverse, the third 
W-shapedj the fourth and fifth angulated and interrupted, 
the sixth consisting of a rather strongly arcuated band on 
each elytron, the seventh forming a border to the apex; 
body beneath banded with yellowisli pubescence; metatho- 
racic episterna marked each with two yellow spots, the 
interval between which is of a dark brown colour and as wide 
as or wider than either of the spots; legs reddish ; antenna? 
dark brown, sometimes more or less reddisii in parts. 

cJ . Antennae rather thick, extending past the apex of the 
elytra ; third to sixth joints subdentate posteriorly at the 
apex ; pronotum with a small jiunctate area on each side 
rather close to the anterior border; sides of prothorax very 
finely and densely punctate. 

? . Anteniijc extending to tlie middle of the elytra, not 
quite so thick as in the male. 

Length 10-22, breadth 3-7 mm. 

Hab. N. America. 

Although apparently very common in the United States 
and Canada, this species is not well represented by North- 
American specimens in the British Museum collection, and 
I am at present unable to study the wlade extent of its varia- 
tion. 1 liave selected two specimens ( J& ? ) from Virginia 
as types of the species, and the following variations from the 
type occur : — 

142 Mr. C. J. Giihan on 

Var. a. — Tlie pubescent bands of an asliy white instead of 
a yellow colour. Pronotum of ^ marked anteriorly with a 
small punctate area on each side of the middle line in addition 
to the lateral punctate areas. 

Hah. Texas. 

Var. /3. — Pubescent bands ashy white or pale yellow in 
colour. Pronotum of S marked anteriorly with a median 
subrotundate punctate area, which is joined by means of a 
transverse punctate band with each of the lateral punctate 

Hah. Mexico: Villa Lerdo, Durango {Hoge). 

From C. rohinice, Forst., which they greatly resemble in 
markings, C. cari/ce and its varieties may be distinguished 
by the thicker, longer, and usually darker-coloured antennae, 
by the two widely separated yellowish or whitish spots on 
each of the metathoracic episterna, the limitation of the sexual 
puncturation of the male pronotum to the anterior part, and 
in having the intercoxal 'process of the prosternum nearly 

In C. rohtmcB the antennse are generally reddish brown in 
colour, somewhat slender, as a rule distinctly shorter (never 
longer) than the body in the male ; the yellow pubescence 
forms an almost continuous band on each of the metathoracic 
episterna, when it is broken up into two spots the interval 
between the spots is always narrow ; the intercoxal process 
of the prosternum widens out posteriorly, its sides being 
curved instead of almost parallel. The sexual puncturation 
of the pronotum of the male is much more extensive than in 
C. cart/ce; it covers the greater part of each side, forms 
an anterior transverse band, and two bands running back- 
wards on the disk diverging a little behind and dilating each 
into an oval or rounded spot between the middle and the 
base ; it is similar in character to that occurring in the 
North-American species C. decora, Oliv., and the Brazilian 
C. mellyi, Chevr. 

Ohrium rtifidum (Dej. Cat.), sp. n. 

= Ohrium ruhrum, Leng (nee Newm.), Eiitom. Americana, ii. p. 28 
(188G), i. pi. iii. fig. 6. 

Entirely rufo-testaceous in colour. Eyes large, coarsely 
facetted, emarginate. Prothorax moderately densely punc- 
tate, obtusely tuberculate at the middle of each side. Elytra 
strongly and densely punctured, the punctures less strong 


North' American Longicornia. 143 

and less dense on the apical fourth part. Metathoracic 
episterna marked each with a deep longitudinal groove. 

Lengtl), S J 6-Gi rnin, 

Ilah. North America. 

The Ohriuvi ruhrum of Newman (?jntom. Maj?. v. p. 393, 
1838), with which the above species had been identified by 
Leng, does not belong to the genus Ohrium, but must be 
placed in the genus Batyle as a synonym of B. suturalis, 
Say, Journ. Acad. Phil. iii. p. 411 (1823). 

Leptura zebra, Oliv., whicli is placed in the genus Lej)ticra 
in Ilenshaw's ' List of North-American Coleoptera,' should 
be transferred to the genus Typocerus, Lee, to take the place 
of the name zebratus, Fab. 

Leconte (' New Species of North-American Coleoptera,' 
pt. ii. p. 214) gave the synonymy of this species correctly, 
but unfortunately placed the names in the wrong order of 
priority. The right order is as follows : — 

Typocerus zebra, Oliv. 

Leptura zebra, Oliv. Entom. iv. no. 73, p. 19, pi. iii. fig. 3.3 fl79o). 
Leptura zebratus. Fab. Syst. El. ii. p. 364 (1801). 
Leptura Carolina, Weber, Observ. Entom. p. 91 (1801). 

The genus Metkia, Newm., together with three other 
genera — Idcemea, Horn, Stylo.vus, Lee, and Dysphaga, Lee. 
— constitute the tribe Methiini in the classification of the 
Coleoptera of North America given by Leconte and Horn ; 
and in reference to it the authors write : — " This tribe con- 
tains the lowest organized of the Lamiida? ; undifferentiated 
forms, which exhibit strong relationship to CE'/neand its allies 
among the Cerambycidge." This view as to the position of 
the Methiini, although it received the sanction of Thomson 
and Lacordaire, is, in my opinion, an untenable one ; and 1 
think it well to repeat here my concurrence with the view of 
Professor Lameere, as thus expressed : — " Quant aux 
Lamiides, ils torment uiie unite systematique parfaite, si Ton 
en retire les Auxesides^ et les IMethiides qui n'ont rien de 
commun avec eux " ('' Etude sur la Phylogeiiie des Longi- 
corncs," Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xlv. p. 315, 1901). Tho 
African Auxesides and the American Methiidcs, as I have 
already pointed out (Distant's ' Insccta Transvaaliensia,' 
pt. V. p. 108, 1904), agree completely with the Cerambycid 
group Gemini, and ought to bo incorporated in that group. 
They are quite out of place in tho Lainiidii?, and 1 can find 
no reason for regarding them as transitional groups between 

144 Oh North- American Longicornia. 

the Ceranibycidre and the Lamiidoe. Equally erroneous, in 
my opinion, is the view expressed by Leconte and Horn tiiat 
the Clytini show an affinity with the Lamiidaj. There is a 
resemblance between some Clytini and certain genera of 
Lamiidge, but this is purely the result of convergence of 
characters and has nothing to do with affinity. The verti- 
cality of the front of the head, which is so prominent a 
feature of the Lamiidte, is frequently seen amongst the 
Cerambycidse, but it will be found in the latter that the 
insertion of the mandibles differs from that of the Lamiidse 
in being oblique instead of horizontal. This is readily seen 
by noting the lower margin of the gena, which is in nearly 
all cases strongly oblique in the Cerambycidse and forms a 
more or less acute angle behind the base of the mandible. 

So far as I have been able to discover, there is no existing 
group of Longicorns that can satisfactorily be regarded as 
transitional between the Cerambycidse and the Lamiidse. At 
what point the Lamiidse have emerged, and how exactly 
related to other Longicorns, are questions still awaiting 
solution. In this connexion I should like to call attention to 
the very suggestive characters presented by the North- 
American genus Atimia, Hald. This genus has a strongly 
marked Lamiide facies, but, on the other hand, its characters 
are such that Leconte and Horn unhesitatingly placed it in 
the Cerambycidse, in juxtaposition with their Lepturoid series 
of that family. 'J'heir view of its position I find confirmed 
by an examination of its wing- venation. This is of an 
essentially Lepturine type, very much resembling that of 
Oxymirus, Toxolus, and Rhagium. In opposition to the 
views of my friend Prof. Lameere, I have long been of 
opinion that amongst existing Longicorns the Lepturinse, 
especially those of the Toxotus group, come nearest to the 
ancestral form. That form was probably, though not neces- 
sarily, provided, like the present-day Prioninaj, with a sharp 
lateral margin to the prothorax. Such a form would differ 
but slightly in facies and structural characters from the 
ancestor of the Chrysomelidse. No genus of the latter family 
known to me shows any resemblance to Parandray the genus 
which Prof. Lameere regards as the prototy[)e of the Longi- 
corns ; but it is only fair to state that Mgsleria and Anoplo- 
derina^ which he derives almost directly from Parandra^ do 
somewhat in facies resemble some of the more primitive 
Chrysomelidse. Mysteria especially has a facies which 
would agree well with that of my suggested Lepturo-Prionine 
prototype; but the reduced wing-venation, the fusion of 
the labrum with the clypeus, and the broad mentum and 

On the Genera of Stephrinoceras and Allies. 145 

submcntura covering over the base of the maxillie show that 
Mysteria is in some respects a very specialized genus and 
cannot be considered as ancestral. 

One of the chief obstacles to my view of the matter has 
been the difficulty hitherto of showing how such forms as 
the Lamiida3 could be derived from Lepturoid ancestors. 
This difficulty is to a great extent removed when we see a 
genus like Atimia, which admittedly is closely related to the 
Lepturinse, presenting so striking a resemblance in general 
form to the LamiidfB. 

The genus Tenthras, associated with Atimia both by 
Thomson and Lacordaire, is actually a Lamiid referable to 
the group Acanthocinides. 

Cerambyx notatus, Drary, Illustrations of Exotic Insects, ii. 
p. 64, pi. XXXV. fig. 2, and Index (1773). 

This species is omitted from the Catalogue of Gemminger 
and Harold, and appears to have escaped the notice of North- 
American entomologists. Drury's figure and description of 
it are so good as to leave no room to doubt that it is a North- 
American species of MonohaminuSj identical with ^1/. confusoVj 
Kirby. The latter name, being much later in date, must go 
as a synonym. 

XXIII. — The Genera of Stephanoceras and Allies. 
By S. S. BucKMAN, F.G.S. 

Dr. Erich Mascke has lately published at Gottingen his 
" Inaugural Dissertation " under the title of " Die Stephano- 
ceras- Verwandten in den Coronatenschichten von Nord- 
deutschland." This ])aper shows great promise, and the 
very comprehensive work on the subject which is to follow 
will be awaited with much interest. The following abstract 
of and notes on the palaiontological portion of his paper will, 
it is hoped, bo of service. 

Family Otoitidae, I\lascke. 
Gcuus Otoites, Mascke. 

" Type, Am. sauzei, d'Orb." 
17 species, of which 15 are new. 
Ann. ib May. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. i. 10 

146 Mr. S. S. Buckraan on the 

Genus Epalxites, Mascke. 

" Type, A7n. contractus anceps, Qu." 
5 species, of wliich 4 are new. 

Genus Metaxytes, Mascke. 

" Type, Met. intermedms, n. f ." 

18 species, of which all are new. 

Depressed, strong-ribbed Stephanoceratoids, with ears. 

Genus NORMANNITES, Mun.-Chulm. 

" Type, Am. braikenridgu, Sow." 

54 species, of which all but 2 are new. 

In placing Am. hraikenridgii, Sow., as tlie type of this 
genus Mascke has disregarded Munier-Chalmas. That 
author {' Compte-rend. Soc. Geol. France, 1892, xiv. p. clxxii) 
specially mentioned Am. hraikenridgii, d'Orb. The differ- 
ence is very important, for Dundry, which is the type- 
locality of A. hraikenridgii, Sow., possesses no strata at all 
which could yield Ain. hraikenridgii, d'Orb. Tlie Am. 
hraikenridgii, Sow., is from the sauzei-zowQ, and its lappets, 
being lateral, not latero-peripheral, indicate a species of the 
saiizei group ; it belongs, therefore, to the genus Otoites, 
Mascke. There is indirect evidence for this conclusion — the 
specimens in the Bristol Museum labelled Am. hraikenridgii 
were the species M'hich has of late years been termed 
A. sauzei, d'Orb. It seems desirable that the confusion 
between the Sowerbyan and d'Orbignyan species of Am. 
hj-aikenridgii should be prevented ; and as for a long time the 
need of a distinguishing appellation for the latter species has 
been felt, the present opportunity may be taken to give the 

Normannites orhignyi, nov. 

1846. Ammonites hraikenridyii, d'Orb. (uon Sow.), Pal. franf., Terr, 
jur., Ceph. pi. cxxxv. figs. 3, 4 only. 

Therefore Munier-Chalmas's genus will read thus : — 
Genus NOEMANNITES, Mun.-Chalm. 

Type, A. hraikenridgii, d'Orb. (non ^o^\ .\ = Normannites 

And in the genus Otoites there will be three named species 
to deal with : — 0. sauzei (d'Orb.) ; 0. hraikenridgii (Sow.), 
thinner, less spinous ; 0. contractus (Sow.). 

Genera of Stephanoceras and Allies. 147 

Genus Germanites, Mascke. 

" Type, Germ, latilobus, n. f." 
12 species, of which all are new. 

(compressed, somewhat fine-ribbed Stephanoceratoids with 

Genus Paekinsonia, Bayle. 

" Type, Am. parkinsoni, Sow." 

5 species, of which 4 are new. 

These are only the species from tiie Ooronatenschichten of 
North Germany, From higher beds in England and Wurtem- 
berg the number of species is very large. 

Genus Stkenoceras, Hyatt. 

'^Type, A7n. niortensis, d'Orb." 
7 species, of which 2 are new. 

Genus Spiroceras, Qn. 

" Type, Ilamites hifurcatus^ Qu.*' 
No further record. 

Genus Polyplectites, Mascke. 

" Type, Am. linguiferusy d'Orb." 
No further record. 

Family Steminatoceratidae, Mascke. 

Genus Stemmatoceras, Mascke. 

" Type, Am. hwnphriesianus coronatus, Qu." 
15 species, of which 13 are new. 

Genus SkirroCERAS, Mascke. 

" Type, Am. humph- iesianus macer, Qu." 
15 species, of which 13 are new. 

Genus Telocekas, ]\[ascke. 

" Type, Am. blagdenf, Sow." 
19 species, of which 14 are new. 


148 On the Genera of Steplianoceras and Allies. 

Genus Baculatoceras, Mascke. 

"Type, Am. haculatus, Qu." 
7 species, of wliicli 4 are new. 

Genus Apsorroceras, Hyatt. 

''Type, Ham. haculatus, Qu." 
No record. 

Family Stephanoceratidae (Zittel), era. Mascke. 
Genus Emileia, Buckm. 

" Type, [A.] brocchu, Sow." 
11 species, of which 7 are new. 

Genus Chondroceras, Mascke. 

" Type, Am. gervillei. Sow." 

41 species, divided into 6 groups, only 1 species yet 

Genus Sph^roceras (Bayle), em. Mascke. 

" Type, Am. hrongniarti, Sow." 
7 species, of which 6 are new. 

Genus Stephanoceras (Waagen), em. Mascke. 

" Type, Am. Humphr. mutabilis, Qu/' 

25 species, of which 21 are new. 

The generic name is preoccupied for Rotifers. 

Genus Stepheoceras, Buckm. 

"Type, Am. Jiumpliriesi[anus'], Sow." 
16 species, of which 12 are new. 

Genus Garantiana, Hyatt. 

"Type, A7)i. ga}-anti[anus'], d'Orb." 

15 species, of which 13 are new. 

This genus is really new. Hyatt cited it as Siemiradzki's, 
but that author did not name it. Mascke gives the history 
of its origin. 

Genus Subparkinsonia, Mascke. 

"Type, Sicbp. divisa, n. f." 
3 species, of which all are new. 

Oyi new Freshwater Fishes from China and Japan. 1-49 

GaraJitiana-Wke forms with indistinct peripheral break of 
ribs ; no definite break bordered by knobs as in Garantiana. 
Some species from the ne'or/ensjs-beds of Oborne, Dorset, 
answer to this description. 

The new species enumerated as belonj^ino; to these genera 
have not yet been described by Dr. Mascke, but they are 
promised in an important forthcoming work. Those who 
know how the present paucity of names for these fossils 
liampers geological and biological work will earnestly desire 
that its publication be not delayed. 

Besides these genera, tiiat of Cadoniites, Munier-Chalmas, 
type Am. deslongchampsi, d'Orb., would certainly be added 
under Mascke's family Stephanoceratidse. To this genus 
belongs A. daubenyi, Gemmellaro, a very rare species for 
Britain, which has been found in the truellit-heds of Burton 
Bmdstock, Dorset ; and there are other species not yet 

It will be seen that Mascke arranges "-Stephanoceras and 
allies," from the Coronatenschichten only, into 21 genera, of 
which 11 are new, and that he mentions 292 species, of which 
253 are new — that is to say, that in a part only of what was 
a few years ago grudgingly regarded as one genus with some 
dozen species, he proposes to have 3 families, 21 genera, and 
some 300 species. Put in another way, it is, perhaps, more 
striking — the ''good old species" ^^A. humphriesianus^^ is 
to be divided into 71 species, distributed among 4 genera, in 
2 families. 

These results are quite in accordance with the expectations 
of those who have studied the Inferior Oolite, and know by 
experience its remarkably prolific Ammonite fauna ; but they 
will doubtless surprise those who have thought that the 
Inferior Oolite had been given too many species already, and 
that the best way to veil the fact of its Ammonite fecundity 
was to cause the discontinuance of the work on it. However, 
wiiat is not to be accomplished in one country is evidently to 
be undertaken with vigour in another. 

XXIV. — Descriptions of new Freshwater Fishes from China 
and Japan. i5y C. TatE KeGAN, M.A. 

Oymnostomus formosanus. 

Depth of body 3^ to 4 in the length, length of head 4 to 4i. 
Snout shorter than postorbital part of head. Dian\otcr <ji 

150 Mr. C. T. Keg .n on neio 

eye 4^ to 5 in the length of head, interorbital width 2| to 3. 
Width of mouth a little more than | the width of head ; 
sheath of lower jaw with rounded anterior edge ; folds of 
lower lip separated anteriorly by an interspace which is about 
^ the width of mouth (rather more in the adult, less in the 
young) ; 4 barbels, tlie posterior longer than the anterior 
ones and nearly as long as the eye. Dorsal 11, with 8 
branched rays; origin equidistant from end of snout and base 
of caudal or nearer the former ; first branched ray the 
longest, as long as (adult) or a little longer than (young) the 
base of the fin. Anal 8, with 5 branched rays. Pectoral a 
little shorter than the head, not reaching the ventrals, which 
are inserted below the anterior part of the dorsal. 40 to 42 
scales in a longitudinal series, 5^ or 6 in a transverse series 
from origin of dorsal to lateral line, 3 or 4 between lateral 
line and base of ventral. Silvery, back darker ; young with 
6 or 7 blackish vertical bars ; membrane of dorsal fin 
blackish ; ventrals and anal usually more or less blackish. 

Eight specimens, the largest 160 mm. in total length, 
from Lake Candidius, Formosa, collected by Herr Sauter. 

Closely allied to the Chinese G. styani, Blgr., and O. hrey- 
enbergiij Regan, and intermediate between them in the 
structure of the mouth. 

IscMhavia macrolepis. 

Depth of body 3^ in the length, length of head 4. Snout 
a little shorter than eye, the diameter of which is 3^^ to 3^ in 
the length of head and less than the interorbital width. 
Mouth oblique. Dorsal 10, with 7 branched rays, its origin 
behind the ventrals and nearer to the base of caudal than to 
the end of snout. Anal 16-17, with 13 or 14 branched rays. 
Pectoral extending to the ventrals. 38 to 40 scales in a 
longitudinal series, 7 or 8 in a transverse series from origin 
of dorsal to lateral line, 3 between lateral line and base of 

Three small specimens, the largest 60 mm. in total length, 
from Kagi, Formosa, collected by Herr Sauter. 

This species is extremely similar to the Japanese /. steen- 
aclcerij Sauvage, which has much smaller scales. 

Achilognathus smitlni. 

Depth of body 2^ in the length, length of head 4. Diame- 
ter of eye 3 in the length of head and equal to the interorbital 
width. No barbels. Dorsal 13, with 10 branched rays. 
Anal 13. Pectoral extending to the ventrals. 33 scales in a 

Freshwater Fishes from China and Japan. 151 

longitudinal series, 6 in a transverse series from origin of 
dorsal to lateral line, 4 between lateral line and base of 
ventral. Silvery, back darker; a dark blue lateral stripe 
commencing on the upper part of the side midway between 
the head and the origin of the dorsal fin and extending to 
the base of the caudal ; a blackish stripe on the anterior part 
of the dorsal near the base. 

A single small specimen, 38 mm. in total length, from the 
R. Nodogawa, Kioto, Japan, presented by R. Gordon Smith, 

Allied to A. cyanostigma, Jord. & Fowl., which has a 
more slender body (dej)th 3 in the length), fewer fin-rays 
(dorsal and anal each with 8 branched rays), more scales (31)) 
in the lateral line, and a shorter pectoral. 

Clarias sauteri. 

Depth of body 5^ to G^ in the length, length of head 3i 
to 4. Breadth of head equal to its length without the snout. 
Head smooth or finely granulated above; occipital process 
obtuse (more acute in the young) ; eyes small. Praemaxillary 
band of teeth 4 times as long as broad ; teeth on the palate 
obtuse, forming a crescentic band narrower than that of the 
prsemaxillaries. Maxillary barbel extending to posterior 
part or end of pectoral. About 15 gill-rakers on the lower 
part of the anterior arch. Dorsal 57-G4. Anal 40-45. 
Dorsal and anal fins free from the caudal, which is rounded. 
Pectoral spine entire or with fine serraj hidden beneath the 
skin, its length n to | that of the fin or .^ to | the length of 
head. Dark greyish, paler below ; sometimes small pale 
spots on the sides. 

Several specimens, 120 to 200 mm. in total length, from 
Kagi, Formosa, collected by Herr Sauter. 

Tills species is close to the Chinese C. fuscus^ Lacep., 
which ditiers notably in having villifbrm teeth on the palate. 

Fseudohagrus brevianalis. 

Depth of body 5 in the length, length of head 4 to 4i. 
Head covered with smooth skin; snout broad, obtuse, .^ the 
length of head ; eye small, its diameter \ the iuterocular 
width, which is '1\ to 2.'. in the length ui' head. Mouth sub- 
terminal ; maxillary barbel extending to basal j)art of pectoral. 
D. I 7 ; adi[)ose fin nearly equal to the anal and opposite to 
it. Anal 10-18 ; base sliorter than the head. Caudal very 
slightly cmarginatCj with rounded lobes. Pectoral spine with 

152 On new Freslnoater Fishes from China and Japan. 

denticulated inner edge, | to | the length of the fin or J to § 
the length of head. Greyish. 

Several specimens, measuring up to 115 mm. in total 
length, from Lake Candidius, Formosa, collected by Herr 

Allied to the Japanese P. aurantiacus, Schleg., which has 
a longer anal fin. 

Liobagrus suguhii. 

Depth of body 4§ to 5 in the length, length of head 4^ to 
4|. Head as broad as long; interocular width 2 to 2\ in 
the length of head. Lower jaw shorter than the upper; 
prsemaxillary band of teeth twice as long as broad ; posterior 
mandibulary barbel extending to base of pectoral. Dorsal I 5 ; 
spine 5 the length of head. Pectoral spine less than \ the 
length of the fin, which is | to | the length of head. Anal 
15-16. Caudal rounded or subtruncate. Greyish brown ; 
scattered pale spots on the side; lower fins pale; caudal 
with a narrow whitish edge. 

Four specimens, 105 mm. in total length, from Lake 
Biwa, Japan, presented by H.E. Mr. Sugubi, Governor of 

Dr. Pappenheim has kindly informed me that the type of 
L. reini, Hilgendorf, is not preserved in the Berlin Museum. 
Hilgendorf's description is equally applicable to either 
Japanese species, but for the present the name L. reini may 
be restricted to the species described and figured under that 
name by Jordan and Fowler (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xxvi. 
1903, p. 909, fig. 2), which differs from the one described 
above in the more slender body, narrower interocular space, 
longer fin-spines, &c. 

Liobagrus sty am. 

Depth of body 6 to 7 in the length, length of head 5. 
Head nearly as broad as long ; interocular width 2f to 3 in 
the length of head. Lower jaw shorter than the upper ; 
praBmaxillary band of teeth 2^ to 3 as long as broad ; poste- 
rior mandibulary barbel extending to basal part of pectoral. 
Dorsal I 5 ; spine ^ the length of head. Pectoral spine less 
than -J- the length of the fin, which is | to | the length of 
head. Anal 18. Caudal rounded. Greyish ; small pale 
spots on the sides ; fins broadly edged with white. 

Two specimens, 70 and 85 mm. in total length, from South 
Hupeh, China, presented by F. W. Styan, Esq., in 1902. 

On Freshwater Fishes from British Niw Guinea. 153 

Ctenogohius candidianus. 

Depth of body 5 in the length, length of head 3^, to 3f. 
Snout dccuived, nearly twice as long as the eye, the diameter 
of which is 5 in the length of head ; jaws equal anteriorly ; 
mouth little oblique. Opercles naked ; nape covered with small 
scales. Dorsal VI, I 8. Anal I 8. None of the rays of the 
spinous dorsal produced ; soft dorsal and anal rather low. 
Caudal rounded. Pectoral a little shorter than the head ; 
ventrals extending less than ^ the distance from their base to 
the origin of anal. 34 to 36 scales in a longitudinal series. 

Ten specimens, the largest 80 mm. in total length, from 
Lake Candidius, Formosa, collected by Ilerr Sauter. 

Very similar to the Japanese C. hadro2)terus, Jord. & Snyd., 
but with the scales on the nape and the anterior part of the 
body smaller. Some specimens show traces of markings on 
the head like those of C. hadropterus. 

XXV. — Descriptions of Four new Freshwater Fishes from 
British New Guinea. By C. Tate ReGAN, M.A. 

The freshwater fishes of New Guinea have recently been 
made the subject of an extensive memoir by Prof. Max 
Weber (Exped. Sci. Neerland. Nouvelle-Guin«e, v. Zool. 
1907). A small series from British New Guinea brought 
home by Dr. Seligmann is of some interest, inasmuch as it 
contains examples of four species which appear to be new to 
science and of three others not included in Max Weber's 
list; the latter are Sicydium cynocephalum, C. & V., and 
Eleotris toinioptera, Blkr., from the Wedau lliver, and 
Eleotris compressa, KrefFt, from Agajambo. The fishes are 
from four localities, those from the Wodau River and the 
Fly River having been presented to the British Museum by 
Major W. Cooke Daniels, those from Agajambo by V. A. W. 
Monckton, Esq., and those from Sogeri by Ca[)tain F. R. 

Neosilurus bartoni. 

Depth of body G^ in the length, Icngtii of head ')'z. Head 
much broader tlian deep, its breadth l.l in its length, diameter 
ofeyc4r!, length of snout "i^-o, interorbital width ^;-^-3_\. 
Lower jaw shorter than the uj)per. Nasal and inner man- 
dibulary barbels subcqual, a little shorter than the head; 

154 Mr. C. T. Eegan on new 

maxillary and outer mandibulary barbels as long as the head. 
12 or 13 gill-rakers on the lower part of anterior arch. 
Dorsal 1 5, the spine nearly | the length of head^ with a few 
weak denticulations anteriorly, nearly smooth or very finely 
denticulated posteriorly ; procurrent part of caudal com- 
mencing above the middle of anal, anteriorly very low and 
without distinct rays. Anal 85-90. Pectoral not extending 
to the base of ventrals, its spine similar to but a little longer 
than that of the dorsal ; ventrals extending a little beyond 
the origin of anal. Uniformly greyish. 

Two specimens from Sogeri, total length 122 mm., pre- 
sented to the British Museum by Captain F. R. Barton. 

The recently described N. novce-gumece from the northern 
part of the island is said to have the head as deep as broad, 
the diameter of eye 2^ to 2^ in the interorbital width (If in 
iV. hartoni), the dorsal spine ^ the depth of body {'^ in 
iV". hartoni) and longer than that of the pectoral. 

The genus Neosilurus, Stdr., established in 1867 for 
iV. hyrtlii, Stdr., includes also Copidoglanis brevidorsalis, 
Gthr., and C. novce-guinece, M. Weber. Copidoglanis differs 
in having the procurrent part of the caudal fin well developed 
and similar to the anal. 

None of the Siluridse have more than one rayed dorsal fin, 
if we except those forms in which rays are developed in the 
adipose fin. The Plotosin^ have been described as having a 
long second dorsal fin, but this is really an extension forward 
of the caudal fin, as is proved by the structure, basalia (inter- 
neurals) being absent. In quite a different group, the 
Chacinge, the caudal extends forward some distance both 
above and below, so that the genus Chaca has been said to 
have two dorsal and two anal fins. Clarias has been wrongly 
associated with the Plotosinse, for the long dorsal fin of this 
genus is supported by basalia and is the homologue of the 
short dorsal of the allied Saccohranchus. 

Arius (Hemiaruis) danielsi. 

Depth of body 4^ in the length, length of head 3|. 
Breadth of head 1;^ in its length, length of snout 3, diameter 
of eye 7-^, interorbital width 2. Upper surface of head 
granulated ; occipital process with median keel, 1-^as long as 
broad, extending to the small basal bone of the dorsal spine. 
Lower jaw shorter than the upper; teeth on the vomer 
forming 2 small round separate patches, contiguous to the 
palatine bands, which are rather more than twice as long as 

Freshwater Fishes from British Neio Guinea. 155 

broad. Maxillary barbel extending to the extremity of the 
pectoral ; outer mandibulary barbels nearly as long. 
Dorsal I 7 ; the spine strong, § the length of head, with an 
anterior and a posterior series ot denticulations, which become 
small and indistinct inferiorly. Pectoral spine strong, as 
long as that of the dorsal, with a feeble outer and a strong 
inner series of denticulations. Anal 23 (VI 17). Ventrals 
extending a little beyond the origin of anal. Caudal forked, 
the longest ray 3 times as long as the middle ones. Caudal 
peduncle 1^ as long as deep. Purplish above, silvery below ; 
fins yellowish. 

One specimen, 162 mm. in total length, from the Fly lliver, 
presented to the British Museum by Major W. Cooke 

This species resembles the Sumatran A. stormi, Blkr., in 
general appearance and in the dentition, but is distinguished 
by the longer barbels, much longer anal, less elevated 
dorsal, &c. 

Rhombatractus weheri. 

Depth of body 2|-3 in the length, length of head 32-4. 
Snout as long or nearly as long as the eye, the diameter of 
which is 2|-3,^ in the length of head, interorbital width 
about 2\. Lower jaw shorter than the upper; maxillary 
completely hidden by the pra3orbital, extending to or nearly 
to the vertical from the anterior margin of eye. Scales 
34-37/11. Dorsal V (VJ), I 12-14; origin of spinous 
dorsal above first branched ray of anal, a little nearer to tip 
of snout than to base of caudal ; first spine stout, as long as 
the postorbital part of head, the others slender and longer ; 
second dorsal separated from the first by 2 scales, preceded 
by a stout spine which is nearly as long as the eye ; soft 
rays gradually increasing in length posteriorly. Anal I 22. 
Pectoral 5-^- the length of head ; ventrals A-3 the length of 
head, extending a little beyond the origin of anal. Caudal 
emarginate. Caudal peduncle as long as or a little longer 
than deep. Olivaceous above, silvery below ; a blackish 
band from the snout, through the upper part of the eye, to 
the base of the caudal, becoming gradually broader poste- 
riorly, covering 2^ series of scales on the caudal peduncle; a 
blackish blotch on the lower part of the side above tlio anal 
tin ; vertical fins dusky at the base. 

(Six specimens, G5-ll() mm. in total length, from Sogcri, 
presented to the British JMuseuin by Captain Y. \i. Barton. 

156 On Freshicater Fishes from British Neio Guinea. 

I have named this species after Prof. Max Weber, in 
recognition of his work on the fishes of New Guinea. 

Perhaps the most nearly allied species is R. goldii, ]\[acleay, 
from the same locality, which has been stated by both 
Macleay * and Perugia f to have six spines in the first dorsal 
fin, a number found in only one of the specimens described 
above ; moreover, in R. goldii the black lateral band is said 
to run above and below the eye. 

The skeleton is extremely similar to that of more typical 
Atherinidte, and the skull, pectoral arch, and vertebral 
column present few features of special interest. The vertebra? 
number 35, 20 preecaudals and 15 caudals. The pelvic 
bones are suspended from the third and fourth pair of 
ribs ; the last eleven pairs ot ribs meet ventrally and support 
the basalia (interhKraals) of the anal fin, as in the Ophio- 

Eleotris {^Caulichthys) moncldoni. 

Depth of body 3| in the length, length of head 4;^. 
Breadth of head 2 in its length. Snout a little shorter than eye, 
the diameter of which is 4 in the length of head and a little less 
than the interorbital width. Mouth small, oblique, the lower 
jaw slightly projecting, the maxillary not extending to below 
the eye. Head covered with scales, which become much 
smaller anteriorly. Scales 29/12. Dorsal VI, I 8 ; origin 
of spinous dorsal equidistant from exti-emity of snout and 
base of last soft ray ; second spine the longest, a little longer 
than the third and g the length of head ; soft fin highest 
anteriorly, the first branched ray a little more than § the 
length of head, the last ^ length of head. Anal I 10. Pec- 
toral nearly ^ the length of head ; ventrals as long, not 
extending to the anal. Caudal truncate. Least depth of 
caudal peduncle twice in its length. Each scale of the body 
yellowish, with a broad dark brown margin ; dark edges of 
the scales forming a narrow blackish bar on the base of 
pectoral ; vertical fins blackish, the caudal with small light 

A single specimen, 73 mm. in total length, from Agajambo, 
presented to the British Museum by (J. A, W. Monckton, 

Closely allied to E. guentheri^ Blkr., which has a longer 
snout and larger eye. 

* Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, viii. 1883, p. 269. 
t Ann. Mus. Genov. (2) xiv. 1894, p. 548. 

On neio Genera and Species of Blattidno. 157 

XXVI. — Some new Genera and Species of Blattidoe, with 
Notes on the Form of the Pronotum in the Suhfamily 
rcrisplucriiiiju. By R. Shelfoud, M.A., F.L.S. 

[Rates IX. & X.] 
Subfam. EcTOBiiNJi:. 

Anajjlecta erythronota, sp. n. (PI. IX. fig. 9.) 

? . Head and disk of pronotum rufous. Lateral margins 
of pronotum hyaline. Tegmina castaneous, witli the 
marginal area hyaline ; 10 eostals, 3 longitudinal discoidal 
sectors. Wings infuscated, marginal area not dilated, radial 
vein with a humeral and discoidal brancli ; 6 to 7 eostals, 
median vein obsolete at base; me:lio-discal field twice as 
broad as medio-ulnar and crossed by 7 transverse venulte; 
medio-ulnar field distally crossed by 2 to 3 transverse venulae, 
first axillary triraniose; apical area parabolic, two fifths of 
total wing-length, base slightly obtusely angled, crossed 
below the middle by an oblique vein. Abdomen beneath, 
cerci, and legs testaceous ; abdomen above castaneous, supra- 
anal lamina transverse, narrow. 

Total length 8 mm.; length of tegmina 5*4 mm. 

Maskeliya, Ceylon {E. E. Green), Type in the British 

Close to A.maculata, mihi, but differs in the wing- venation 
as well as in the colour of the pronotum. 


Genus Isciinoptera, Burm. 

Ischnoplera loiigstaffi^ sp. n. (PI. IX. fig. S.) 

(^ . Testaceous. Head with a castaneous macula on the 
frons, Pronotum with two castaneous sjiots on the disk. 
Tegmina with radial vein bifurcated ; 14 to 15 eostals, 9 longi- 
tudinal discoidal sectors, the anterior ulnar vein being tri- 
ramose. Wings hyaline, mediastinal vein tri ramose, radial 
vein bifurcated ; 7 eostals, the last two niultiramose ; ulnar 
vein with 3 complete branches and 3 or 4 incomplete brandies 
going to the dividing vein, the more proximal minute. Sixth 
abdominal tergitc with jiosterior border notched, a circular 
depression at base of seventh tergitc marking the opening of 

158 Mr. R. Shelford on new 

the scent-glands. Supra-anal lamina triangular ; subgenital 
lamina irregularly produced, notched on the left side, with 
two slender styles. Front femora armed on anterior margin 
beneath with a complete row of spines, the distal shorter than 
the proximal ; all the femora with genicular and apical 

? . Similar, but supra-anal lamina more produced, sub- 
genital lamina ample, semiorbicular. 

^ ? . Total length 18-19 mm.; length of body 15 mm.; 
length of tegmina 15 mm. ; pronotum 3*5 x 4-9 mm. 

3 c? c? , 2 ? ? , Zambesi rain-forest [Dr. G. B. Longstaff 
and Prof. T. Hudson Beare) . 

Types in Oxford Museum. 

The species is allied to /. bwiaculata, Gerst., from E. Africa, 
but differs in the secondary sexual characters of the male. 

Subfam. Blattinjs. 
Genus Peotagonista, no v. 

Antennas slightly incrassated. Position of antennal sockets 
variable. Pronotum as long as broad, quadrangular, with 
rounded angles, sides not deflexed. A fine erect pubescence 
covers both pronotum and tegmina. Tegmina and wings 
fully developed in the male. Tibial spines in two rows. 
Posterior metatarsus longer than the remaining joints, all the 
pulvilli apical. Arolia minute. 

The genus is remarkable on account of the shape of the 
pronotum and the pubescence on pronotum and tegmina. In 
one of the species the eyes are closer together than the 
antennal sockets, in the other they are further apart ; I doubt 
if this character is of much importance, and it hardly seems 
advisable to separate the New- World genera of Blattinse from 
the Old-World genera on the strength of this character 

Protagonista luguhris, sp. n. (PI. IX. fig. 1.) 

(J. Piceous. Head finely punctate; labrum, clypeus, and 
palpi testaceous ; ocelli * prominent, testaceous ; eyes further 
apart than antennal sockets. Antennas fuscous, slightly 
incrassated, pubescent, but not plumose, apical joints testa- 
ceous. Pronotum not covering vertex of head, coarsely 
reticulate-punctate, with some smooth interspaces and lines ; 
a deep, wide, semilunar impression extending across the 

* They appear to be true ocelli as in the subfam. Corydiinffi, and not 
fe}icstr(S as in the other subfamilies. 

Genera and Species of Blattidae. 159 

anterior third and down tlie sides to near the posterior angles ; 
a short transverse imi^ression just beiiind the anterior margin. 
Tegraina exceeding the apex of the abdomen, semicorneous 
and seriately punctate at base, marginal field deflexed at 
base and fimbriate, anal vein obsolescent. Abdomen with 
disk rufo-castaneous ; supra-anal lamina subquadrate, poste- 
riorly emarginate ; subgenital lamina subquadrate, with a 
pair of long styles. Cerci moderate, rufous. Legs rufo- 
castaneous, the tibige with a tine recumbent pubescence. 
Front femora with a complete row of spines on front margin 
beneath, none on posterior margin ; mid and hind femora 
somewhat rounded beneath and with only one spine on each 
margin. Tibial sj)ines sparse, arranged in two rows. Poste- 
rior metatarsus very long, succeeding joints rather short. 

Total length 25 mm.; lengtli of body 23*5 mm.; length 
of tegmina 19 mm.; pronotum 5*9x6 mm. 

Manson Mts., Tonkin (type in Oxford Museum) ; Yen-Bai, 
Central Tonkin (co-type in Paris Museum). 

Protagonista horneensisy sp. n. (PI. IX. fig. 2.) 

S . Head piceous, opaque, with a few scattered punctures, 
mouth-parts piceous ; eyes closer together than antenna! 
sockets. Antennae with moniliform joints, shorter than the 
body, piceous, with a testaceous band near the apex. Pro- 
notum o])aque piceous, with scattered erect pubescence ; a 
shallow transverse impression in anterior tiiird and two 
oblique impressions in posterior third. Tegmina rufo- 
castaneous, exceeding the apex of the abdomen, narrow ; 
marginal field narrow, deflexed; anal vein well-marked, 
reaching nearly halfway down the sutural margin. Abdomen 
piceous, with the basal segments rufescent above, testaceous 
below. Supra-anal lamina quadratcly produced, posterior 
angles spiniform, posterior margin concave, exceeded by the 
subgenital lamina, which is semiorbicularj and provided with 
a pair of slender styles. Cerci long, acuminate, castaneous. 
Front legs castaneous, mid and hind legs with the coxse 
(except at the base) and the femora (except at the apex) 
testaceous, otherwise castaneous. Front femora with a 
complete row of spines on anterior margin beneath, two or 
three on posterior margin ; mid and hincl femora with 5 to 7 
spines on each margin. Tarsal arolia larger than in the 
j)reeeding species. 

Total length 25 mm. ; length of body 20 mm; length of 
tegmina 20 mm.; pronotum •i'8x4"l mm. 

►Sarawak, Borneo [ShelJ'ord). Type in Oxford ^Museum. 

160 Mr. K. Shelford on new 

Genus Archibla.tta, Voll. 
? Archiblatta parva, sp. n. 

? . Rufo-testaceous, all the segments margined and 
speckled with castaneous. Head castaneous, the vertex 
paler, finely punctate, nitid ; antennas and mouth-parts rufo- 
castaneous, antennoe slender, setaceous [mutilated]. Eyes 
further apart than antennal sockets. Upper surface of body 
scabrous, nitid. Pronotum trapezoidal, anteriorly truncate, 
posterior margin slightly obtusely angled ; posterior angles of 
all the thoracic tergites slightly produced. Posterior angles 
of abdominal tergites not produced ; supra-anal lamina sub- 
quadrate, posteriorly emarginate, angles rounded, dark casta- 
neous in colour, margined with testaceous. Body beneath 
and legs uniform castaneous, abdominal sternites laterally 
scabrous ; antepenultimate sternite with a large deep puncture 
on each side, bordering the subgenital valves. Cerci shorter 
than the supra-anal lamina. Front femora with a complete 
row of spines on anterior margin beneath, one on the poste- 
rior margin ; raid femora with 4-5 spines on anterior, 2-3 on 
posterior margin ; hind femora with 4 spines on anterior, 1 
on posterior margin ; all these spines very smalh Tibial 
spines in three rows, but the middle row very incomplete. 
Posterior metatarsus equal to remaining joints ; pulvilli large, 
occupying nearly the entire length of every joint. 

Total length 23 mm. ; pronotum 6 x 8'5 mm. 

Towranna plains, W. Australia (E. Clement) . Type in 
Oxford Museum. 

I place this very curious insect provisionally in xirchi- 
hlatta, but in many of its characters it does not conform to 
that genus, and eventually it may be necessary to erect a 
new genus for its reception. 

Subfara. CoETBiiNJU. 

Genus Cardax, no v. 

(J. Minute, slender, with fine recumbent pubescence. 
Antennas nearly as long as body, finely pubescent. Ocelli 
present. Head with vertex covered by the pronotum ; eyes 
wide apart ; frons slightly inflated. Lacinia of maxillae 
slender. Pronotum trapezoidal, bent downwards, forming an 
angle with rest of body, a broad transverse impression at its 
base. Scutellum exposed. Tegmina extending considerably 
beyond apex of abdomen, delicate, membranous, hyaline, 
finely fimbriate, and with minute recumbent pubescence; 

Genera and Species o/" Blattid&e. 161 

radial vein bifurcate from near base, costal veins absent, 
anterior ulnar simple, posterior ulnar simple or bifurcate, anal 
field much reduced, anal vein 3trai<^ht, oblique, one axillary 
vein. Wings similar in size, texture, and pubescence to the 
tegmina ; posterior part of the wing reduced to a small lobe, 
not pubescent, with one obsolescent axillary vein ; radial 
vein simple, no costal veins ; median vein bifurcate from near 
base, its anterior branch bifurcating near apex ; ulnar vein 
bifurcate. Vena spuria present in both tegmina and wings. 
Supra-anal lamina subquadrate, posterior border arcuately 
emarginate. Subgenital lamina rounded, slightly irregular, 
without styles. Cerci elongate, nine-jointed, apical joint 
acuminate. Legs slender, long ; tibiae sparsely spined, the 
spines on the posterior pair biseriately arranged ; femora with 
genicular spines; tarsal claws minute, without arolia; no 
pulvilli; posterior metatarsus longer than the remaining 

Cardax loilhyx, sp. n. (PI. IX. figs. 3-7.) 

$ . Fusco-hyaline ; tegmina with a sliglit iridescent sheen ; 
legs testaceous. Front tibial with four apical spines, other- 
wise unarmed ; mid tibiae with two spines near the base and 
three apical spines ; hind tlbite with four spines along the 
outer border and three apical spines. 

Total length 5'9 mm. ; length of body 3*8 mm. ; length 
of tegmina 5 mm. ; greatest breadth of tegmina 2 mm. 

Peradeniya, Ceylon {A. Willey) ; several specimens. 
Type in the British Museum ; co-type in the Oxford Museum. 

This is certainly one of the most remarkable cockroaches 
known. In general appearance it is far more like a small 
Neuropterous insect than like an Orthopteron, an effect 
brought about by the similar texture and pubescence of the 
tegmijia and wings ; this is a feature shown, to a limited 
extent, by the genus llomopteroidea, mihi, but by no other 
genera in the family. In the subfamily Corydiina3 the poste- 
rior part of the wing does not fold up in a fan-like manner, but 
merely doubles under the anterior part, which leads in some 
instances to a reduction in size of the posterior part, so that 
it becomes equal in size or even smaller than the anterior 
part. In Cardax the reduction has proceeded so far that the 
posterior part of the wing is represented merely by a small 
functionless lobe ; and it is interesting to note that, correlated 
with this reduction, is a parallel reduction of the anal field of 
the tegmina. The anterior part of the wings is relatively 
much larger than is usual in Blattida\ The venation of the 

Ann. (fc May. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol i. 11 

1(52 Mr. R. Slielford on new 

alar organs is much simplified and approximates to a radiate 
type, there being but little branching of the veins. The 
minute tarsal claws constitute another higlily remarkable 
character. It is difficult to discover the affinities of a genus 
so aberrant as this ; the biseriate arrangement of the tibial 
spines shows that it must be placed in tlie section of the sub- 
family which embraces Latindia, Stal, Paralatindia, Sauss., 
Ilomopteroidea, Shelf., &c. ; but it cannot be regarded as 
closely related to any known genus. 

S ubf a m . Perisfh^riin^. 
The Form of the Pronotum in the Perisphffiriinjfi. 

De Saussure and Zehntner, in their revision of the Peri- 
sphaeriinge (Rev. Suisse Zool. vol. iii. 1895), have traced the 
evolution of the complex type of pronotum of such genera as 
Pilema and Cyrtotria [= Stenopilema, Sauss.] from a simple 
type. A summary of their conclusions may be presented 
here, and I have added some diagrammatic figures as a help 
to its elucidation. In a typical Blattid pronotum two areas 
may be distinguished, the disk and the lateral wings, which 
project on either side beyond the outer limits of the pro- 
sternum ; the disk covers the head and on the underside is 
more or less defined by a pair of carinje, known as the typical 
carinas. In transverse section this form of pronotum may be 
represented as in PI. IX. fig. 10, A, where a represents the 
disk, bb the lateral wings, and cc the typical carina. In tlie 
genus Pronaonota (PI, IX. fig. 10, B) the lateral wings are 
strongly bent downwards and an incomplete carina [d] on 
the deflected sides of the dorsal surface of the pronotum 
foreshadows the separation of the lateral wings from the disk. 
The separation is more or less complete in the genera Pilema 
and Cyrtotria (PL IX. fig. 10, C) ; the lateral wings in 
these genera now appear in side view as lateral bands bent 
down at a right angle, or at more than a right angle, to the 
disk of the pronotum, and their upper (morphologically inner) 
border is elevated, so that in dorsal view it appears as if the 
lateral borders of the pronotum had been simply reflected 
from below upwards. Such, liowever, is not really the case ; 
tlie carina on the pronotum of Pronaonota is the morphological 
equivalent of the upper edge of the lateral band of Pilema, 
and the lateral margin of the pronotum of Pronaonota is the 
equivalent of the lower edge of the lateral band of Pilema. 
This lateral band is morpliologically the lateral wing of the 
pronotum, which has become divided off from the disk. 

Oenera and Species of Blattidie. 163 

rotated outwards through some degrees, and, owing to a 
greater or less elevation of its upper border, is now separated 
dorsally from the disk of the proiiotum by a channel or groove 
of varying depth. Frequently, though by no means always, 
the development of the lateral bands is accompanied by a 
sliglit upward reflection of the anterior margin of the pro- 
notum. Tiic uj)per edge of this reflected border is continuous 
with the U{)per edge of the lateral bands; the lower edge, 
when seen from the ventral aspect, is occasionally continuous 
with the lower edge of the lateral bands, as in Cyrtotria jalke^ 
Gig.-Tos (PL X. fig. 19), in which case the lateral bands 
are connected anteriorly with each other, but more frequently 
the lower edge of the anterior reflection is not evident and 
the lateral bands are not connected with each other anteriorly 
(Pi. X. fig. 13). 

In the species of the genus Bantua (PL IX. fig. 10, D), 
the rotation of the lateral bands has been carried still further, 
/. e. outwards, downwards, and then inwards, so that now 
the lateral bands form a very acute angle with the disk of 
the pronotum and lie underneath it ; the gutter or channel is 
obliterated, just as a fold in a piece of cloth vanishes when 
the part of the cloth involving the fold is tightly wrapped 
round some solid object. The outer border of the pronotal 
disk is now the outer margin of the pronotum. A new species 
of Pilema and a new species of Bantua described below 
illustrate in a most striking and interesting manner the rota- 
tion of the lateral bands of the pronotum, with concomitant 
obliteration of the gutter separating the bands from the disk. 
Finally, in the genus Derocali/mma (PL IX. fig. 10, E) the 
lateral bands are bent still further under the disk and lie 
in almost a parallel plane with it ; at the same time the pro- 
notum is broader, it has reverted to the primitive flattened 
shape, but its outer lateral margins are now not the morpho- 
logical equivalents of the outer lateral margins of the primi- 
tive type, but the equivalents of tlie inner boundaries of the 
lateral wings of that. 

The whole series of specimens illustrates admirably the 
evolution of a complex type of j)ronotum from a simple type, 
the former superficially resembling the latter. It is by no 
means often tiiat the entomologist is supplied with such a 
series of gradations, and it is generally far easier to hazard a 
suggestion as to the value to the species of certain structures, 
than to elucidate their mode of origin. Here it is otherwise; 
wo can see pretty clearly the steps whereby the pronotum of 
Derocalymma evolved from a more primitive type, but the 
value to the sppcifs of th^'-e variations in structure is by no 


164 Mr. E. Shelfovd on new 

means evident at first siglit. A knowledge of the habits of 
an animal should invariably precede all suggestions as to the 
value of any details of its structure, and I feel convinced that 
much of the mystery surrounding variations in structure 
which are spoken of as being merely of importance to the 
systematic naturalist will be dispelled as our knowledge of 
the life-histories of the animals exhibiting them increases, A 
clue to the use of tlie variations in pronotal structure of the 
cockroaches under notice is afforded by the observations, 
slight and incomplete though they are, on their habits. The 
vast majority of Blattidae are insects of cryptic habits, 
spending most of their life hidden under stones or logs, in 
decaying vegetation, burrowing in rotten wood, and so forth, 
and the majority of species are flattened depressed insects. 
The species of Pilema, on the other hand, are convex and 
more or less cylindrical insects with a large heavy pronotum, 
the anterior border of which is often slightly reflexed and 
bounded laterally by the upwardly projecting lateral wings. 

Mr. Distant, in his ' Insecta Transvaaliensia,' has recently 
published an interesting field-observation on tlie habits of a 
species identified as Pilema thoraci'ca, Walk. A female 
accompanied by several larvse was taken from the bottom of 
a neat round hole in the ground about 6 inches in depth ; 
there were half a dozen such holes in about half an acre, and 
all contained families of this species. I have no doubt but 
that all the species of this genus have adopted this mode of 
life, and that the pronotum is the part of the body that is 
used in excavating the burrows, for on examining some 
specimens of P. refiexa, Walk., and P. hebetata, Sss. & Z., 
in the British Museum, I found that in these the channel 
between the pronotal disk and lateral bands was simply 
choked with earth. It is not unreasonable to assume that 
the heavy shovel-like pronotum of Pilema has been evolved 
in response to a change of habitat. Turning now to the 
other end of the series of cockroaches considered, we find 
that the species of Derocalymma are the most flattened 
members of the whole family, and in correspondence with 
this depressed form it is no surprise to learn that they live 
under heavy stones. The advantage of the flattened form, 
enabling the insects to slip through narrow crevices and to 
lie in security in a circumscribed shelter beneath a stone too 
heavy for any but a relatively powerful enemy to move, is 
obvious ; and, again, it is not unreasonable to assume that 
the highly modified pronotum of Derocalymma is a result of 
a change of habitat. There is no information forthcoming as 
to the habits of Bantua and Cyrtotria-, some species of the 

Genera and Species o/BlattiJse. 1G5 

latter genus have the pronotum well adapted for digging, but 
others have not, and it would be of the greatest interest to 
learn if tlie habits of the species vary in correlation with the 
form of the pronotum. 

Bantua is intermediate in structure between Cyrtotria and 
Derocalymma ; some specimens collected by Dr. LongstafF in 
S. Africa were taken from beneath a log, which means, I 
expect, that they were lurking in the rubbish immediately 
surrounding the log, as they are not adapted, like JJero- 
calymma^ for life beneath a heavy body, judging by their 

Finally, the question arises, has Derocahjmma originated 
from a form like Filemn, passing in the course of its evolution 
through a Bantua-Wka stage? One is tempted to answer in 
the artirmative, for adaptation to life beneath stones could 
have been brought about by mere flattening of a generalized 
type of cockroach with a simple form of pronotum, as has 
indeed occurred in the Australian genus Oniscosoma, super- 
ficially similar to Derucalymma^ but structurally widely 
different. The highly modified pronotum of Derocahjmma 
has resulted from the flattening not of a simple form of: pro- 
notum, but of a complex form with lateral bands ; the lateral 
bands in Pilema are the most essential parts of the exca- 
vating organ, the pronotum ; but they can serve no useful 
purpose in species that do not burrow into the ground, and 
the manner of their modification in response to a different 
habit of life is shown in the genus Bantua, and especially in 
the new species of that genus described below, the final step 
in the process being exhibited by Derocalymma. 

Cyrtotria, Saussure and Zehntner (ncc StSl), Rev. Suisse Zool. iii. p. 28 

Differs from Pilema^ Sauss., and Cyrtotria, Stal, in the 
form of the pronotum, the lateral bands being bent under the 
disk and forming an acute angle with it; the margin of the 
pronotal disk forms the outer margin of the pronotum. In 
the female the posterior angles of the pronotum are more or 
less produced backwards. Differs from the genus Dero- 
calymma, Hurm., by the less complete bending under of the 
lateral bands of the pronotum, by the membranous tegmina 
of the male, and the backwurtlly [)roduced posterior angles of 
the pronotum in the female. 

Type of genus. Perisphceria dispar, Burm. 

166 Mr. E. Slielford on new 

Banfua fero.v, sp, n. (PI. X. fig. 25.) 

? . Piceous, nitid. Head cribrate-punctate ; distance 
apart of eyes less than lengtli of first antennal joint ; antennse 
castaneous ; ocelli, labrum, and maxillary palpi rufo-testa- 
ceous. Pronotum rugose, lateral bands anteriorly deflected 
inwards, posteriorly strongly produced backwards, and bent 
downwards at a right angle to the disk of the pronotum ; a 
broad channel dorsally separates the posterior part of the 
band from the disk; the disk of the pronotum anteriorly is 
tuberculate, posteriorly with a few deep punctures, posterior 
margin dentate. Mesonotura rugose, cribrate-punctate ; 
posterior angles tumid, produced, anterior angles depressed 
and fitting beneath the posterior angles of the pronotum. 
Metanotum less deeply punctate; posterior angles tumid, 
produced. Abdomen rather wider than thorax, finely punc- 
tate above and beneath, a narrow anterior zone on each 
tergite and sternite impunctate ; supra-anal lamina trape- 
zoidal, posterior margin slightly reflected. Cerci testaceous. 

Total length 27*8 mm. ; pronotum 8 X 10 mm. 

Nyika Mts., 6000-7000 feet, Nyasaland {A. Whyte, July 

Type in the British Museum. 

The pronotal structure of this species is of great interest, 
for whilst anteriorly the lateral bands lie under the disk, 
forming a very acute angle with it, as is characteristic of a 
typical Bantua, posteriorly they are vertical and form more 
or less of a right angle with the disk, as is characteristic of a 
typical Pilema. Correlated with this torsion of the lateral 
bands is the entire absence of the pronotal gutter or channel 
anteriorly, whilst posteriorly it is deep and plainly visible. 
The structure illustrates quite clearly that the bending under 
the disk of the lateral bands brings about the obliteration of 
the gutter ; speaking rather metaphorically, the material of 
which the pronotum is composed is stretched taut by the 
rotation inwards of the lateral bands, so that the fold in the 
material disappears ; where the rotation is of less extent there 
is enough material to form a fold or channel. A diagram- 
matic section through the front part of the pronotum of 
B.ferox will resemble PI. IX. fig. 10, D, but a similar section 
through the hinder part will resemble PL IX. fig. 10, C. 

Genus Pilema, Sauss. 
Pilema momhasce, sp. n. (Pl. X. figs. 22, 23.) 
? . Piceous, nitid. Head with face rugose and slightly 

Genera and Species o/BIattidae. 1G7 

punctate ; eyes very close together ; antennae and labrum 
castaneous, maxillary palpi rufo-testaceous ; ocelli not visible. 
Pronoturn above with disk rugose, punctate and anteriorly 
tubcrculate ; anteriorly obtusely carinate, anterior margin 
reflected slightly, lateral bands anteriorly deflected down- 
wards, but not so much as in Bantua ferox ; the channel 
between the disk and the lateral bands wide and shallow ; 
posteriorly the lateral bands are produced as in Filema 
fZen^a^a, Hauss. & Zehnt. j posterior margin dentate. Meso- 
and metanotum cribrate-punctate, with smooth interspaces 
and a median carina, posterior angles slightly produced. 
Abdomen not wider than thorax, obsoletely punctate above 
and beneath ; an anterior zone on each tergite and sternite 
impunctate; supra-anal lamina trapezoidal. Cerci and legs 

Total length 28 mm.; pronoturn 8'5 X 8'9 mm. 

Mombasa (1 $ ). 

Type in the British Museum. 

The species is in its pronotal structure intermediate between 
Bantua ferox and typical Pilema. 

Genus Cyetotria, Stal. 

Stenopikma, Sauss. Ann. Mas. Civ. Genova, xxxv. p. 87 (1895) ; Sauss. 

& Zehnt. Rev. Suisse Zool. iii. p. 25 (1895). 
Thysanoblatta, Kirby, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) xii. p. 380 (1903). 

The type of the genus is C. gibhicollis, Stal, and this species 
is undoubtedly congeneric with the species included in Steno- 
pilerna by de Saussurc and Zehntner. Thi/sanohhitta was 
founded on a species characterized by an erect pubescence, 
but otherwise differing in small details only from typical 
species of Stenopilema ; and 1 have no hesitation in sinking 
it as a synonym of Cyrtotria. There has been an excessive 
multiplication of genera in this subfamily of Blattida?, and 
much confusion has resulted therefrom. 

The species of Cyrtotria are very diflicult to identify from 
descriptions, for it is not easy to ex])ress in writing the subtle 
ditterences in the form of the pronoturn presented by the 
different species. I have examined nearly all the typos, and 
have drawn up a synoptical key to the species, which, 
together with the figures, will I hope render the determination 
of the si)ecies easier than heretofore. 

Two species of the genus, C. latipennis, Kirby, and C.palli- 
cor?iiSj Kiiby, present a remarkable modification of the 
pronoturn, wliich appears to have been overlooked by the 
describer. The disk of the pronoturn on each side is perfo- 


Mr. R. Sbelford on new 

rated by three [latipennis] ov two (palh'corm's) pores of 
relatively large size and semilunar in shape ; the tongue of 
chitin projecting into the crescentic pores is tuberculate in 
palh'cornis, but simple in latipennis. It is difficult even to 
guess at the function of these pores. Since they occnr in 
both sexes, it is evident that they are not secondary sexual 
structures ; but it is just possible that they are connected 
with prothoracic repugnatorial glands, though such have not 
yet been shown to occur in the Blattidte. The pronotal 
integument appears to be double in the region of these pores, 
and the pores appear to lead into a cavity existing between 
the upper and lower layers, and not to perforate the entire 
integument, for a bristle passed through one of them does not 
emerge on the ventral side of the pronotum. Without 
dissection it is not possible to be certain as to the relation of 
the parts, and the pores may be merely the entrances to 
invaginated cavities in the thickness of the pronotal chitin. 

KeT/ to the Species. 

1. Pronotum aud abdomen with erect pubes- 
cence. [E. Africa.) 
2. ProEotum with large lateral pores .... latipennis, Kirby. (Bi'it. 
2'. Pronotum without large lateral pores. . macra, Stal. (S. Africa.) 
1'. Pronotum and abdomen not pubescent. [boon.) 
2. Posterior margin of pronotum dentate . scabricollis, Gerst. (Ga- 
2'. Posterior margin of pronotum not den- 
3. Tegmina scarcely exceeding the apex 

of the abdomen yibhicoUis, Stal. (Natal.) 

3'. Tegmina considerably exceeding the 
apex of the abdomen. 
4. Small species (total length about [Africa.) 

38 mm.) jwdwiformis, ^Yalk, (S. 

4'. Larger species. 

5. Tegmina pale testaceous, casta-. [E. Africa, Soraaliland.) 

neous at base eapucina, (Germ. 

5', Tegmina uniform castaneous . . tnarshaUi, sp. n. (Rho- 


1. Body slender, elongate : species of small 
2. Pronotum much longer than broad .... 
2'. Pronotum scarcely longer than broad 
or as broad as long. 

3. Abdominal segments scabrous 

3'. Abdominal segments smooth 

1'. Body less slender, abdomen sometimes 
ampliated : species of larger size. 
2. Pronotum distinctly broader than Ion:?. 

poduriformis, Walk. (S. 

graniger, Sauss. & Zehnt. 
sp. n. (Nyasa- 

' [land.) 

Genera and Species of Blattldce. 169 

3. Lateral bands of pronotum naiTow, 

no pores in pronotal channel yihbicolHs, StSl. 

3'. Lateral bands of pronotum broader, Tvaal.) 

two large pores in pronotal channel. palliccyrnis,\i\rhy. (Trans- 
2'. Pronotum as long as broad or longer 
than broad. 
3. Lateral bands of pronotum very [Zambesi, Port. E.Africa.) 
broad, anterior margin reflected . . jalUcy Gig.-Tos. (Upper 
3'. Lateral bands narrower. 

4. Lateral bands closely adpressed to 

disk of pronotum cajmcina, Gerat. 

4'. Lateral bands not closely adpressed 
to disk of pronotum. 
5. Lower border of lateral bands [desia.) 

not dentate marshalli, sp. n. ("Rho- 

5'. Lower border of lateral bands [Africa.) 

dentate scahricollis, Gerst. (West 

Species of dviibtful position. 
Peri.spJt(en(i fusca, Barm., and P. gracilis, Burm. 

1, Cyrtotria latipennis, Kirbj. (PI. X. fig. 21.) 

ThysanohUdta latipennis, Kirby, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) xii. p. 380 

The following may be added to the original description: — 

^ . Eyes touching on vertex of head. Palpi, margin of 
labrum, ocelli, and of antennae testaceous. Head 
castaneous, punctate. Pronotum coarsely reticulate-punctate, 
with some smooth interspaces ; lateral bands rather narrow, 
not closely adpressed to disk, channel wide and shallow ; 
three large crescentic pores on each side of the disk ; poste 
rior margin slightly dentate, anterior margin slightly re- 
flected ; disk anteriorly carinate. 

Length of body 20*8 mm. ; length of tegmina 21 mm, ; 
pronotum (J"lx 6 mm. 

British E. Africa. 

Type in the British Museum. 

2. Cyrtotria matra, Stal. (PI. X. fig. 11.) 

Ischnoptern macro, StSl, CEfv. Vet.-Akad. Fijrh. xiii. p. 165 (1856). 
Derocalymma {Cyrtoti-ia) macro, StSl, /. c. xxviii. p. 380 (1871). 

Descriplion of type. — ^ . Head castaneous ; eyes close 
together, their distance apart equal to the breadth of the first 
antennal joint. Pronotum reticulate-punctate, with a long 
erect scattered pubescence, pale testaceous in colour. Lateral 
bands of pronotum not very broad, closely applied to tho disk, 
channel very narrow. Tegmiua hyaline, castaneous at base. 

170 Mr. E. Slielford on new 

Wings hyaline ; ulnar vein 8-ramose, only three of the 
branches being complete. Abdomen castaneous, vcntrally 
with scattered erect pubescence. Legs testaceous, with 
scattered erect hairs. 

Total length 15*9 mm. ; length of body 12 mm. ; length of 
tegmina 11*8 mm. ; pronotum 3*1 X 3 mm. 

Hah. CafFraria [J. WaJilherg). 

Type in Stockholm Mus. 

Tliis is one of the smallest species of the genus. 

3. Cyrtotria gibhicolUs, Stal. (PI. X. fig. 12.) 

Ischnoptera gibbkollis, Stfil, CEfv. Vet.-Akad. Fcirh. xiii. p. 165 (1856). 

Perisphm-ia elateroides, Walker, Cat. Blatt. Brit. Mus. p. 176 (1868). 

Perisphceria linearis, Walker, I. c. p. 176 (1868). 

Perisph<sria cylindrica, Walker, /. c. p. 176 (1868). 

Deroealymma {Cyrtotria) gihhicollis, StSl, I. c. xxviii. p. 380 (1871). 

c? (type). Head castaneous; eyes approximate; mouth- 
parts testaceous ; antenme infuscated, testaceous at base. 
Pronotum as broad as long, coarsely cribrate-punctate, with 
smooth interspaces ; castaneous, anteriorly testaceous ; lateral 
bands narrow, not very closely adpressed to disk, an anterior 
carina. Tegmina not exceeding the body by much, rufo- 
castaneous in basal third, remainder flavo-hyaline; veins 
testaceous. Wings clear hyaline ; ulnar with ten branches, 
eight of which are incomplete. Abdomen castaneous, mar- 
gined with testaceous ; subgenital lamina irregular, with one 
style ; cerci flavo-testaceous. Femora and coxse rufo- 
castaneous ; tibite and tarsi testaceous. 

? (type). Piceous, nitid, sparsely punctate. Head piceous, 
mouth-parts and antennas testaceous. Lateral borders of 
pronotum very narrow, scarcely elevated, closely adpressed 
to disk ; no anterior carina. Abdomen slightly ampliated ; 
supra-anal lamina trapezoidal ; cerci very short, flavid ; legs 

^. Total length 16-8 mm.; length of body 14 mm.; 
length of tegmina 14 mm.; pronotum 4'9 x 5 mm. 

? . Total length 13 mm.; pronotum 3"5x4*5 mm. 

Caffraria (J. Wahlberg, types in Stockholm Museum); 
Natal (elateroides, cylindrica, and linearis, types in British 
Museum) ; Colenso {G. Longstaff. Oxford Museum). 

I have compared the types of all the species enumerated 
in the synonymy, and though at first I was inclined to regard 
cylindrica as distinct, I have now come to the conclusion 
that it is a fully adult form, whereas gibhicollis was de- 
scribed from an incompletely mature form. 1 have had the 

Genera and Species of Blattklse. ] 7l 

advantage of cxamiuiiig a very long scries of C. capucina^ 
Gersf., taken by Dr. Y. Sjostedt in the Kilimanjaro district, 
and I am convinced that the shape of the abdomen fampliated 
or not ampliated) is a character of no importance in discri- 
minating between species of this genus, for it varies with the 
age of the insect and is largely affected by the way in which 
the specimens are dried or killed. Some of Dr. Sjostedt's 
examples were almost completely cylindrical, others had the 
abdonien distinctly ampliated ; yet there could be no doubt 
that all were referable to the same species. Similarly, apart 
from its size and the shape of the abdomen, C. cylindrica, 
Walk., differs in nowise from C. gibbicoUi's, Stal. 

4. Cyrtotria capucina, Gerst. (PI. X. fig. 13.) 

Derocalymma ca^wcj'na, Gevstaecker, Arch. Naturg. xxv. p. 207(1861) ; 

Von der Decken, Reis. iu Ost-Afrika, iii. (2) p. 8, pi. i. fig. 4 (1873). 
Stenopilema somali, Saussure, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxxv. p. 88 (1895) ; 

Saussure and Zehntner, Rev. Suisse Zool. iii. p. 27 (1895). 

To be distinguished from C. gihhicolUs, Stal, by the an- 
tennae testaceous at the base, by tlie proportions and shape of 
the pronotum, the lateral bands of which are broader and 
anteriorly are more separated from the disk. I have 
examined the type of C. somali, Sauss., which proves to be 
identical with Gerstaecker's species. 

$ . Total length lS-18'5 mm. ; pronotum 5x5 mm. 

The male will be described in a forthcoming memoir on 
the Blattidai of Mt. Kilimanjaro. 

Ilah. German East Africa, Mt. Kilimanjaro, and Somali- 

Type of capucina in the Berlin Museum ; type of somali 
in the Museo (*ivico di Storia Naturale, Genoa. 

5. Cyrtotria paUicornis, Kirby. (PI. X. fig. 16.) 

Stenopilema imllicoimis, Kirby, Ann. & Mag, Nat. Hist. (7) v. p. 290 

The following may be added to the original description : — 
? . Piccous, nitid, cribrate-punctate. Head and antennaj 
castaneous, mouth-parts rufo-castaneous. Pronotum slightly 
broader than long ; lateral bands narrow, slightly elevated, 
not closely adpresscd to disk ; pronotal channel wide ; two 
large crescentic pores, close together, on each side of the 
disk ; posterior angles produced, disk anteriorly carinate. 
Abdomen less strongly punctate than the thorax. Coxa; and 
femora piccous ; tibiie rufo-castaneous ; tarsi testaceous. 

172 Mr. K. Shelt'ord on new 

Total length 13 mm. ; pronotum 4*5 x 6 mm. 
Pretoria ( W. L. Distant) ; Zoutpansberg, Transvaal (J. P. 
Crecjoe) . 
Type in the British Museum. 

6. Cyrtotria poduriformis^ Wlk. (PI. X. fig. 14.) 

PerispJiceria podurifo?'mis, Walker, Oat. Blatt. Brit. Mus. p. 175 (1868). 
PeHsphceriu poduroides, Walker, /. c. p. 175 (^1868) (larva). 
Stenopilema macilenta, Saussure and Zehntuer, Rev. Suisse Zool. iii. 
p. 26, pi. i. fig. 3 (1895). 

I have compared the types of podariformis and macilenta^ 
and find them to be identical ; poduroides is a larva. It is 
possible tliat the species is the same as gracilis, Burm., but I 
cannot be certain on this point without consulting Bur- 
meister's type. The small size, narrow cylindrical shape, 
the somewhat flattened pronotum, much longer than broad 
and with the lateral bands adpressed to the disk at the base 
only, are the chief characters of this species. I append a 
description of what I consider to be the male of this species : — 

(J. Rufo-castaneous. Head castaneous, distance apart of 
eyes equal to breadth of first antennal joint. Pronotum 
coarsely cribrate-punctate, with a few smooth interspaces, 
carinate throughout its length, lateral bands not closely 
adpi-essed to the disk ; posterior angles not produced, anterior 
and posterior margin slightly reflexed. A very fine, short, 
erect pubescence on the disk of the pronotum. Tegmina 
considerably exceeding the apex of the abdomen, paler towards 
apex. Abdomen castaneous beneath, except at base, which 
is testaceous. Legs and cerci testaceous. 

Total length 37 "5 mm. ; length of body 15 mm. ; length 
of tegmina 15 mm. ; pronotum 4x3 mm. 

Damaraland ; Natal ; Cape Colony. 

^ type in the Oxford Museum ; § type of poduriformis in 
British Museum ; % type of macilenta in Geneva Museum. 

7. Cyrtotria graniger^ Sauss. & Zehnt. 

Stenopilema granigery Saussure and Zehntner, Rev. Suisse Zool. iii. 
p. 26 (1895). 

I do not know where the type of this species has been 
deposited ; it is not in the Geneva Museum. The key to the 
species shows how graniger may be distinguished from its 
ally podiiriformis. 

Genera and Species of Blattidse. 173 

8. Cyrtotria marskalli, sp. n. (PI. X. fig. 15.) 

(^ . Castaneous. Head piceous ; ocelli, basal joint of 
anteiinre, and mouth-parts testaceous. Eyes approximated. 
Fronotum as long as broad, punctate and rugulose ; anterior 
margin scarcely reflected ; lateral bands narrow, not adpressed 
to the disk of tlie pronotuni, posterior margin slightly 
elevated, posterior angles not |)ro(lueed. Tegraina not ex- 
ceeding body by much, apical half hyaline suffused with 
castaneous ; veins fuscous. Wings hyaline, anterior part 
suffused slightly with castaneous; ulnar vein with nine 
branches, only three of which reach the apex of the wing. 
Abdomen above testaceous at base, becoming castaneous 
towards apex, beneath castaneous ; supra-anal lamina sub- 
quadrate, angles rounded, subgenital lamina produced, irre- 
gular, margined with testaceous ; one style. [Cerci muti- 
lated.] Legs rufo-castaneous. 

? . Piceous, nitid, cribrately punctate. Head piceous, 
mouth-parts castaneous. Pronotum with lateral bands 
moderately broad, not adpressed to disk of pronotum, anterior 
margin scarcely reflected, pronotal channel broad and shallow, 
posterior angles ])roduced, disk anteriorly with a slight keel. 
Abdomen posteriorly slightly ampliated. Coxa; piceous ; 
femora and tibiye castaneous. 

(J. Total lengtii 26 mm.; length of body 22*5 mm.; 
length of tegmiiia 20 mm. ; pronotum 5x5 mm. 
$ . Total length 22 mm. ; pronotum Q x6 mm. 

Salisbury, Rliodesia {G. A. K. Marshall), '6 J ^ and 1 ? . 

Types ( (J and 2 ) in the Oxford Museum. 

Allied to C. poduriformis, but differs, inter alia, by its 
much larger size. 

9. Cyrtotria nyascp, sp. n. (PI. X. fig. 17.) 

? . Piceous, nitid, narrow and cylindrical. Head casta- 
neous, with very {t\\ punctures; eyes wide apart ; palpi and 
margin of labrum testaceous. Thorax cribrate-punctate, 
abduminal segments smooth. Pronotum rounded and very 
convex; h\teral bands rather broad, closely adpressed to disk, 
slightly produced backwards, anterior margin not reflected ; 
disk not carinate. Supra-anal lamina rounded; posterior 
margin reflected, punctate. Legs and cerci testaceous. 

Total length 15 mm. ; pronotum 4*2x4 ram. 

Nyasaland {A. Whyte). 

Type in the British Museum. 

174 Mr. R. Slielford on new 

Tlie blunt convex pronotum makes this an easily recog- 
nizable species. 

10. Cyrtotriajallce, Giglio-Tos. (PI. X. fig. 19.) 

Stenopilema jallce, Giglio-Tos, Boll. Mus. Torino xxii. no. .563, p. 4 

Upper Zambesi {Jalla) ; Portuguese East Africa [Sioijn- 
nerton) ; Rhodesia (Deutsche Ent. Nat. Mas.). 

Type in tiie Turin Museum. 

The species is distinguished by the strongly reflected 
anterior margin of the pronotum, which is continuous with 
the lateral bands, so that these are connected with each other, 
when viewed from the ventral side. The lateral bands of the 
pronotum are bent down anteriorly at more than a right 
angle to the disk. 

11. Cyrtotria scahricollis, Gerst. 
(PI. X. figs. 18, 24.) 

Derocalymma {Cyrtotria) scabricoUis, Gerstaecker, Mitt. Ver. Vorpomm. 
xiv. p. 34 (1883). 

Gaboon [Buchholz) ; Cameroons {Conradt). 

This, the only West-African representative of the genus, 
can be distinguished by the rugose and tuberculate pronotum 
with reflected and dentate posterior margin in the male and 
the dentate lower margin of the lateral bands in the female. 

The following is a description of the female : — 

Piceous. Head castaneous, finely punctate. Antennae 
testaceous at base, remainder castaneous. Pronotum coarsely 
tuberculate and punctate, anterior margin reflected; lateral 
bands finely tuberculate, rather broad, anteriorly bent down 
at more than a right angle to the disk, not closely adpressed 
to disk, the pronotal channel being wide and shallow, poste- 
riorly produced, their lower border dentate ; from the ventral 
aspect the lateral bands are seen to be in communication with 
each other anteriorly, as in C.jallce, Gig.-Tos; disk carinate, 
posterior margin dentate. Meso- and metanotum carinate, 
punctate, and with a few tubercles. Abdomen very finely 

Total length 16 mm.; pronotum 4'9x4 mm. ; pronotum, 
(J , 4-4 X 4 mm. 

^ type in Greifswald Muoeum ; ? type in Deutsche 
Entomologisclie National Mitseum. 

Genera and Species of Bluttidje. 175 

Genus Platysilpha, nov. 

Allied to Derocalynimay Burm.. but much broader, pro- 
uotuin about twice broader than long. ^ with tegmina 
reduced, quadrate, extending to the middle of the second 
abdominal tergite, marginal rield very broad. Wings rudi- 
mentary. Meso- and metanotum only half the breadth of tiie 
pronotum, and first abdominal segment narrower than second; 
subgenital lamina transverse ; styles absent. ? very like 
? of Derocali/nvna, but bi'oader and oval. 

Type. Perisphmria niurina, Walk. 

The male of this species, when the tegmina are removed, 
presents the remarkable outline shown in the figure, suggesting 
that the flattened broad insect has developed from a narrow 
form such as Derocalymma porcellio, Gerst., the mesonotum, 
metanotum, and first abdominal segment retaining the primi- 
tive narrowness. The marginal fields of the tegmina have 
broadened relatively much more than the discoidal field, and 
it is these which fill the gap between the posterior margin of 
the pronotum and second abdominal tergite ; the tegmina are 
capable of only the most restricted movement outwards, and 
in the living insects are doubtless never moved at all. 

In the female, owing to the absence of tegmina, the thoracic 
and abdominal segments are all equally broad ; it is the 
broadening of the tegmina in the male which appears to have 
prevented the broadening of the segments that they cover. 

PlaUjsilpha murina, Walk. (PI. X. fig. 20.) 
Perlsphceria murina, Walker, Cat. Blatt. Brit. Mus. p. 178 (1868). 

S . Fuscous, with fine scale-like pubescence above. Head 
and antennae piceous ; eyes approximated. Pronotum poste- 
riorly truncate ; posterior angles acute, disk cucullate, marfins 
lamellar, anteriorly slightly carinate. Scutellum prominent. 
Tegmina castaneous, rugose, posteriorly emarginate, radial 
vein beneath prominent, keeled. Wings shorter than 
tegmina, infuscated. Eight abdominal tergites visible, first 
to sixth divided by a transverse suture into a broad anterior 
portion and a narrow posterior portion ; posterior angles of 
all the tergites produced. Sujira-anal lamina quadrate. 
Cerci very short. Abdomen beneath piceous, nitid ; sternites 
failing to reach lateral margins owing to overlapping of the 
tergites ; subgenital lamina transverse. Legs piceous. 

? . Similar to c? , but with a rust-red pubescence above; 
mesonotum, metanotum, and first abdominal segment not 

176 On neio Genera and Species of Blattidas. 

(J. Length of body 22 mm.; tegmina 7x7 mm.; pro- 
notum 7 X 12 mm. 

? . Length of body 27 mm. ; pronotum 9 x 18 ram. 

E. Africa (British Museum) [type ? ] ; Petauke, East 
Loangvva district, N.E. Rhodesia (Oxford Museum), 3 (? cJ, 
4 ? ? , S. A. Neave Coll. 

1 have no information as to the habits in life of this species, 
but I imagine that it, like the allied species of Derocalijmma, 
is found under stones. This mode of life in numerous cases 
induces a flattened form with reduction of the tegmina ; the 
broadening and flattening of the body may be observed, 
though to a less extent, in such species as Temnopteryx 
phalerata, Sauss., and Heminauphceta sakalava, Sauss. & 
Zehntn. ; in these species also the tegmina are reduced and 
quadrate, and the constriction of the body in the middle has 
also occurred to a certain extent, and one may assume that 
it is correlated with the broadening of the reduced tegmina. 


Plate IX. 

Fit/. 1. Yvonotum oi Protar/onista lugubris, STp. n. X 3. 

Fiff. 2. Supra-anal lamina of S of Protagonista bornemsis, sp. n. 

I^g. 3. Right tegmen of Cardax ivilleyi, gen. et sp. n. X 10. r = 
radial vein; ?( = ulnar vein ; «. m = anterior ulnar vein ; p.u = 
posterior ulnar vein ; m= median vein; rt=anal vein; ax= 
axillary vein ; d= dividing vein. 

Fig. 4. Riglit wing of ditto. 

Fig. 5. Mandible of ditto. 

F'ig. 6. Maxilla of ditto. 

Fig. 7. Tibia (outer aspect) of ditto. 

Fig. 8. Apex of abdomen of Isclmoptera Jongdaffi, S (dorsal view). 

Fig. 9. Wing of Anaplecta erythronota, sp. n. 

Fig. 10. Diagrammatic transverse sections through pronota of Blattidse. 
A, typical Blattid ; B, P?-onaonota ; C, Pilema ; D, Bantua ; 
E, 'Derocalymma. o = disk of pronotum ; 6=lateral wings 
or lateral bands ; c = typical carinfe ; (?=dorsal carina?. 

Platk X. 
Fig. 11. Pronotum of Cyvtotrin macra, St§l, J, dorsal and lateral view.s, 

X 4. 
Fig. 12. Pronotum of Cyrtotria gibhicollis, Stal, $ , dorsal and lateral 

views. X 4. 
J'/V/. 13. Pronotum of Cyrtotria capucina, Gerst., 2, three-quarter, 

ventral, and lateral views. X 3. 
Fiq. 14. Pronotum of Cyrtotria poduriformis, Wlk., 5 , dorsal and lateral 

views. X 4. 
Fia 15 Pronotum of Cyrtotria marshalli, sp. n.. $ , three-quarter view. 

X 3. 
Fin 16 Pronotum of CyHotriu paUicornis, Kirby, $ , three-quarter view 
■ X 3. 

On a new Oribi from British East Africa. 177 

Fig. 17. Pronotum of Cyrtotria nyasce, sp. n., $ , dorsal and lateral views. 
X 4. 

Fig. 18. Pronotum of Cyrtotria scabricollis, Gerst., S, dorsal and lateral 
views. X 4. 

Fig. 19. Pronotum of Cyrtotria jalke, Gig.-Tos, $ , ventral and three- 
quarter views, X 3. 

Fig. 20. Plntysilpha murina, Walii., cT, left tegmen removed and shown 
from beneath. X I5. 

Fig. 21. Pronotum of Cyrtotria latipennis, Kirby, (5* , three-quarter view. 
X 3. 

Fig. 22. Pronotum of Pilema mombasee, sp. n., $, dorsal view, x 3. 

Fig. 23. Ditto, ditto, lateral view. X 3. 

Fig. 24. Pronotum of Cyrtotria scabricollis, Gerst., $ , dorsal and 
lateral views, x 4. 

Fig. 25. Thorax oi Bantuaferox, sp. n., $, dorsal view, x 3. 

XXVII. — On a new Oribi obtained by Major Powell-Cotton 
in British East Africa. By Oldfield ThoMAS and R. C. 

The Natural History Museum has recently received from 
Major Powell-Cotton some specimens of Oribi for identitica- 
tion. Amongst them are several from the Guas-ngeshu 
Plateau, E. of Mt. Elgon, which appear to us to represent a 
new species. 

The material available for comparison in the Museum, 
though scanty, seems to indicate that North-eastern Africa 
{i. e. north of Equator and east of 25°) contains four already- 
known forms, viz. : — (1) 0. montana, Cretzsclim., in Abys- 
sinia and the Soudan, occupying the whole area down to 
5° N. latitude, and distinguishable by its short slight liorns ; 
(2) 0. harjgardi, Thos., on the coast; (3) 0. kenyce^ Meinerzh., 
round Mt. Kenya ; and (-4) 0. goslingi, Thos. & Wrought., 
from the Welle Basin. 

Of tiiese 0. kenya>, by its bhack tail and narrow preorbital 
fossa, shows unmistakable affinity with the more southern 
form 0. hastata, Peters, from Mozambique; and 0. haggardi 
differs from all the rest by its shallow skull and by the com- 
pression of its horns posteriorly so as to make a more or les3 
distinctly marked longitudinal ridge. 

From 0. montana the present species is at once separable 
by its long stout horns, while from 0. goslingi it ditfers in 
wanting the black blaze on the face which is so characteristic 
of that animal. 

Ann. cC- Mag. X. [list. Ser. 8. Vol. i. 12 

178 Mr. G. J. Arrow on the 

Ourebia cottoni, sp. n. 

About the size of 0. gosUngi. 

Fur rather longer than in 0. gosUngi (25 mm. against 
20 in tlie latter species) . 

General colour above paler and brighter, tawny fading to 
buff on the flanks, while in the western species it is a dark 
clay-colour fading to ochraceous. Individual hairs of the 
back drab for basal two thirds, buff for the remainder, with 
minute black tips; in 0. gosUngi they are pale smoke-grey 
below, dark brown distally, broken by a bright buff ring 
below the black point. The dark frontal blaze so charac- 
teristic of the latter species almost entirely absent in 
0. cottoni. Tail very short (30 mm.), less than one third the 
length of that of 0. gosUngi. Horns stout and well-ridged, 
as in the Welle species, but not equalling those of 
0. haggardi. 

Skiiil broader and stouter, shorter in front of the orbits 
(nasals 60 ram., as compared witli 70 mm. in 0. gosUngi). 
Dimensions : — 

" Height at shoulder 23'; girth 21" ; total length, nostrils 
to tip of tail, 441". Weight, whole, 38 lbs." 
Tail, dried, 30 mm. 

Skull : greatest length 170 mm. ; basilar length 146 ; 
greatest width 80 ; length of rostrum in front of orbit 89 ; 
length of nasals 60 ; length of frontals 50 ; interorbital 
breadth 57 ; bullae 20. 

Hah. Surgoi Rockj Guas-ngishu Plateau, 1° N. lat., 
35° E. long. Alt. 7000'. 

Type. Adult male. B.M. no. 7. 12. 29. 1. Original 
number 240. Killed 15th August, 1902. Collected and 
presented by Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 

XXVIII. — Notes on the Coleopterous Oenus Oniticellus and 
Descriptions of some new Species from India. By GILBERT 
J. Arrow. 

Although the Madagascan species are now excluded from 
the genus Oniticellus, its geographical distribution is still 
peculiar and many of the species are very abundant and 
wide-ranging. This is the case with several of the European 
species, whose correct nomenclature is in some disorder owing 
to the imperfect knowledge of their distribution and of the 

Coleopterous Genus Oniticellus. 179 

original types o£ tlie species possessed by the authors of 
works dealing with the European Coleoptera. The recently 
published edition of Heyden, Reitter, and Weise's Catalogue 
enumerates five species of Oniticellus, viz., 0. festivus, Steven, 
pallipes, Fabr., pallens, Oliv., speciosus, Costa, and fulvus, 

Mr. C. O. Waterhouse, in the Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(7) ii. 1898, p. 75, expressed doubt as to the correct identi- 
fication of 0. pallipes, Fabr., and Mulsant had long before 
(Col(^opt. de France, Lamell. 1842, p. 98) expressed a doul)t 
whether the European species so long known as 0. pallipes 
was correctly so called, but the question has never advanced 
beyond the stage of conjecture. A careful comparison estab- 
lishes the entire distinctness of tiie two forms. 0. pallipes 
was described from a specimen from Coromandel now in tiie 
Britisii Museum and is a species which I have seen from all 
parts of India, but from nowhere outside that area. The 
European species has a general resemblance to it, but is 
decidedly larger, much more shining, and more strongly and 
closely punctured upon the prothorax. Its range is from 
Arabia, Persia, and Turkestan, by the northern shore of the 
Mediterranean to Italy and the south of France. It has 
many times been carefully described, but as no existing name 
is available, I propose to call it 

Oniticellus nitidicollis, sp. n. 

For my type I have selected a specimen from Sardinia in the 
British Museum. 

The type specimen of 0. pallipes, Fabr., is a male of a 
form of which I have seen only two other examples, one 
from Karachi and the other from Madura. In this form the 
three carinse upon the head are less strong than in the 
ordinary form, the external one is at the extreme margin of 
the clypeus, and the innermost one is gently curved and not 
angulated. The specimens were taken in the same localities 
as males of the common form and are exactly like the latter 
in all other respects, so that I consider them to represent 
only a sexual aberration. In a later description in the Syst. 
Eleuth. p. G3, Fabricius has added, as male characters, a 
diagnosis of the horned form, which is really the female, an 
error which has been repeatedly made since. 

0. speciosus, Costa, is described by its author as a rare 
Calabriau species. In the European Catalogue O. tiasicornis, 
Ivciche, is given as a synonym of it, but although 1 have seen 
no European specimens it is evident from the figure and 
description that it is not that species, but O. intcnnedius, 


180 Mr. G. J. Arrow on the 

Reiclie, which is often mistaken for it. 0. nasicorm's, E,eiche 
(of which also we have the type), is a species which I have 
seen only from Abyssinia, but 0. irdermedius is abundant 
throughout a large part of Africa and may therefore cross 
the Mediterranean. Reiche's species, however, were described 
in 1847, while Costa's descriptions are dated 1849, so that 
the name of speciosus is a synonym of intermedius, Reiche, 
Mr. Peringuey, in his ' Catalogue of the Lamellicornia of 
South Africa,' has incorrectly described this species under 
the name of 0. nasicornis, Reiche. 

0, pollens, Oliv., ranges from N.W. India across Arabia 
to Somaliland, and thence through Northern Africa into 

0. fulvusj Goeze, has a wide distribution in Europe 
and extends as far east as Turkestan and as far south as 

O.festivus, Steven, is a rare and peculiar species found in 
Asia Minor and the Caucasus. 

The Oriental Oniticellus vertagus, Fabr., has been many 
times described. The type of Fabricius's description is a 
female. Tiie male was first described by Erichson as 0. hi- 
furcatus and again by Wiiite as 0. bifurcalis. Overlooking 
all these earlier descriptions, Fairmaire described both sexes 
in 1891 as 0.f?c^K<.^er?iwm and two years later as 0. ionkineus, 
taking in the first case a well-developed male and in the 
second case an imperfectly developed one for his type. 

The following new species of this genus are in the British 

Oniticellus indicus, sp. n. 

Niger ; antennis, femoribus, prothoracis angulis anticis, elytrorum 

apifiibus, pygidio corporeque subtus plus minusve testaceis ; pro- 

thorace fortiter punctate, late canaliculato ; elytris sulcatis, 

interstitiis modice convexis, minute irregulariter punctatis. 

(S . Capita late carinato, carina medio obtusa, angulis acute dentata ; 

prothorace medio elevate, antice obtuse trituberculato. 
2 , Capita levirer bicarinato ; prothorace antice obsolete carinato. 
Long. 7-10'o mm. ; lat. max. 4-6 mm. 

Ilah. S. India, Malabar, Anamalai Hills, Nilgiri Hills 
(3000-6000 feet). 

Found in dung by Capt. A. K. W. Downing and Mr. H. L. 

Black and moderately shining, with the lower surface, 
femora, antenna?, front angles of the pronotum, the apices of 
the elytra, and the pygidium more or less testaceous. The 
clypeus is punctured and its front margin barely sinuated. 

Coleojjlerous Genus Oniticellus. 181 

The protliorax is transverse, rather strongly punctured and 
lightly channelled along tlie middle. The elytra are sulcate, 
with the interstices convex and finely irregularly punctured. 
The pygidium and lower surface of the abdomen are opaque. 
J . The head is armed with a transverse carina occupying 
the whole width between the eyes, produced a little upwards 
and outwards at each end and very obtusely toothed in the 
middle. The protliorax is elevated into a broad hump, 
nearly straight in front, but forming a blunt tubercle on each 
side and with the anterior declivity smooth and nearly 
perpendicular. There is a large rounded depression in each 
front angle. 

? . The clypeus is more strongly and closely punctured, 
there is a curved anterior carina and a nearly straight 
posterior one. The prothorax has a slight blunt carina a 
little behind the front margin. 

This species is allied to O.femoratus, Illig., but larger and 
relatively broader, with the elytra less broadly and deeply 
sulcate and the intervals broader and more opaque. In the 
male the angles of the cephalic carina are much more pointed. 

Oniticellus affinis, sp. n. 

Niger ; capita leviter senescente, antennis, femoribus, prothoracis 
angulis anticis, elytrorum apicibus, pygidio corporeque subtus 
testaceis ; clypeo prothoraceque crebre punctatis, hoc medio 
sulcato ; elytris striatis, interstitiis convexis, minute et irregula- 
riter punctatis ; pygidio abdomiueque opacis. 

c? . Capite late carinato, cariufe summa fere rectilinea, angulis extus 
acute productis ; prothorace medio elevato, antice breviter obtuse 

$ . Capite bicarinato ; prothorace antice vix carinato. 

Long. 8-9 mm. ; lat. max. 4"5-5 mm. 

Hah. Manipur, Tavoy (Burma) ; Renong (Siam). 

This species is black and moderately shining, with the 
head and anterior part of the prothorax slightly metallic, and 
the antenna?, the femora, the anterior angles of the pronotum, 
the apical margins of the elytra, the pygidium and lower 
surface of the body testaceous. The clypeus is very finely 
punctured, the prothorax strongly and closely punctured and 
longitudinally sulcate at the middle. The elytra are sub- 
opaque and sulcate, with the interstices minutely and incon- 
spicuously punctured and the alternate ones a little more 

<J . The head is armed with a broad carina, which is pro- 
duced ^outwards at the angles, but nearly straight at the 

182 On the Coleopterous Genus Oniticelliis. 

summit. The pvotliorax is elevated into a dorsal hump 
produced bluntly forwards and very minutely notched in 

? . There are two carinse on the head, but none on the 

This is exceedingly like the first-described species, but a 
little smaller, relatively narrower, and more finely punctured. 
Tlie cephalic carina of the male is not toothed in the middle 
and the thoracic hump is narrower and scarcely bituberculate 
in front. 

Oniticellus modestus, sp. n. 

Fusco-ferrugineus, opacuss, metasterni medio pedibusque sat nitidis ; 
capita cupreo-nigro prothoracisque medio fusco, nonnunquam 
vage cupreo : sat elongatus, depressus, toto inermis ; capite 
emarginato, irregulariter puuctato ; prothorace densissime punc- 
tate, postice leviter sulcato ; elytris striatis, minute granulatis, 
apicibus pygidioque setiferis. 

2 . Clypeo paulo magis producto, tibiis anticis fortius dentatis. 

Long. 5"5-7*5 mm. ; lat. max. 3-4 mm. 

Hab. S. India, Belgaum, Calicut. 

Dull opaque ferruginous brown, with the legs and the 
middle of the metasternum shining, the head slightly coppery, 
and the prothorax vaguely darker at the middle and some- 
times feebly metallic. The body is elongate and very flat 
above, and there is no armature of any kind in either sex. 
The head has intermixed coarse and fine punctures and the 
clypeus is gently emarginate in front. The pronotum is 
densely, and at the side rugosely, punctured, and there is a 
lightly impressed longitudinal line at the middle of the basal 
half. The sides and base are gently and continuously 
rounded and the front angles very blunt. The elytra are 
finely striated and the interstices flat and minutely granulated. 
The elytra near the extremities and the pygidium are 
furnished with short stiff bristles, and the metasternum is 
strongly punctured. The front tibiae are armed with four 
strong teeth. 

The female has the clypeus a little produced and the front 
tibiae rather broader and more strongly toothed. 

In some of the species of Oniticellus tiie more pronounced 
sexual characters, contrary to the general rule, are those of 
the female sex, and certain authors have therefore described 
the females as males. I have proved by dissection that the 
sexes of the present species are correctly discriminated. 

This species seems to be the southern representative of the 

On the Serows and Gorals. 183 

North Indian Oniticellus tmbellis, Bates, and was named by 
Reiche 0. fiiscopunctatus, F. ; but by the kindness of 
Dr. Adam Buviiig, of Copenhagen, wlio has made for me an 
excellent drawing of the Fabrician type specimen, I am ablo 
to state that that is a species of Onthophngus, very much 
smaller and entirely unlike the insect here described. Reiche 
is responsible also for the manuscript name " modestus, Dej.," 
which I have adopted. 

Oniticellus modestus is closely related to the African 
0. spinipes, Roth, for which Mr. Peringuey has formed a new 
genus Tiniocellus, which he has widely separated from 
Oniticellus by reason of his counting only eight joints in the 
antenna. This is an error, for there are nine joints, and these 
species cannot be separated from 0. cinctus, F., planatus, 
Lap., /onnosuAT, Chev., &c. 

I may take this opportunity of noting that Mr. Pdringuey 
has incorrectly given the last-named species as a synonym 
of the S.-African 0. pictus, llausm. O.formosus, (Jhev., is 
a West-African insect, larger than O. pictus and differing 
in the form of the clypeus and other respects. 

XXIX. — Oti the Oeneric Names of the Riipicaprine Ruminants 
known as Serows and Gorals. By R. I. POCOCK, Superin- 
tendent of the Zoological Society's Gardens. 

The rupicaprine ruminants commonly known as Serows and 
Gorals were first dismembered from the genus Antilope by 
Hamilton Smith in 1827 (Grithth's An. Kingdom, v. p. 352). 
This author grouped under the subgenus JVo'morhedus * the 
three species sumatrensis, Shaw, duvaucelii, H. Sra., and 
goral, Hardw. One of these must be the type of Ncemorhedus. 

In 1834 Hodgson (P. Z. S. 1834, p. 85) adopted JScemo- 
rhedus for the same species, with the addition of the Nepalese 
form described by himself as thar. Although clearly recog- 
nizing that the four species ought to be athliated in pairs, 
A', gural and N. duvaucelii forming a group apart from 
iV. sumatre7isis and N. thar, Hodgson himself did not divide 
N(Bmorhedus into two genera or subgenera, nor select one of 
the species as its type. 

The next writer to deal systematically with the question, 
namely Ogilby (P. Z. S. 1836, p. 138), pointed out that 

♦ I preserve the orif^inal spelling of the name throughout this paper, 
and ignore the emendations that have been proposed. 

184 Mr. R. I. Pocock on the 

qoral and thar are generically distinct. For the former he 
introduced the genus Kemas, for tlie latter Capricorms, 
entirely setting Ncemorhedus aside. Now Kemas, or, rather, 
Cemas, had been previously used by Oken (Lehrb. Zool. ii. 
p. 727, 1816) for a series of antelopes of which goral was not 
one. Hence, if it be maintained that Kemas and Cemas are, 
strictly speaking, the same names, goral cannot be the type 
of Kemas. If, on the other hand, the difference in the forma- 
tion of the initial letters " K'' and " C" be regarded as a 
sufficient reason for considering the names different, goral 
might be the type of Kemas, and some other antelope, say 
gnu, according to Messrs. Sclater and Thomas's selection 
(' Book of Antelopes,' i. pt. ii. p. 93, 1895), the type of 
Cemas *. Since Ogilby quotes no authorities for any of the 
genera cited in his paper, it is impossible to say whether he 
was aware of Oken's use and spelling of the name or not. 
Ogilby, indeed, left the matter in a most perplexing and 
unsatisfactory state, on account of his disregard of the claims 
of Noimorhedus, which, by the law of priority, must supersede 
either Kemas or Capricornis. This appears to me to be 
clearly a case where the decision of the next reviser, if 
lawfully made, should be adhered to. This was Gray. 
When he published his 'List of Mammals in the British 
Museum ' in 1843 f, the generic nomenclature of the group 
stood as follows : — 

JScemorhedus, containing sumairensisy duvaucelii, goral. 
Kemas, „ goral. 

Capricorms, „ thar { = bnbaUna). 

Now Gray followed Ogilby in admitting the two genera 
defined by that author as Kemas and Capricornis. He 
reserved Capricornis for thar ( = bubalina) and adopted 
Ncemorhedus for goral and sumatrensis. His association of 
these two species was apparently due to his being acquainted 
only with the horns of sumatrensis. This mistake, however, 
in nowise affects the fact that he dropped Kemas, Ogilby, as 
a synonym of Ncemorhedus and did not drop Capricornis. 
His reason for this was quite obvious and natural and wise, 
namely, that Kemas was, in his opinion, preoccupied as 
Cemas, Oken (see p. xxvi of the introduction to the List 

* This selection can, I imagine, only hold good if the type of Cemas 
had not been previously fixed by elimination. 

t In 1841 (Joum. As. Soc. Bengal, p. 913) Hodgson referred jroraZ and 
thar to " Ncemorhedus vel Kemas.'" But since he thus merely reverts to 
his original view as to the two species being congeneric, his paper does 
n' t affect the question at issue. 

Generic Names of the Seroios and Gorals. 185 

Mamm. in B. M.). But, whatever tlie reason for his action 
may have been, 1 do not see how his decision, since the choice 
rested witii him, can possibly be set on one side. In his 
subsequent works (Anu. & Maf^. Nat. Hist. xiii. p. 232, 
1846 ; List Ost. Spec, in B. M. 1847, p. 57 ; P. Z. S. 1850, 
pp. 135-136 ; and Cat. Mamm. Ung. iii. pp. 110-114, 1852) 
he confirmed his verdict and brouglit his system into con- 
formity with modern views. He correctly withdrew suma- 
trensis from Ncemorhedus, ranged it with thar { = bubalina) 
under Capricorm's, and left goral witli duvaucelii as its 
synonym as the sole representative of Ncemorhedus. 

It was subsequently stated by Jerdon (' Mammals of 
India,' 1867, p. 283), and, following him, by W. L. Sclater 
(Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. p. 147, 1891), that sumatrensis is 
the type of Ncemorhedus. I can find no evidence for, much 
less proof of, the truth of this statement. If true it would 
invalidate Gray's nomenclature. Since it appears to be 
unfounded; I see no escape from the adoption of that author's 
settlement of the question. 

Of authors who succeeded Gray, some — like Ilorsfield 
(P. Z. S. 1856, p. 403), Adams (P. Z. S. 1858, pp. 522-523), 
and Blyth (Cat. Mamm. As. Soc. p. 174, 1863, and Burma 
List, p. 46, 1875) — followed his nomenclature; others — like 
Turner (P. Z. S. 1850, p. 173), Jerdon, M.-Edwards (Rech. 
Mamm. 1868-1874), and W. L. Sclater— reverted to the 
original view of H. Smith and Hodgson that the Gorals and 
Serows are congeneric and to be entitled Ncemorhedus. 

In 1891, however, Dr. Blanford (Mamm. Brit. India, 
pp. 513 & 516) pointed out tliat Ogilby was right in sepi- 
rating the two, and, agreeing apparently with Jerdon that 
sumatrensis was the type of Ncemorhedus, he adopted the 
inadmissible name Cemas for the Gorals and Ncemorhedus 
for the Serows, entirely ignoring Gray's previous settlement 
of the question. Without further inquiry into the matter, 
Trouessart adopted Blanford's view (Cat. Mamm. i. p. 964, 
1898), merely compromising the question by classifying the 
species under Ncemorhedus with Kemas and Ncemorhedus 
(s. s.) as subgenera. 

In 1900 Mr. Lydckker (' Great and Small Game of India,' 
p. 136) complicated the subject still further by following 
Blanford, but with the substitution of Urotragus for Cemas, on 
the grounds of the inadmissibility of Cemas or Kemas for 
the Gorals. This system of nomenclature was adopted by 
Trouessart in 1905 (Cat. Mamm., Suppl. p. 734), and it 
reappears in the second edition of Mr. Lydekker's above- 
quoted work published in 1907.' Urotragus^ it should be 

186 Mr. K. I. Pocock 07i the 

explained, was a generic name proposed by Gray in 1871 for 
the long-tailed Chinese Goral described as Antilope caiidata 
by A. Milne-Edwards. This species, however, is not usually 
admitted to be generically distinct from the Himalayan form. 

Although it has been suggested to me that Kemas of 
Ogilby should be regarded as a different name from Gemas of 
Oken because of the optical and, to those who pronounce tlie 
initial " C" as a sibilant, phonetic differences between " C" 
and "^," I nevertheless agree with Gray, and, following 
him, with Mr. Lydekker and M. Trouessart, that " C" and 
"Z"" in this and analogous cases must be looked upon as 
identical letters. 

But, whatever the ultimate verdict on this point may be, 
Kemas caimot, in my opinion, be reserved for the Gorals, 
because of Gray's decision to call these animals Ncemorhedus. 
And this action on the part of Gray similarly disposes of the 
claims of Urotragus to generic recognition so long as caudatus, 
the type of Urotragus, is regarded, as I think it should be, 
as congeneric with goral, the type of Ncemorhedus. 

In 1894 Heude" (Hist. Nat. Chinois, ii. pp. 222 & 234) 
followed Ogilby's nomenclature, adopting Capricornis and 
Kemas, which he characterized ; but in 1898 {pp. cit. iv. 
pp. 13-14) he broke up Capricornis as follows : — 

1. Capricornis for thar, chrysochcetes, fargesianus, longi- 

cornis, hrachyrhinus, nasutus. 

2. Nemotragus, nov., for erythropggius, platyrhinus, cornu- 

tus, ungulosus, microdonticus, argyrochcetes. 

3. Lithotragus, nov., for maritimus, rocherianus, henetianus, 

marcolinus, herthelianus. 

4. Capricornulus, nov., for crispus, pryerianus, sa.vicola. 

5. Austritragus, nov., for sumatrensis. 

It is quite beyond my purpose, if it was within my power, 
to deal with these so-called species * ; and the adoption by 

* Wi th the exception of thar, crispus, and sumatroms, the names enume- 
rated above were applied by Heude to what he believed to be new species 
inhabiting China and Japan. "With regard to the Chinese forms, I hnd it 
impossible to believe that they should rank as " species " in the ordinarily 
accepted sense of the word. Probably a subspecific value should be assigned 
to some of them, possibly a higher value to a few^ Many of the features, 
again, upon which the " species " rest may be attributable to ditlerences 
of age or of sex or of season, or to individual variation irrespective of such 
conditions. Tt is impossible to say, the provoldngly involved and verbose 
nature of the text making the attempt to clear up the questions raised 
one upon which few will attempt to embark without localized material. 
Nevertheless, it must be admitted that the papers of Heude have a certain 
value and interest, inasmucli as the observations they record substantiate 

Generic Names of the Serows and Gorals. 187 

Heude of Ogilby's generic names does not affect the question 
as to what is the type of Ncemorhedus, except in so far as 
his use of the name Capricornis may silence tliose who might 
otherwise maintain that this name should be dropped on the 
grounds of its failure to receive recognition at the hands of 
modern writers. 

Tlie following is a list of tlie generic names that have been 
proposed for the Serows and Gorals. Since it is desirable 
that every generic name, whether admitted at the present 
time or not, should be definitely assigned to a particular species 
as its type, I have, without prejudice, selected a type for each 
of those proposed by Heude, Only one of these, however, 
namely Capricornulus, has, in my opinion, any claim to 
recognition, Lithotragus, Nemotragus^ and Austritragush^mg 
complete synonyms of Capricornis. Capricornulus may, 
perhaps, be admitted on the grounds that the lacrymal bone 
forms a very short union with the nasal in the typical species 
crispus, which in this particular approaches Ncemorhedus and 
differs from Capricornis. 

Ncemorhedus, H. Smith, 1827. Type by Gray^s revision of 
1843 and 1846 goral, Hardwicke. 

Capricornis, Ogilby, 1836. Type ab initio thar, Hodgson*. 

Kemas, Ogilby, 1836. Type ab initio goral, Hardwicke. 

Urotragus, Gray, 1871. Type ab initio caudatus, M.-Edwards. 

Austritragus, Heude, 1898. Type ab initio sumatraensis, 
Bechstein f. 

Capricornulus, Heude, 18'J8. Ty|^ by selection crispus, 

the fact that considerable variation in the colour of the pelage, the struc- 
ture of the skull, and the size and shape of the horns exists in specimens 
of Cajjriconiis and Ncemorhedus occurring in the Chinese area. And 
however much one may secretly sympathize with the omission of the 
generic and specihc names Heude proposed from Zoological Records, the 
morality of this proceeding is open to question, at all events, on the 
grounds that the record of such names, once published, must be pre- 
served if only to prevent their subsequent use in a different sense by 
RUihors ignorant of tlieir preoccupation. 

• ' Gleanings,' iii. p. 324 (Oct. 1831). In 1832 (P. Z. S. p. 12) Hodgson 
substituted bulndina for thar, and of late years the species has been, iifter 
Blanford's example, erroneously cited as bubalinns. 

t ' Uebersicht vierfiiss. Thiere,' i. p. 98 (1799). Up to the present time 
this species has been alwaj's cited as sumatrensis, Shaw, 18CU. 

18S Senor A. Cabrera on 

Lithotmgus, Heude, 1898. Type by selection marltimus, 

JSlemotragus, Heude, 1898. Type by selection argi/rochretes, 

Allowing Capricornulus to stand, at all events provisionally, 
the above-mentioned genera may be reduced to the following 
three : — 

1 . Caprtcorms, Ogilby ( = LithotraguSy Heude + Nemotragus, 

Heude + Austritragus^ Heude). 

2. Capricornulus, Heude. 

3. Nceinorhedus , H. Smith { = Kemas, OgWhy + Urotrag us, 


Note. — When revising the names of the Serows and 
Gorals I came across a hitherto unnoticed synonym of the 
Nilgiri wild goat {Hemitragus hijlocrius). The reference is 
as follows : — " Capra Neilgherri, H. A. Leveson, Sport in 
many Lands, p. 238, pi. iv. fig., ? 1876." My copy of this 
volume bears no date ; but since it belonged apparently to 
the tirst edition, and contains a memoir of the autlior (" The 
Old Shekarry "), who died in 1875, the date of the name in 
question may be placed as probably not earlier than 1876. 

iXXX. — On Muscardinidse/ro??? the Iberian Peninsula. 
By Angel Cabrera. 

Spanish and Portuguese dormice are, for the most part, 
badly worked, no two authors agreeing as to the number and 
geographical distribution of species. Of Eliomys especially 
several apparently different forms have been described, partly 
by myself, the validity of which requires to be discussed. 
Since the publication of my paper on Spanish Eliomys * my 
opinion on this subject has been somewhat modified, as a 
result of the examination of much new material, including a 
fine series mainly collected by Mr. Gerrit S. Miller, to whose 
kindness I owe the opportunity of examining it. 

In the present paper I give a summary of ray conclusions 
on the whole family, as represented in the Iberian Peninsula. 

* Bol. Real Soc. Espan. de Hist. Nat. 1904, p. 180. 

Mnscardimdie from the Iberian Peninsula. 189 


Peninsular representatives of this genus were universally 
known as Eliomys quercinus (or its synonymous ^^ nitela^^) 
till 1890, when Reuvens named a specimen from Lisbon 
E. 7iitela, var, lusitanica *. Seven years later Dr. Graells 
described some Andalucian dormice as E. nitela, var. a/norj' t ; 
in 1899 a skull from N.W. Spain was re^^arded by Mr 
Barrett- Hamilton \ as belonging to E. mumhyanus, Porael. 
Two other Spanish forms have been described by myself, 
E. hortualis in 1904 and E. hamiltoni as recently as last 
October §. All these names must be commented on 

E. nitela^ var. lusitanica, Reuvens. — Ty))e locality : Lisbon, 
Portugal. The type, in the Munich Museum, is brietly 
described by Reuvens as a " dunkel rostfarbiges Exemplar," 
and a co-type in the British Museum is, Mr. Miller informs 
me, quite simih\r to specimens of Eliomys from Seville in the 
same collection. The name, therefore, is available for a 
large dark red form living in southern parts of Spain and 
Portugal, and specifically distinct from quercinus not only on 
account of its colour, but by the form and size of the skull 
and by the peculiar colour-pattern of the tail, the underside 
of which is usually black or blackish in its middle third. 
This species has been described in detail by Oldfield Thomas || 
and myself under the name " Eliomys amori, Graells," but on 
Mr. Miller's suggestion it must be called E. lusitanicus. 

3fyo.rus nilehi. var. amori, Graells. — Type locality : (lor- 
doba, Andalucia. In the oKl-fashioned original description, 
based on three specimens, this form is said to be bright red 
on the back, smaller than quercinus, and with tiie under 
surface of the tail entirely white. The bad figure that illus- 
trates it was probably drawn from a brightl}' coloured mounted 
specimen of E. quercinus from France, in tlie Madrid Museum 
of Natural Sciences. In the red colour of the body, the 
description agrees equally with E. lusitanicus and with old 

♦ Reuvens, ' Die Myoxidae oder Schlaefer,' 1890, p. 2S, footnote. 

t Graells, Mem. Ac. Cienc. Madrid, xvii. (1897) p. 481, pi. xvii. 

X Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) iii. 1899, p. 227. 

§ Bol. Soc. Espan. Hist. Nat. 1907, p. 226. The number of the 
'Boletin' in which E. hamiltoiii is described is dated June-Julv, but it 
was really published towards the end of October. Some InsectiVores re- 
ferred to in the same paper were previously described in the September 
number of the present Magazine. 

II P. Z. S. 1901, i. p. 41, footnote. 

190 Seuov A. Cabrera on 

alcoholic specimens of quercinus ; wliile as regards siz^, 
" smaller " or ^' larger," without detailed measurements nor 
indication of the age of specimens, are words of little scientific 
value. As for the absence of black on the ventral surface of 
the tail, this is characteristic of E. quercinus^ but there are 
specimens of lusitanicus that also lack the black central 
portion ; the co-type of this species in the British Museum, 
Mr. Miller writes me, " is just one of these unusual specimens 
without black on underside of tail " ; and I have seen several 
dormice from different Andalucian localities, evidently of the 
large red form, with the tail entirely white below. 

Graells's description and figure being not sufficiently accu- 
rate for purposes of identification, I asked Professor Coscol- 
lano, of Cordoba Institute, for information, and from him I 
learn that the Cordoban Elioviys is the same animal as that 
from Seville. A specimen in the Institute collection has the 
upper parts of the body brownish red and the underside of the 
tail white, with a blackish centre. Moreover, Graells said the 
types of amori were in his possession, and the only Eliomys 
in the Graells collection, now in the Madrid Museum, is a 
specimen of E. lusitanicus, without Mack on the ventral side of 
tail. It bears no indication of locality or collector, but I 
think it may be regarded as one of the co-types. Mr. Oldfield 
Thomas was therefore correct in applying the name amori to 
the Andalucian form when its identity with E. lusitanicus 
was not yet suspected. It is noteworthy that the two names 
given to this animal were based on specimens with the tail 
unusually coloured. 

Barrett-Hamilton's "Eliomys mu'mbyanus, Pomel." — Based 
on a skull from Cabanas, Coruna province, N.W. Spain, in 
the British Museum. The skull of true mumhyanus being 
quite similar in form to that of quercinus, the only reason 
that led Barrett-Hamilton to regard this specimen as of the 
Pomel form was undoubtedly its small size ; but, as he 
compared mumhyanus not with true quercinus, but with 
specimens from Seville {E. lusitanicus), that reasonhas very 
little force. In my opinion, the Cabaiias skull is one of 
E. quercinus, perhaps not quite adult. 

E. munihyanus from North Africa seems to me merely a 
diminutive race of E. quercinus. Specimens from Mogador 
are identical in colour and skull- features with quercinus from 
the French Pyrenees, but rather smaller. 

Eliomys hortualis, Cabrera *.— Type locality : Valencia, 
* L. c. 1904, p. 183. 

Muscarclinidse/row the Iberian Peninsula. 191 

E. Spain. Based on three specimens with the upper parts, 
especially tlie black markings of head and tail, strongly 
suffused with red, and the skull somewhat different from that 
of E. quercinus, as figured by Reavens *. In E. hortualis the 
hind part of the frontals is nearly square, whereas in Reuvens's 
figure it is triaTigular. The redness of the black markings 
proving to result from long immersion in alcohol, the red 
suffusion on the back and the skull-features only remain as 
valuable characters. 

Now, in the series before me, there are two specimens 
from Valencia and several others from the Spanish provinces 
of Castell6n, Iluesca, and Burgos, and there are also two 
from Ari^ge in Soutli France. All of them evidently belong- 
to a single species, and the same as that of Belgium, Germany, 
and Switzerland ; and from comparison with them it is 
clearly seen to be impossible to separate my E. hortualis from 
E. quercinus even as a local race. The reddish tinge of the 
back, conspicuous in one of the Valencian specimens in the 
series, is seen also in a male from the llucsca Pyrenees 
(exact locality : Panticosa, 1558 m. altitude), and in a very 
adult female from I'Hospitalet, Ariege, the slight redness of 
the hair probably being a mark of old age. As to the skull- 
peculiarities, all the series, and, as a matter of fact, all the 
specimens of E. quercinus, exliibit the nearly square frontals. 
If correctly de))icted, the skull figured by Heuvens, which 
led me to describe the Valencian dormouse as a new species, 
must be either from a very young or from an abnormal 

E. hamiltoni, Cabrera. — Type locality : El Pardo, near 
Madrid. Under the supposition that tlie skull of E. quer- 
cinus was different from tliat of E. hortualis and niumbyanusy 
this form was separated on account of two characters exhi- 
bited by a number of specimens from El Pardo : the white 
parts, especially on the head, stained with sulphur-yellow, 
and the skull similar to that of hortualis in size and shape, 
but with straight, not convex, zygomatic arches. Now, in 
Mr. Miller's scries I find straight, and even concave, as well 
as convex zygomata ; and as to the hue of the white parts, a 
yellowish suffusion exists in some specimens from Ariege, 
Huesca, and Burgos, while it is not seen on a specimen from 
Madrid Moncloa Park in my private collection. E. haj7ii(- 
<oni is therefore indistinguishable from quercinus, the yellow- 
ness of the white hairs probably being an effect of prevailing- 

* Kouveus, I. c. 1890, pi. i. &g. 2. 

192 ^ Sefior A. Cabrera on 

food, as is the case in certain specimens of Glis recorded 
by Ghidini *. In El Pardo dormice feed chiefly on acorns. 

To sum up the foregoing conclusions : Eliomys is repre- 
sented in the Peninsula by two different species — a northern 
and central one, E. qaercinus, reaching on the south as far 
as the Guadiana River, Central Portugal, and the province 
of Murcia ; and a southern one, E. lusitanicus, inhabiting 
Andalucia and the southern part of Portugal. Lisbon, Don 
Benito, and Daimiel are the most northern localities in which 
E. lusitanicus has been collected. 

Thomas's E. gymnesicus need not be commented on here, 
as it is a Balearic form only, never found on the mainland. 


Glis gUs is recorded from N. W. Spain by Seoane f, from 
Andalucia by Machado :j: and Martinez Keguera §, and from 
Madrid by Cazurro ||. The last proves to be erroneous, 
as the grey dormouse does not inhabit the province of 
Madrid, the specimen in the Madrid Museum that Cazurro 
alludes to being a young Eliomys quercinus with the grey 
juvenile coat. Graells describes Glis as " more common 
in the eastern and southern than in the central and northern 
parts of the Peninsula"; he, however, bases this conclusion 
not on his own experience, but on the statements of Machado 
and Reguera ^. Now, when I think of Reguera's admitting 
the existence of ass-deer hybrids, and of Machado's including 
such a species as Myoxus frugivorus among the Andalucian 
mammals, I cannot place too much confidence in the assertions 
of these authors. Both from my own experience and from 
information obtained from collectors and country people, I am 
convinced that Glis has never been seen either in Andalucia 
nor in Valencia ; the Valencian names (" rata del camp " 
and " rata de plumall ") quoted for it by Graells really 
belong to Eliomys quercinus. The genus seems to be also 
unrepresented in Portugal, as Seabra does not include it in 
his catalogue of mammals from that country **. 

* Bollett. Soc. Ticin. Science Nat. ii. 1905, p. 53. 

t V. Lopez Seoane, ' Fauna Mastol. de Galicia,' 1861-63, p. 265. 

X Machado y Nunez, ' Catal. Mamif. de Audalucia,' 1869, p. 27. 

§ L. Martinez y lleg-uera, ' Fauna de Sierra-Morena : Mamiferos del 
t^rmino de Montoro,' 1881, p. 161. 

II Manuel Cazurro, " Fauna Matritense " (Actas Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 

H Graells, Mem. Ac. Madrid, 1897, p. 479. 
** Jorn. Scienc. Lisboa, (2) vi. 1900, p. 90. 

Muscaixliuidaj/A-om the Iberlaa Peninsula. 193 

With regard to the north of tlie Peninsula, GUs evidently 
occurs there. Seoane records a specimen actually obtained 
in the Oaabeiro woods, near Ferr(d ; two specimens from 
Navarre exist in the Museum of Madrid, and another, from 
San Esteban de Palantordera, Barcelona province, is pre- 
served in the Martorell Museum of Barcelona. 

On corn))arison with true G. glis from Germany in the 
same collection, the Navarre specimens in the Madrid Museum 
appear to rejiresent a well-marked local form, which I 
describe as follows : — 

Glis glis pyrenaicus, subsp. n. 

Characters. Similar to the typical form in all essential 
respects, but readily distinguishable by its larger skull and 
the strotig bufFy tinge of its back. 

Colour. Upperparts bufFy grey, the hairs being iron-grey 
with yellowish-buff ends. In the middle of the back there 
are numerous black hairs, showing a bright metallic gloss. 
Under surface creamy white, separated from the upper colour 
by a narrow ill-defined zone of [)ure yellowish buff extending 
from the cheek to the hip. Tail glossy brownish grey, with 
the usual whitish line along its underside. Ears and orbital 
rings brown. Hands and feet white; a broad brown meta- 
tarsal patch as usual. 

Skull. Like that of typical G.glis, but larger, approaching 
G. italicus in this respect. 

Measurements (type in flesh). Head and body 169 mm.; 
tail-vertebra3 137 ; hind foot (s. u.) 28; ear IG. 

Skull: greatest length 4 r5 ; basilar length 33 ; zygomatic 
breadth 24; breadth of brain-case 18; interorbital breadth 5"5; 
length of nasals 14; palatilar length 16; diastema 10; 
upper tooth'row 7'o. 

Hah. Navarre Pyrenees, North Spain. The specimens 
recorded from Eerrol and Barcelona probably belong to the 
same species. 

Type. Adult female from the neighbourhood of Alio, 
province of Navarre. No. 1223, Museum of Natural Science 
of Madrid. 

Remarks. This form seems to be the most western repre- 
sentative of the grey dormouse, and opposite in size to the 
small eastern G. g. spoliatus. Whether or not it ranges 
southwards along the Burgos Mountains and Serrania de 
Cuenea, as other Pyrenoau mammals do, I am not able to 
say at present. 

Ann. & Ma,j. N. Hist. Sor. 8. Vol. i. 13 

194 Mr. G. S. Mil 


Altliough recorded from Andalucia by Machado and 
Re^uera, and included in an anonymous list o£ rodents from 
N.W. Spain *, this genus has, in fact, not yet been found in 
the Peninsula. Graells rightly doubted its existence in 
Spain, while Seabra does not record it in Portugal. All the 
specimens I have seen in Spanish collections are from France, 
Germany, or Italy. 

XXXI. — Eiqhtpen new European Voles. 
By Gerrit S. jMiller. 

Among the European voles in the collection of the British 
Museum are specimens of the following new foims. 

Evotomys ccesari'us, sp. n. 

Type. — Adult male (skin and skull). B.M. no. 3, 2. 11. 2. 
Collected at St. Helier, Jersey, Channel Islands, January 2, 
1896, by Capt. G. E. H. Barrett-Hamilton. Presented by 
the collector. 

Characters. — A member of thenage7n group, agreeing with 
E. skomerensi's in the presence of a well-defined third re- 
entrant angle on inner side of third upper molar, but differing 
from the Skomer vole in the shorter, more evenly cuneate 
nasals (in this respect resembling E. nageri, E. vasconue, and 
E. norvegicus), broader rostrum, shorter tail (-45 to 49 mm. 
instead of 53 to 59 mm.), and much darker colour (upper- 
parts a rich, dark reddish brown approaching the cinnamon- 
rufous of Eidgway, but not so vivid, the sides lighter and 
suffused with dull buff, though not sufficiently to produce any 
marked contrast with back ; underparts a clear rich buff, 
between the buff and cream-buff of Ridgway ; tail sharply 
and conspicuously bicolor, blackish above, concolor with belly 
below ; feet a dusky grey above, rather dark hair-brown on 
furred portion of sole). 

Measurements. — Type. Headand body 96 mm. (97) f; tail49 
(45) ; hind foot 18 (19) ; ear from meatus 11 (10). Skull : 

* The list, attributed to Senor J. Alonso Lopez by Seoane, is found in 
a book entitled ' Consideraciones p:eiierales sobre varies puutos a favor de 
la libertad y fomento de los pueblos,' 1820, vol. ii. p. 115, 

t Measurements in parentheses are those of a second specimen from 
the type localitj {S ad., B.M. no. 3. 2. 11. 1). 

new European Voles. 195 

condylo-basal length 25-6 ; zygomatic breadth 14 (14) ; 
interorbital constriction 4*0 (4*0) ; occipital breadth ll'G; occi- 
pital depth (median) 7*0 ; nasal 7-0 (7-0) ; diastema 7-2 (7-0) ; 
mandible 15-4 (15-2); maxillary tooth-row 6*2 (6-2); 
mandibular tooth-row 6-0 (G'O). 

Specimens examined. — Two, both from the type locality. 

liemarks. — In general appearance the Jersey red-backed 
vole resembles the richly coloured Evotomys hercynicus 
ruhidus of the adjacent French mainland (two specimens 
examined from Dinan, Cotes-du-Nord, collected by Capt. 
Barrett-Hamilton), though the large size of its skull and the 
peculiarities of the third upper molar at once show its 
relationship with E. skomerensis. In the Skomer vole, how- 
ever, the general colour above is much lighter, approaching 
the orange-rufous of Kidgway, though less red, and the 
underparts are a conspicuously contrasted whitish grey with 
only a faint buffy tinge. "^I'lie feet are also whitish, much 
paler than in the Jersey animal, both above and on hind part 
of sole. 

Arvicola sapidus, sp. n. 

Type. — Adult female (skin and skull). Collected at Santo 
Domingo de Silos, Province of Burgos, Spain, October 7, 
1906, by G. S. iMiller. Original number 7216. 

Characters. — Size large, as in the British Arvicola ampJii- 
hius (hind foot 33 to 37 mm. ; condylo-basal length of skull 
in adults 42 to 44-4 mm.), but skull with nasals very broad, 
the greatest breadth of both together nearly equal to anterior 
rostral breadth, and colour, as in the small \\ii\\c\nA,musignaniy 
conspicuously buffy (upperparts between ochraceous-butf and 
clay-colour often tinged with russet, strongly "■ lined " with 
black along middle of back, nearly clear on sides ; underparts 
light ochraceous-buff clouded by tlie grey (Ridgway no. 6) 
under colour; feet drab-grey ; tail brownish, lighter below 
than above). 

Measurements. — Type. Head and body 187 mm. ; tail 123; 
hind foot 34 ; ear from meatus 18. Skull : condylo-basal 
length 42 (44-4) * ; zygomatic breadth 23'4 (25) ; inter- 
orbital constriction 4'4 (4*4) ; occipital breadth 17 (18"6) ; 
occipital depth (median) 11 (13) ; nasal ll'G (13); diastema 
13-4 (14-8); mandible 28 (29-4) ; maxillary tooth-row lO'G 
(10-8); mandibular tooth-row 10-8 (11). 

* Meaeuronicntsin parentheses are those of the largest skull examined 
( c^ , Barraciis, rroviuce of CHstellon, Sj aiii, .March 10, 1907, Norberto 
Gonzalez, Oritfinal number 134). 


196 Mr. G. S. Miller on 

Specimens examined. — One hundred and nine from tlie 
following localities in Spain : — La Coruna, Ooruna, 2 ; 
Pdjares, Leon, 6 ; Arrechavaleta, Vitoria, 1 ; Santo Domingo 
de Silos, Burgos, 20 ; Jaca, Huesca, 6 ; Panticosa, Huesca, 
25; Lerida, Lerida, 13 ; Barracas, Castellon, 12; Silla, 
Valencia, 1; Villalba, Madrid, 2; Bejar, Salamanca, 1; 
Seville, Seville, 6 ; Coria del Rio, Southern Spain, 2 -, near 
Tarifa, Gibraltar, 1 ; Venta de Baul (between Guadix and 
Baza), Granada, 1. 

Remarks. — The Iberian water-rat is well differentiated 
from its allies by the combination of large size, buffy coloration, 
and broad nasal bones. In two fully adult topotypes of 
ArvicoJa miisignani the skull is much smaller, length from 
front of nasal to back of interparietal 32 and 34 mm. as 
compared with 37 and 40"4: mm. in the type of sapidus and 
the large male from Barracas. While the size of Arvicola 
amphibius is about equal to that of the Spanish animal, the 
British form shows no tendency toward buffy coloration, and 
the nasal bones are very narrow, their greatest combined 
breadth noticeably less than anterior rostral breadth. 

Arvicola tenehricus, sp. n. 

Type.—M\\\i male (skin and skull). B.M. no. 6. 1. 21. 5. 
Collected three miles east of Biarritz, Basses Pyrenees, 
France, December 30, 1905, by J. F. Davison, Esq. Origi- 
nal number 7. Presented by the collector. 

Characters. — Like Arvicola sapidus, but coloration dark 
and brownish, in strong contrast with the buffy tints of the 
Spanish animal (upperparts a dull greyish buff, so heavily 
overlaid with black that the general effect is not far from a 
rather light, grizzled bister on back, and a greyish wood- 
brown on sides ; underparts slaty grey, washed with light 
ochraceous-buff on chest and belly; feet hair-brown; tail 
blackish above, greyish below, not distinctly bicolor). 

Measurements. — Type. Head and body 193 mm. ; tail 112; 
bind foot 34 ; ear 17. Skull: condylo-basal length, 41*6; 
zygomatic breadth 24 ; interorbital constriction 4*4 ; occipital 
breadth 17"8 ; occipital depth 10'4 ; nasal 12 ; diastema 13; 
mandible 26*8; maxillary tooth-row 10"6 ; mandibular tooth- 
row 102. 

Specimens examined. — Eleven, from the following locali- 
ties : vicinity of Biarritz, Basses Pyrenees, 7; I'Hospitalet, 
Ariege, 2 ; Porte, Pyrenees Orientales, 2. 

Remarks. — The Pvrenean water-rat resembles Arvicola 

new Juiroj>eau Vulcs. 197 

amjjhibius and A. terrestris in colour^ but is readily distin- 
guishable from the nortliern forms by its broad nasals. 
With the material at hand there are no apparent characters 
to distinguish the Biarritz specimens from those taken in 
Ari^ge and the Pyrenees Orientales at altitudes of about 
4800 feet. 

Mlcrotus arvalis meridianus, subsp. n. 

7y;?^.— Adult female (skin and skull). B.M. no. 
Collected at Biarritz, Basses Pyrenees, France, April 13, 
1906, by J. F. Davison, Esq. Original number 30. Pre- 
sented by the collector. 

Characters. — Similar to Microtus arvalis arvalis of Central 
and Northern Grermany, but coloration much more buffy 
(upperparts a finely grizzled yellowish brown, the general 
eft'ect something between wood- brown and a very light bister; 
uuderparts as in true arvalis^ but with a more evident buffy 
wash ; feet buffy white ; tail not sharply bicolor, dark 
brownish above, buffy white below). 

Measuremerds. — Type. Head and body 115 mm. ; tail 32 ; 
hind foot 16; ear from meatus 12. Skull: condylo-basal 
length 25'4 ; zygomatic breadth 15 ; interorbital constriction 
3*0 ; occipital breadth 11 ; occipital depth Cinedian) 6"0; nasal 
7"2 ; diastema 8*0 ; mandible lt)'2 ; maxillary tooth-row 6"4 ; 
mandibular tooth-row 6"4. 

Specimens examined. — Seven, all from the type locality. 

Microtus Itvis, sp. n. 

Type.— Adnh male (skin and skull). B.M. no. 4. 4. 6. 55. 
Collected at Gageni, Roumania, April 25, 1899, byW. Dodson. 
Original number 67. Presented by the late Lord Lilford. 

Characters. — Externally as in }licro(us arvalis of Central 
and Northern Germany ; skull differing from that of true 
M. arvalis in greater length (condylo-basal length usually 
mure than 2i}> mm. instead of 24 to 25*6 mm.) and less 
relative breadth (ratio of zygomatic breadth to condylo-basal 
length about 50 instead of about 55), much longer narrower 
brain-case (distance from interorbital constriction to condyle 
decidedly greater than zygomatic breadth), more inflated 
audital bullae, and in tlie smoothly rounded interorbital 
region, which, together with sides of brain-case, apparently 
never develops distinct ridges; teeth as in M. arvalis. 

JJeusurenioil.s. — 'i'ype. llead and l)ody 110 mm. ; tail 38 ; 

198 Mr. G. S. Miller on 

hind foot 17-5; ear from meatus 11. Skull: condylo-basal 
length 26-6 (25) * ; zygomatic breadth 14-4 (14'4) ; distance 
from interorbital constriction to back of condyle 15*4 (14) ; 
interorbital constriction 3-4 (3-2) ; occipital breadth 12*2 
(11-4) ; occipital depth (median) 6-6 (6-8) ; palatal depth 
8-0 (7-8) ; nasal 7-8 (7*4); diastema S'O (7-4); mandible 16*6 
(15'8) ; maxillary tooth-row 6*4 (5'8) ; mandibular tooth- 
row 6-2 (5-8). 

Specimens examined. — Seventeen, all from the typo 

Micro tus angular is, sp. n. 

2>jo«.— Adult male (in alcohol). B.M. no. 80. 10. 28. 2. 
Collected in Transylvania (probably near Hatszeg, Hunyad, 
Hungary) by C. G. Danford, Esq. Presented by the 

Characters. — A large member of the Microtas arvalis group, 
about equal to the Grecian M. hartingi in size, but with 
much longer tail (about 40 mm. instead of 24 to 27 mm.). 
Skull peculiar in the very short, deep rostrum (depth at back 
of nasal noticeably greater than distance between front of 
zygoma and anterior extremity of nasal) and the unusually 
conspicuous angle (about 34° instead of about 18° to •2,-2° as 
in M. arvalis, M. hartingi, and M. orcadensis) at which the 
nasals slope downward ; audital buUas relatively larger than 
in M. arvalis, but not so strongly inflated as in M. hartingi. 
Teeth with pattern of enamel-folding as in Microtus arvalis, 
but all of the triangles, especially those of lower molars, with 
transverse diameter noticeably increased and area of dentine 
spaces reduced. Colour apparently as in M. arvalis. 

Measurements. — Head and body 115 mm. ; tail 41 ; hind 
foot 18; ear from meatus 12. Skull : condylo-basal length 27 
(ca.)t; zygomatic breadth 16*4 (ca.) ; interorbital breadth 
4-0 (ca.) ; occipital breadth 13 ; occipital depth 7*6 (ca.) ; 
nasal 8*0; diastema 8*4; mandible 17*4 (ca.) ; maxillary 
tooth-row 6'6 ; mandibular tooth-row 6*4. 

Specimen examined. — The type. 

Microtus asturianus, sp. n. 
Type. — Adult female (skin and skull). Collected at 

* Measurements in parentheses are those of an old male Microtus 
arvalis I'rom Konigsberg, Germany (no. 112213, U.S. National Museum). 

t Certain measurements of the badly broken skull were taken before 
cleaning, while the fragments were still in approximately normal 

new European Voles. 199 

Pajares, Leon, Spain, June 23, 1907, by Norberto Gonzalez. 
Orio^inal number 321. 

Characters. — Larger than Microtus arvalis, the skull 
massive and deep, with strongly convex dorsal profile, 
widely spreadini^ zygomata, short, broad brain-case, strongly 
ridged interorbital region, and very large audital bullae; 
teeth as in M. arvalls ; colour about as in the more bufFy 
forms of M. arva/is (upperparts biifFy clay-colour, rather 
coarsely " lined " with black along median dorsal area, clearer 
and more nearly approaching ochraceous-biiff on sides ; under- 
parts dull grey, clear or wa.shed with light i;ufF; feet an 
indefinite bufFy grey tinged with drab, not conspicuously 
different from colour of back ; tail obscurely bicolor, buffy 
grey below, brownish mixed with grey above). 

Measurements. — Type. Head and body 120 mm.; tail 37 ; 
hind foot 20*; ear 14. Skull : condylo-basal length, 26*2; 
zygomatic breadth 15"2 ; distance from interorbital con- 
striction to back of condyle 15 ; interorbital constriction 3 2; 
occipital breadth 12'2 ; occipital depth (median) G"4 ; palatal 
depth 8*6 ; na-al7-8; diastema 7*8 ; mandible 16*6 ; maxil- 
lary tooth-row 6-6 ; mandibular tooth-row 6*4. 

Specimens examined. — Three, all from the type locality. 

Remarks. — In its large, massive skull Microtus asturianus 
differs conspicuously from its nearest geographical ally, 
M. arvalis meridianus of the Basses- Pyrenees region. Its 
strongly convex dorsal outline gives the skull a superficial 
resemblance to that of M. cahrera of the Sierra de Guadar- 
rama, but the nasal bones are strictly of the arvalis type. 
The size and massiveness of the skull are so great as to 
suggest a small Microtus orcadensis, but it is scarcely probable 
that any direct relationship is indicated by this resemblance. 

Microtus sandayensis westra;, subsp. n. 

Type.—M\x\i male (skin and skull). B.M. no. 8. 1. 2. 1. 
Collected at Puriswall, Westray, North Orkney Islands, 
April 5, 190G, by Norman B. Kinnear, Esq. Original 
number 290. Presented by the collector. 

Characters. — Size and cranial characters as in }[icrotus 
sandayensis sandayensis (Millais), but first lower molar with 
anterior outer re-entrant angle occasionally (in 2 specimens 
among 6) as well developed as in M. orcadensis ; colour not 
so pale as in the Sanday vole, the underparts strongly washed 
vvitli yellowish brown (general effect above a dark hair-brown 

* CoUector'a measurement. In the pro])arfd i^peciini'n the liind foot 
(slightly distorted) after rclaxinf^ measiuvs 19-1 mm. 

200 Jill. G. S. Miller on 

approaching bister, the arrangement of colour as in M. san- 
dayensis sandayensis, but light tips to hairs of underfur 
more neaily dull ochraceous-buff, and dark shading from 
longer hairs more noticeable ; underparts light ochraceous- 
buff, nearly as in M. orcadensis, but colour not so rich, and 
clouding due to slaty bases of hairs more evident ; feet and 
tail as in true satidayensis, but sprinkling of dark hairs on 
upper side of tail more conspicuous). 

Measurements. — Type. Head and body 108 mm. ; tail 34 ; 
hind foot 18 ; ear from meatus 10-5. Skull : condylo-basal 
length 27'2; zygomatic breadth 16-2; interorbital con- 
striction 3-6 ; occipital breadth 12 ; occipital depth (median) 
6'4; nasal 7'8; diastema 8'2; mandible 17*4; maxillary 
tooth-row 6'6 ; mandibular tooth-row 6*8. 

Specimens exannned. — Seven, all from Westray Island, 
kindly placed at my disposal by ]\lr. Kinnear. 

Remarks. — The voles of the North Orkney Islands differ 
from those of the southern group in their smaller size, lighter 
colour, and in the peculiar low, flattened form of the brain- 
case. In typical Microtus sandayenst's the first lower molar 
invariably (12 specimens) differs from that of M. orcadensis 
(53 specimens) in the shallowness of the anterior outer re- 
entrant angle, which is much less developed than that of the 
inner side (in M. orcadensis, as in the continental members 
of the arvalis group, the two angles are approximately equal). 
Four specimens of M. s. westrce have tiiis aberrant type of 
tooth, while in two the angles are of normal depth. The 
colour is less pallid than in the typical form, though not so 
dark as in M. orcadensis. 

The degrees of distinctness of tlie Orkney voles among 
themselves appear to bear a direct relation to the depth of 
water separating the islands, and therefore presumably to the 
length of time that the different colonies have been isolated. 
Specimens of M. orcadensis showing no indication of the 
existence of local forms on the various islands have been 
examined from Rousay, Pomona, Shapinshay, and South 
Ronaldshay, the channelsseparating which range from 6 to 8 
fathoms in depth. Between the islands inhabited by this 
species and those occupied by M. sandayensis lies a narrow 
but comparatively deep strait, with 17 to 20 fathoms of water. 
Finally, between Sanday and Westray, with their different, 
though not completely segregated forms, the depth of the 
water is intermediate, 10 to 12 fathoms. 

new Euiupean Volts. 201 

Microtus agrestis exsul, subsp. n. 

Ti/pe.—Aduh female (skin and skull). B.M. no. 6. 3. 1. 3. 
Collected on North Uist, Hebrides, February 5, 1906, by 
J. F. Davison, Esq. Presented by the collector. 

Characters. — In general like the huge Scandinavian 
Microtus a<)r(stis agrestis, but underparts with more evident 
brownish wash, often becoming a clear rather light ochra- 
ceous-bufF; first upper molar with small third inner triangle 
usually present (in 10 among 14 specimens) and almost as 
well developed as second inner triangle of middle molar. 

Measurements. — Type. Head and body 123 mm.; tail 44 ; 
hind foot 19; ear from meatus 12, Skull: condylo-basal 
length 2'6', zygomatic breadth 15'8; interorbital constriction 
3*2; occipital breadth 12; occij)ital depth 'o'(> ; nasal 8"0; 
diastema 8'2 ; mandible 18 ; maxillary tooth-row 7*0 ; mandi- 
bular tooth-row 7*0. 

Specinuns examined. — Fouiteen, eleven from North Uist 
and three from South Uist, Hebrides * : all but three lent by 
(Mr. Kinnear. An immature male from Kildalton, Islay 
No. 392, Kinnear collection), appears to represent the same 
form, but is too young to be positively identified. 

liemarks. — A supplemental triangle in the first upper 
molar, similar to that usually ])resent in Microtus agrestis 
exsul, occurs in 4 among 32 specimens of true agrestis and in 
only 2 among 48 British mainland skulls. 'J'he cranial 
characters of fully adult individuals of the Hebridean vole as 
compared with true agrestis and the common Britisli form 
are well indicated by the following table (in mm.) : — 

Number Condylo- Upper Lower 

of skulls, basal length. Mandible. tooth-row. tooth-row. 

agrestis .. 9 264 to 28-4 IGGtolS GG to 70 6-2 to 6-6 

exsul 7 27 to 28 17 to 18 G-8 to 70 6-4 to 7-0 

13 25 to 26 lo-4 to 16-2 5-8 to 6-4 5-8 to 6-2 

The discovery of this vole is of unusual interest, as the 
])robable existence of some such animal in North Britain 
was pointed out several months ago f, at a time when the 
characters of the Hebridean form were unknown. 

* Mr. Kinnear has called my attention to the fact that no voles have 
yet been found on the island of Lewis, the largest of the Outer Hebrides, 
t Stejneger, Smithsonian Miscell. Coll. xlviii. p. 478 (May 4, 1907). 

202 Mr. G. S. Miller on 

Pitymys siibterraneus capucinus, subsp. n. 

Type. — Adult female (skin and skull). Collected in spruce- 
forest near " Salon du Capucin," Mont Dore, Puy de Dome, 
France (altitude about 4200 feet), August 2, 1906, by G. S. 
Miller. Original number 7002. 

Characters, — Similar to Pitymys subterraneus siibterraneus, 
but skull larger^ brain-case broader and more flattened, and 
colour not so dark (general effect above approaching mars- 
brown, but with a slight buffy cast ; feet a clear, very pale 
smoke-grey, noticeably contrasting with colour of back). 

Measurements. — Type. Head and body 102 mm.; tail 33; 
hind foot 15. Skull : condylo-basal length 23-4 (22) * ; 
zygomatic breadth IS'S (13) ; interorbital constriction 3'8 
(3-8); occipital breadth 11-2 (lOS) ; breadth of brain-case 
under zygoma lO'S (9'6) ; occipital depth (median) 5-4 
(.5-6); nasal 6-4 (6-0); diastema 7-0 (6 8); mandible 14-8 
(13-8); maxillary tooth-row 5-8 (5-2); mandibular tooth- 
row ,5-6 (5*2). 

Specimens examined. — Two, both from the type locality. 

Pitymys dacius, sp. n. 

Type. — Adult female (skin and skull). B.M. no. 4. 4. 6. 65. 
Collected at Gageni, Roumania, April 25, 1899, by W. 
Dodson. Original number 65. Presented by the late Lord 

Characters. — Similar to Pitymys subterraneus^ but skull 
larger, nasals more strongly bent downward anteriorly, 
brain-case more depressed posteriorly (the dorsal profile of 
skull thus made slightly convex throughout) ; posterior upper 
molar with third inner re-entrant angle very shallow; colour 
indistinguishable from that of P. subterraneus in the usual 
hair-brown phase. 

Measuremeyits. — Type. Head and body 88 mm. ; tail 32*5 ; 
hind foot 14-5 ; ear from meatus 8*5. Skull : condylo-basal 
length 23 ; zygomatic breadth 13*6 ; interorbital constriction 
3'8 ; occipital breadth 10'8 ; breadth of brain-case under 
zygomata 10 ; occipital depth (median) 5'0 ; nasal 5"8 ; dia- 
stema 7*0 ; mandible 15 ; maxillary tooth-row 5*6; mandibular 
tooth-row 5'8. 

Specimen examined. — The type. 

Eemarks. — Although represented by a single specimen 

* Measurements in parentheses are those of an adult male M. subter- 
raneus subterraneus from Belgium (No. 2189, Lataste collectiou). 

new European Voles. 20o 

only, this species appears to be well cliaracterized by the 
convex dorsal ])rofile of the skull and the very shallow third 
re-entrant angle on inner side of postf^rior upper molar, features 
which are not closely a|)proxi mated in a considerable series 
of P. suhterruneus from 13elgium, France, Switzerland, and 
the Transylvanian Aljjs. 

Piiymys pyrenaicus brunneus, subsp. n. 

7>/;e.— Adult female (skin and skull). B.M. no. 6. 4. 1. 82. 
Collected in the Forest of Bouconne, Gers, France (altitude 
250 m.), February 4, 1900, by A. Robert. Presented by 
0. Thomas, Esq. 

Characters. — Similar to Pitymys pyrenaicus pyrenaicus, 
but colour much more brownish^ the upperparts a light, dull, 
faintly grizzled wood-brown, with scarcely a trace of the 
bister and clear hair-brown tints characteristic of the typical 

Measurements. — Type. Head and body 93 mm.; tail 26; 
hind foot 15; ear from meatus 8. Skull: condylo-basal 
length 23 ; zygomatic breadth 14 ; interorbital constriction 
4"0 ; occipital breadth 11; occipital depth (median) 5"6; pala- 
tal depth Q'2-, nasal 6"0; diastema 7*0 ; mandible 15; maxillary 
tooth-row 5*8; mandibular tooth-row 5'8. 

Specimens examined. — Seven, all from the type locality. 

Remarks. — This appears to be a well-defined local race of 
Pitymys pyrenaicus, as the seven skins differ without exception 
from the eleven Pyrenean specimens with which they have 
been compared. Its geographical range will probably be 
found to extend over the low country lying between the 
Pyrenees and the Gironde. 

Pitymys planiceps, sp. u. 

Type. — Adult (skull only). No. 2190, Lataste collection. 
Bareges, Hautes-Pyrene^es, France. Altitude about 4000 

Characters. — Size about as m Pitymys pyrenaicus ; teeth 
as in that species, P. savii, &c. ; skull more flattened than in 
any other known Euroj)ean member of the genus, the dorsal 
profile nearly straight from posterior extremity of nasal to 
back of interparietal, the general outline when viewed from 
above essentially as in P. pyrenaicus and P. savii. 

Measurements. — Condylo-basal length 23 (23) ; zygomatic 
breadth 14 (13-8); interorbital constriction 3-8 (38) ; 
occipital breadth 11-4 (11-4); occipital depth 5*4 (6-0); 
palatal depth &2 (6-8) ; nasal 6-0 (6'2); diastema 7'0 (7-0^; 

204 Mr. G. S. Miller on 

mandible 14*6 (15) ; maxillary tooth-row 5*6 (5'6) ; mandi- 
bular tooth-row 5'6 (5'6). 

Remarks. — The characters of the skull on which this 
species is based are so peculiar that it seems necessary to 
recognize the animal as distinct. In September 1906 I 
visited Bareges chiefly for the purpose of securing further 
specimens of Pitymys planiceps, but though colonies of 
P. pyrenaicus were readily found in the forest aljove the 
town, I failed in the main object of my search. 

Pitymys 2)elaiidomu3, sp. n. 

Type. — Adult female (skin and skull), collected at Santo 
Domingo de Silos, Province of Burgos, Spaiti (altitude 
980 m.), October 21, 1906, by G. S. Miller. Original 
number 7382. 

Characters. — Similar to Pitymys marice, Major, but skull 
■with broader, less elongate brain-case; general colour of 
upperparts wood-brown, the sides somewhat more bufFy ; 
feet and tail whitish. 

Measurements. — Type. Head and body 96 mm,; tail 28; 
hind foot 14*4 ; ear from meatus 8-4. Skull : condylo- basal 
length 22 (22) * ; zygomatic breadth 14 (13) ; occipital 
breadth 10*6 (9"8) ; breadth of brain-case under zygomata 
10-2 (9-6) ; occipital depth (median) 5-6 (5-0) ; palatal depth 
6-8 (6-4); nasal G'O (6'0) ; diastema ^'^ {^ ^) ; mandible 
14-4 (14) ; maxillary tooth-row 5-4 (5*6) ; mandibular tooth- 
row 5-6 (.r4). 

Specimens examined. — Five, three from the type locality 
and two from Castrillo de la Reina, Province of Burgos. 

Remarks. — At both Silos and Castrillo this animal occurs 
in rocky ground partly overgrown with shrubs and small 
trees. Its habits are essentially the same as those of Pitymys 
subterraneus or P. pyrenaicus, and much less mole-like than 
those of the meadow-haunting P. ibericus. 

Pitymys depressus^ sp. n. 

Type.— Adult female (in alcohol). B.M. no. 6. 11.4.15. 
Collected at Rascafria, south side of Sierra de Guadarrama, 
Province of Madrid, Spain, by M. de la Escalera. 

Characters. — A member of the Pitymys duodecimcostatus 
groupt, related to P. lusitanicus, P. marice., and P. pelandonius, 
but immediately recognizable by its broadened, much flattened 

* Measurements in parentheses are those of the type (adult female) of 
rityynijs marice, 

t See Major, Anu. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 7th ser. xv. pp. oO>J-ulO (May 

new European Voles. 205 

skull and vevy small audita! bullae. Viewed from the side 
the skull is as flat as that of Filymys savii; dorsal profile 
sli<flitly but evenly convex, the nasals not so abruptly 
sloping as usual ; rostrum excessively shallow immediately 
behind nasals, its least depth barely exceeding greatest com- 
bined breadth o£ nasals ; length of braiii-case to posterior 
edge of interparietal barely equal to breadth under zygomata, 
the general outline subcircular ; occipital region oblique 
posteriorly, so that condyles are plainly visible when skull 
is viewed from above, very low and wide in posterior 
view; audital bulla very small and low, the greatest diameter 
contained about four times in condylo-basal length of skull 
(aljout three to three and one half tiuies in lusitanicus, mnrice, 
and pelandonias) ; teeth as in the related species ; external 
characters apparently showing no special i)eculiarities. 

Measurements. — Type. Head and body 85 mm. ; tail 25 ; 
hind foot 13 ; ear from meatus 8. Skull : condylo-basal 
length 22"4 ; zygomatic breadth 14 ; interorbital constriction 
3'G ; occipital breadth 11*2 ; occipital depth (median) 5*4 ; 
palatal depth (r8 ; nasal 6"2 ; diastema 6-4 ; mandible 14"8 : 
maxillary tooth-row 5*6 ; mandibular tooth-row 5*G. 

Specimens e.camined. — Four, all from the type locality. 

Pitymys ibericus centralis, subs]). n. 

Type. — Adult male (skin and skull). Collected at Santo 
Domingo do Silos, Province of Burgos, Spain (altitude 
980 m.). October 15, 1906, by G. S. Miller. Original 
number 7313. 

Gharoclers. — Not so large as li(t/mus ibericus ibericus 
(hind foot U) to 17'2 mm. instead of 17 to IS mm) ; colour 
hair-brown, usually tinged with buffy, but never so pale as 
in the typical race ; feet whitish, in rather noticeable contrast 
with back. 

Measurements. — Type. Head and body 102 mm. ; tail 24 ; 
hind foot 1()'8 ; ear from meatus 8. Skull : condylo-basal 
length 25 ; zygomatic breadth 15 (ca.) ; interorbital breadth 
4*2 ; occipital breadth 12 ; occipital de{)th 7'0 ; palatal depth 
80 ; luxsal 7"0 ; diastema 8'4 ; mandible 17*2 ; maxillary 
tooth-row G'O ; maiulibular tooth-row t)-2. 

Specimens e.camined. — Twenty, all from the type locality. 

Remarks. — True Pitymys ibericus is a large pallid form, 
probably confined to the hot coast district of Murcia and 
Alicante. It is strikingly different from the small Oranada 
animal, its nearest geographical ally, as well as from speci- 
mens from Jerez de la Frontera, Seville, Valencia, and 
Burgos. It is probable that more than one race is represented 
among the members of this group occurring through (,'cutral 
and North-western Spain. 

206 On neio European Voles. 

Pitym)js ihericus regulus, subsp. n. 

Type. — Adult female (skin and skull). Collected on north 
slope of the Alhambra Hill, Granada^ Spain, December 22, 
1906, by G. S. Miller. Original number 7441. 

Characters. — Similar to Pitymys ihericus centralis, but 
smaller (hind foot 15 to 16 mm. instead of 16 to 17'2 mm.), 
and with very small, narrow molars. 

Measurements. — Type. Head and body 100 mm. ; tail 26 ; 
hind foot 16; ear from meatus 9. Skull : condylo-basal length 
25 ; zygomatic breadth 15 ; interorbital constriction 4*0 ; 
occipital breadth 12 ; occipital depth '6-2 ; palatal depth 8*0; 
nasal 6-4 ; diastema 8'0 ; mandible 16-6 ; maxillary tooth- 
row 5"4 ; mandibular tooth-row 5'4. 

Specimens examined. — Seven, all taken in the almond 
orchard on north slope of the Alliambra hill. 

Remarks. — This local race of Pitymys ihericus is at once 
recognizable by its unusually small molars, the actual struc- 
ture of which, however, shows no peculiarities. In size of 
teeth it represents the opposite extreme from the large form 
occurring in the valley of the Baul, only about 70 km. east 
of Granada, and also in the Guadalquivir drainage-basin. 

Pitymys ihericus fuscus, subsp. n. 

Type. — Adult male (skin and skull). Collected on the 
Dehesa de Valencia, Valencia, Spain, March 7, 1907, by 
Norberto Gonzalez. Original number 131. 

Character's. — Size as in Piiymys ihericus centralis^ but 
colour much darker (upperparts a uniform bister, nearly as 
dark as that of Ridgway, faintly varied by blackish hair-tips 
and tinged with wood-brown on sides ; underparts dull slaty 
grey washed with buffy ; feet whitish, in rather marked 
contrast with body ; tail very obscurely bicolor, whitish tinged 
above with brown). 

Measurements. — Type. Head and body 104 mm. ; tail 22 ; 
hind foot 17 ; ear from meatus 10. Skull : condylo- basal 
length 24"2 ; zygomatic breadth 14"8; interorbital con- 
striction 4'2 ; occipital breadth 11'4 ; occipital depth 6 4 ; 
palatal depth 7'6 ; nasal 6*0 ; diastema 80 ; mandible 16'4 ; 
maxillary tooth-row 5'8 ; mandibular tooth-row 5"8, 

Specimens examined. — Two, both from the type locality. 

Remarks. — The two specimens exactly resemble each other 
and differ conspicuously from all the other Spanish skins 
examined. Apparently this form is confined to the Dehesa, 
as in a male taken by Mr. Gonzalez at Catarroja on the 
adjacent mainland the colour is indistinguishable from that 
of P. ihericus centralis. 

BihUograplikal Notice. 207 


European Animals : their Geological History and Geographical 
DistrihtUion. By K. F. Scharff, Ph.D., B.Sc. London : 
Constable & Co., 1907. Pp. viii, 258. 7s. (kl. net. 

Dr. Schakff has produced a book that will prove of exceeding value 
to all who are interested in the difficult problem of the geographical 
distribution of animals. He has brought together a mass of facts 
concerning both the plants and animals of Europe and their 
present-day distribution such as will be found in no other work 
of its kind, and herein he has earned the gratitude of us all. 

In his interpretation of many of these facts, however, we venture 
to think the results of his labours are less satisfactory. And for 
this reason : — In his Introduction he insists, and rightly, on the 
importance of palceontological evidence in determining Avhat must 
have been the centre of distribution for any given group or species ; 
yet, almost in the same breath, he tells us that " our fossil evidence 
is of so fragmentary a character that it is often extremely difficult to 
point to any particular country as the home of a species or genus. 
The present distribution, however, may be looked upon as a reliable 
guide in directing our enquiries in this respect." If this is true, 
why bother about geological evidence? And, as a matter of fact. 
Dr. ScharfF does not, or at most regards it as auxiliary to the 
evidence afforded by living species ; and therein he discounts the 
value of many of his conclusions. 

Thus the present-day distribution of many of the species herein 
enumerated has to be accounted for by arguments that are far from 
convincing, in some cases, indeed, they break down completely. 
In the case of the common rabbit {Oryctolagus cnniculns), for 
example, Dr. ScharfF endeavours to show, if we interpret him 
aright, that we must regard Spain as the land of its origin, from 
which centre of dispersal it eventually made its way along the 
S.W. coast of France to Ireland by a continuous land-connection. 
But since fossil remains of this animal have been found within the 
confines of Great Britain, this contention may be regarded as 
robbed of its probability. Sjiaiu and Portugal, according to 
Dr. Scharff, are to bo regarded as having played the part of a very 
important centre of distribution in past times, both of plants and 
animals. Bather, it would scorn, they should be regarded as back- 
■waters which have served as isolation-areas. 

Similarly, in describing the distribution of beavers over Europe, 
ho writes: "We have here an example of an animal which evidently 
spread westward from the east, since it has never been found fossil 
in cither Ireland, Italy, or Spain, where we should have expected 
it to occur if it had originated in the west." As a matter of fact, 
more remains of beavers — and from different horizons — have been 
found in Italy than in any other part of Europe. That it will 
be found in Spain is highly probable, for during the Pleistocene 
period this animal had a remarkably wide range. 

208 Miscellaneous. 

The author, too, appears to hold views as to tlio fixity of 
mammalian species which are not generally shared, as he speaks 
more than once of species now living which crossed into this or that 
area during Miocene times. Yet it is surely generally conceded 
that no existing species extended so far back in time. 

Instances of this kind could be multiplied, but we feel that it 
would savour too much of ingratitude to dwell on the blemishes of 
these pages; for, despite of them, Dr. Scharifs book is one that 
all must read, and all will find of very real value, inasmuch as 
it embraces within its scope Invertebrates as well as Vertebrates, 
and not a few of the more interesting plants. Moreover, the pages 
of the work are copiously illustrated. Maps are plentifully dis- 
tributed, and each map has an " inset " figure of the animal to 
which it refers. If the defects to which we have referred are 
made good in a second edition, which in all probability will be 
demanded, tliis book will form one of the most admirable treatises 
on the subject which has ever appeared. W. P. P. 


The Name Archseocidaris. By J. W. Gregoky. 

In the Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, for November 1907, Dr. Bather advo- 
cates the substitution of the name EcJiinocnnus for the well-known 
and appropriate name Archceocidaris. This change seems unneces- 
sary, and it will probably be admitted by all students of Echino- 
derms as undesirable unless absolutely necessary. The name 
Echinocriyius is misleading, as it is admitted that it was given by 
Agassiz under the mistaken idea that the fossils which he thus 
named were crinoids. No one would take the responsibility of 
overthrowing a well-established name because it happens to assert 
a wrong affinity for the genus ; but when a truthful name has been 
well established, it is deplorable to resuscitate a misleading term 
from which we have been saved by the common-sense of an earlier 

In this case there is a sound excuse for allowing the discarded 
name to remain buried, owing to its close resemblance to the earlier 
Echinoencrinus. Archceocidaris is probably more common in the 
Carboniferous rocks of the west of Scotland than in any other part 
of the British Isles, and the name is therefore especially well known 
among Scotch palaeontologists. Professor Bell (in the ' Annals ' 
for 1891, ser. 6, vol. viii. pp. 106-9) showed that, according to the 
strict rules of priority. Actinia is the name of a Holothurian and 
that Holotlmria is an Ascidian. That fact was pointed out sixteen 
years ago, but the old use of the names continues in defiance of the 
rules. Until these changes are accepted I hope palseontologists 
will retain the name Archceocidaris. 

University, C41asgow. 


Ann. S,- Mag. Nat. Hist. S. 8. Vol. T. PI. VI. 

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No. 3. MARCH 190S. 

XXXII. — New African PIdebutomic Diptera in the British 
Museum {Natural History). — Part I. Tabanidce. By 
Ernest E. Austen. 

The interest excited at the present time by blood-sucking 
flies, in view of the possibility that they may act as carriers 
of micro-organisms pathogenic to man or domestic animals, 
supported by an appeal for specimens circulated by II. M. 
Foreign and Colonial Offices throughout the British Empire, 
has resulted during the last year or two in the acquisition 
by the British Museum (Natural History) of a certain 
amount of material, chiefly from Africa, including many 
new species. Some of the latter, from Tro[)ieal Africa, are 
described in the following pages, and descriptions of others, 
including a number of additional species of Hceniatopota (a 
genus of which the African continent is apparently the 
lieadquartcrs), will be published shortly in subsequent 
communications in this scries. The types of all the new 
species described below are in the British Museum (Natural 
History). Coloured figures of the majority will appear later 
in an official publication. 

Genus Cadicera, Macq. 
Cadicera quinquemaculata, sj). n. 
? . — Length (2 specimens) l-4'5 to 10-25 nun.; witlth of 
Ann. d: Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. i. U 

210 Mr. E. E. Austen on neio 

head 5 to 5-3 mm. ; -width of front at vertex 06 mm. ; width 
of third segment of ahdomen 7 to 7'5 mm, ; length of wing 
(perfect only in one specimen) 15 mm. 

Dorsum of thorax clove-hroivn'^, slightly pollinose though 
shining, with tufts of shining golden-yellow hair on sides ; 
first segment of ahdomen dull, sepia-coloured ; remaining seg- 
ments shining black, with a triangular patch of silvery-white 
ajtpressed hair on each posterior angle of second segment, and 
a median patch of shining oppressed gulden-yellow hair on 
fourth, fifth, and sixth segments, the last patch continuous ivith 
a smaller area of similar hair on seventh segment ; wings 
ochraceous hvff, anterior portion of half brown and 
apex infuscated ; femora black or blackish brown; tibia cream- 
bvff, with a broad blackish-broivn band on distal third. 

Head black or blackish brown, occipital region, jowls, 
margins of face, and a transverse band above base of antennae 
greyish pollinose; front above this band and face shining 
(denuded?), latter with long and sparse blackish-brown hairs 
on sides ; tinder surface of head clothed with blackish-brown 
hair ; ocelli wanting ; palpi black, not shining, clothed with 
coarse black hair, last joint less swollen and more pointed at 
the tip than in C. rubramarginata , Macq. ; antennae black. 
Thorax : median area of dorsum clothed with short blackish- 
brown hair, which passes into pale golden-yellow hair in 
front and behind ; the conspicuous lateral tufts of golden- 
yellow hair are below the ends of the transverse suture and 
on the postalar calli ; pleurae and pectus seal-brown, clothed 
with blackish-brown hair. Abdomen • first segment clothed 
with brown hair, a short row of silvery-white hairs on poste- 
rior margin on each side near posterior angles ; patches of 
silvery-white hair on second segment transversely elongate, 
scattered hairs extending almost to middle line, where there 
are a few golden-yellow hairs ; a few whitish or yellowish 
hairs on posterior angles of fourth segment ; remainder of 
dorsum, except where marked with patches of golden-yellow 
hair, clothed with short appressed black hair ; patch of 
golden-yellow hair on fourth segment commencing a little 
before the middle and extending to hind margin ; patches on 
fifth and sixth segments in shape of truncated equilateral 
triangles reaching to front margins, and with their bases 
resting on hind margins ; venter clothed with minute ap- 
pressed black hairs, with patches of silvery hair on second 
and fourth segments towards the sides. Wings : brown area 

* For names of colours, see Uidgway, ' A Nomenclature of Colors for 
NaturallBts ' (Boston : Little, Brown, & Company, 1886). 

African /'/ilebotomic Diptera. 211 

on proximal half extends to end of stigma and down to fifth 
vein, though the distal extremity of the second basal cell 
may be somewhat lighter; apical infuscation commencing on 
costa above fork of third vein and extending to lower branch 
of latter ; third vein infuscated throughout its extent. 
Squama whitish. Halteres dark brown. Legs : front tarsi 
brown, lighter at base of first joint ; middle and hind tarsi 
dark brown, first joint except tip cream-buff. 

Cape Colony, South Africa. — Two specimens (co-types) : 
one individual from Pirie Bush, near King AVilliam's Town 
(A. N. Stenniny) ; the second specimen without precise 
locality or other data. These are the two specimens referred 
to by jMiss Ricardo (Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, vol. v. 
1900, p. 101), who, however, was prevented from seeing that 
both belonged to the same species, since at tiie time when 
her paper was written the specimen without data was not 
set, and its abdomen was consequently concealed by its 

Cadicera quinqiiemaculata cannot be confused with any 
of the other species of this genus at present described, from 
which the markings of the tibiae are alone sutfieicnt to 
distinguish it without difficulty. It presents, however, a 
deceptive resemblance in general appearance and markings 
to Corizoneura obsctira, llieardo, the type of which is 
from Blantyre, Nyasaland Protectorate. Nevertheless, apart 
from other differences, the Corizoneura can be distinguished 
by the hair on the under side of the head beiug yellowish 
white instead of blackish brown, by that on the pleurae being 
largoly yellowish instead of entirely blackish brown, by the 
much duller tibise, the burnt-umber tips of which do not 
present nearly such a sharp contrast to the remainder, and by 
the hind tarsi being entirely russet. 

Miss Ricardo's statements {loc. cit. p. 100) that in 
Cadicera " ocelli are present " and that in C. rubramaryinata, 
Macq., ocelli are '' present and distinct " are somewhat 
misleading, as will be seen from the following results of an 
examination of the Museum material belonging to this 
genus. The single specimen (a ? ) of C. rubrainarginata in 
the Museum collection has the anterior ocellus alone ; a (^ 
and two ? ? of C. melanopyya, Wied., show no ocelli, but a 
third ? of this species has the anterior ocellus alone, which 
is very minute ; in one of four $ ? of C. chrysostiyma, 
Wied., there is a still more minute anterior ocellus, but the 
other two ocelli arc wanting, and the remaining spcciuiens 
of this species cxhiiiit no trace of ocelli whatever; the single 
specimen (a (5' ) of C, crassipalpis^ Macq., has likewise no 


212 Mr. E, E. Austen on neio 

trace o£ ocelli ; lastly, in the two co-types of C quinque- 
maculata, Austeu, ocelli are similarly absent. It would 
appear, then, that in Cadicera the ocelli are either obsolete or 
in a vestigial condition^ represented, if present at all, solely 
by the anterior ocellus. Tlie statement " Pas d'ocelles 
distincts " in Macquart's diagnosis of the genus is therefore 
reasonably accurate. 

Pangonia biclausa, Lw., = Cadicera rubramarginata, Macq., 
and represents a variety with the fourth posterior cell closed. 
Loew's remarks on his " Varietat ^' (Dipt.-Fauna Siidaf r. 
p. 91) are sufficient to prove this. Giglio-Tos (Ann. Soc. 
Ent. Fr., annee 1895, p. 357) is in error in thinking that 
P. biclausa, Lw., should be referred to the genus Scione, 

Pangonia brevis, Lw., which also has the fourth posterior 
cell closed, likewise belongs to the genus Cadicera, Macq., 
and has nothing to do with Scione, Walk. (<?/. Ricardo, loc. 
cit. p. 109). Cadicera brevis, Lw., is closely allied to and 
possibly identical with C. [Pangonia) melunopyga, Wied. 
There can be no doubt that the closed or open condition oi 
the fourth posterior cell is a variable character in Cadicera, 

Genus Paxgoxia^ Latr. 
Pangonia compacta, sp. n. 

5. — Length (6 specimens) 13'5 to 146mm.; width of 
head 4"6 to 5 mm. ; width of front at vertex just under 
1 mm. : length of proboscis 6 to 7 mm. ; length of wing 11-5 
to 12 mm. ; greatest width of wing 4*75 mm. 

Compactly built, thick-set species, ivith short and relatively 
broad wings, and fourth as ivell as first posterior cell closed 
before reaching margin ; dorsum of thorax dark olive-yelloio 
jwllinuse ; first three segments of abdomen ochraceous, re- 
mainder black or blackish brown, with lighter hind borders; 
wings tinged with luteons ; femora black or blackish brown, 
extreme tips and tibia and tarsi buff. 

Head grey pollinose, yellowish on the front^ vertical region 
brownish ; a shining black median triangle on upper part of 
front, its base a little above halfway between base of antennae 
and occipital margin, and its apex directed backwards ; 
front part of jowls dark brown ; under side of head clothed 
with yellowish- white hair, upper part of front with short 
yellowish hair ; palpi brown ; first joint of antennce blackish. 

African Phhhotomtc Diptera. 213 

second joint dusky with a reddish tinge, third joint ferru- 
ginous, first and second joints slightly yellowish pollinose, 
first joint with long brownish hairs above; proboscis curving 
downwards. Thorax clothed with yellowish pile, longer and 
somewhat paler on pleurse. Abdomen : first segment with a 
black median blotch, not reaching hind margin and almost 
concealed by scutellum ; second segment with a median 
black spot roughly resembling a truncate triangle, which has 
its base resting on front margin and scarcely extends beyond 
middle of segment ; second and third segments with a more 
or less distinct black patch on the lateral margins, and third 
segment usually also with some indistinct blackish markings 
near the middle line ; first segment, except on median black 
area, clothed with short, appressed, shining, chrome-yellow 
hair ; second and following segments, except on hind borders, 
clothed w^ith short appressed black hair ; hind borders of 
second, third, and fourth segments clothed with appressed, 
shining, silvery-white hair, forming transverse bands which 
are deeper towards the sides ; hind borders of following 
segments similarly fringed with shining chrome-yellow hair, 
median portion of band on third segment also sometimes 
chrome-yellow^ ; black hair on fifth and following segments 
longer, forming a fringe at tip of abdomen ; ventral surface 
of first segment blackish, of second and third segments 
orange-buff, clothed with minute, appressed, shining, chrome- 
yellow hair, but without lighter bands on hind borders ; 
ventral surface of fourth segment similar in coloration, but 
with hind border lighter, and with base or a band across the 
middle dark brown ; ventral surface of remaining segments 
black or blackish brown, with hind boi'ders yellow and 
cluthed with chrome-yellow hair. Winys : first posterior cell 
closed at a distance of from 0*75 to 1 mm. before reaching 
margin ; fourth posterior cell closed at one third of this 
distance or less from margin ; stigma ochreous ; a tuft of 
whitish hair on base of costa, conspicuous when wings are in 
resting ])Osition. Squama iwrcciain-like. Ha/feres : stalk 
ochraceous, knol) yellowish white, conspicuous. Lrf/s : coxie 
yellowish-grey p(jllinose, clothed with yellowish hair; femora 
clothed with black, tibiic with bright cream-coloured hair. 

Mashonaland, Southern Rhodesia: type and five other 
specimens from Salisbury, Ai)ril, November, Deccml)er 1899, 
and iMarch 19U0 (G. A. K. Marshall). 

In addition to the foregoing, the Museum collection con- 
tains a MMU's t)!' s[)eeimens of what appeal's to be a suhs[)ecies 

214 Mr. E. E. Austen on new 

of P. cowpacta, and may be designated and characterized as 
follows : — 

Pangonia compact a centralis, subsp. n. 

? . — Length 11 '3 to 11 "6 mm. ; length of wing 10 mm. ; 
greatest width of wing 3'9 to 4'1 mm. 

Agreeing in all respects tvith the typical form ofV. compacta 
except: — in its diminutive size {not exceeding 12mm. in length), 
in the relatively someivhat greater reduction in the dimensions of 
the median black spot on the second abdominal segment (which is 
generally of a quadrate or elungate quadrate shape, and does 
not reach the middle of the segment), in the usually greater 
depth of the pale hind border to the fourth segment (in which 
the blackish-broun area is sometimes so much reduced that the 
segment is almost entirely ochraceoiisj , and in the darker colour 
of the wings, xvliich have a more brownish tinge. 

Nyasaland Protectorate (British Central Africa) : type 
and six other specimens from the Samulu stream, near 
Chibwano's, Cl.ikala, 29. iii. 1906 {Dr. J. E. S. Old). The 
collector's held-note is as follows : — " Numerous only near 
the bank, in the heat of the day ; flight rapid, with humming 
sound much like that ordinarily associated with large common 
flies. Several were found together in spots only ; they 
rushed at once to the ankles and legs, and inserted the long 
proboscis. Vegetation — both short and long grass (1 to 
5 feet), scrub, and Ficus-trees in the neighbourhood, and low 
green trees fairly thick on the banks." 

In coloration and markings Pa7igonia compacta resembles 
P. riippellii, .Taenn., the type of which was collected in 
Abyssinia, from which, however, it can be distinguished by 
its broader and bulkier body, shorter and broader wings, and 
closed fourth posterior cell. In spite of the latter character, 
which will also serve to difi'erentiate the species from most 
if not all other hitherto described African representatives of 
the genus in its I'estricted sense, Pangonia compacta is a 
true Pangonia, and cannot be referred to Scione, Walk. 
{Diclisa, Schin.), a South-American genus the species of 
which have hairy eyes and quite a difl'erent fades. In view 
of the number of specimens (six of the typical form and 
seven of the subspecies centralis) available for comparison, 
and the fact that the same character is found in all, it is 
impossible to consider the closure of the fourth posterior cell 
as a mere aberration ; P. compacta and the following 
species, in which the fourth posterior cell is likewise closed, 
must therefore be regarded as forming a group distinguished 
from its congeners by the character in question. 

African PJdehotoinic Dlptera. 215 

Pangonia fodiens, sp. u. 

? . — Length (1 specimeu) LS'S mm. ; width of head 
4-5 mm. ; width of front at vertex 0*6 mm. ; length of wing 
10*6 mm. ; greatest width of wing 4*25 mm. 

Fourth as ioell as first posterior cell closed before reaching 
margin of wing. — Dorsum of thorax as in foregoing species ; 
first segment of abdomen straw-yellow and pollinose, except 
black area heaeath scutellum, second and third segments ochra- 
ceous, remainder deep black, with buff-coloured hind borders, 
fringed with shining yellowish hair ; basal half of venter cream- 
buff, second and third segmetits clothed, except on basal angles, 
with yellowish-white hair ; fourth and following segments of 
venter deep black, luith pale hind margins, very narrow and 
inconspicuous on fifth, sixth, and seventh segments; wings 
luteous, not relatively broad ; legs as in foregoing species, but 
last two joints of front and middle tarsi brown, and tips of 
other tarsal joints brown or brownish. 

Head as in foregoing speeies, but face distinctly less pro- 
duced, shining black callus on upper half of front guttata 
instead of triangular, and hair on upper part of front black 
or blackish ; palpi black ; coloration of first and second 
joints of antennoi as in P. compacta, though first joint 
distinctly shorter ; third joint wanting. Thorax as in fore- 
going species. Abdomen : dorsum of second and third 
segments as in foregoing species, but median basal black 
triangle on second segment broader and not reaching to 
middle of segment ; basal angles of ventral surface of second 
and third segments clothed with minute black hairs. Hal- 
ter es as in foregoing species. 

Nyasalaud Protectorate ( British Central Africa) : Samulu 
stream, near Chibwano's, Chikala, 29. iii. 1906 {Dr. J. E. S. 
Old) : taken at same time and place as the specimens of 
Pangonia compacta centralis referred to above. 

Although presenting a strong superficial resemblance to 
Pangonia compacta, P. fodiens can be distinguished at once 
by its narrower head and body, less prominent face, and the 
fact that the tarsi are tipped with brown ; the front above 
the antennse is also narrower ; the remaining difierenccs are 
sufficiently indicated in the above description. For syste- 
matic position, see remarks above, with reference to Pangonia 

^ Pangonia oldii, sp. u. 

<J $ . — Length, (J (10 specimens) ]5'5 to 18 mm., ? (11 
Rpecimena) 15 2 to 17'6 mm. ; width of head, {S) 5 to 5-5 

216 Ml*. E. E. Austen on neio 

mm., (?) 5 to 5-75 ram. ; width of front of ? at vertex 
0-75 to 1 mm. ; length of proboscis, {^) 8-75 to 12 mm., 
(?) 7-3 to 8-75 mm. ; length of wing ISG to 15-6 mm. 

Dusky, dark-ivinged species, ivith first tivo segments of 
abdomen taivny, remainder blackish brown loith lighter hind 
borders ; median area of third segment often more or less 
tawny ; posterior angles of second, fourth, and fifth segments 
clothed with silvery-white hair ; an second segment silvery 
hair forms continaous band on hind margin, broadening out on 
each side of middle line ; wings uniformly brownish, first 
posterior cell closed before reaching margin, fourth posterior 
cell open ; hind legs and front and middle femora chestnut, 
tips of front and middle tarsi brown, basal joints and front 
and middle tibia ochraceous buff. 

Head yellowish pollinose, a brown or brownish patch on 
middle of front in ? ; face moderately prominent, with a 
shining black somewhat triangular callus on each side, in ^ 
extending to front margin of buccal cavity ; ? with a 
shining reddish-brown, elongate, quadrate, median callus 
between and immediately above bases of antennae, and a 
shining dark brown ocellar spot ; sides of face below tubercles 
brownish ; in ? terminal and most prominent portion of 
face bi'own, or, when denuded, shining dark brown ; anterior 
portion of lower margin of jowls dark brown; under side of 
head clothed with yellowish- white hair ; jjalpi ferruginous ; 
antennee orange-rufous, first and seco-nd joints pollinose, in 
S upper side of first and upper and under sides of second 
joint bearing long black hairs, which in ? are confined to 
upper side of second joint. Thorax : dorsum dark brown, 
yellowish pollinose, and clothed with short yellowish pile, 
which is intermixed with blackish hairs; lateral margins 
edged with longer pale yellowish hair, forming a fringe on 
each side, which includes the postalar callus ; the usual 
longitudinal markings on dorsum, as also the transverse 
suture, rendered somewhat more distinct by denser pollen, 
especially in ? ; pleurse clothed with yellowish pile, a tuft of 
black or blackish-brown hair on mesopleura, below and a little 
in front of base of wing. Abdomen : first segment with a 
blackish median area, wholly or partly concealed by scutel- 
lum ; near this dark blotch clothed Mith blackish hair, else- 
where with shining cadmium-yellow pile, especially con- 
spicuous on posterior angles and hind margin ; second and 
following segments, except where clothed Avith silvery-white 
pile as indicated in diagnosis above, covered with short 
black hair; in (^ , second segment usually with a small 

African Phlehotomic Diptera. 217 

black median basal spot or triangk ; hind borders of third 
and following segments dull, sepia- coloured in ^ , mummy- 
brown in ? ; silvery-white hair on posterior angles of fourth 
segment covering from one fourth to one third of hind 
margin on each side ; lateral margins of sixth or sixth and 
seventh segments also with yellowish or whitish hair : ventral 
surface, extreme base of first segment blackish or brownish ; 
remainder of tirst and whole of second segment tawny ; in $ 
base of third segment sometimes likewise tawny, but tawny 
area of venter sharply marked oif from blackish-brown apical 
jjortion ; in venter of $ the two colours are usually less 
.sharply contrasted, and the central portion of the third and 
iuUowing segments is often more or less tawny, the blackish- 
brown colour being confined to the sides of the segments; 
venter of (^ clothed with minute black hairs, denser and 
somewhat longer on apical segments ; second segment with 
more or less conspicuous silvery-white hairs near hind 
margin, and similar hairs often present near hind margin of 
fourth segment on each side ; sixth and seventh segments 
with pale yellowish hairs on posterior angles : venter of ? 
with more pale hairs ; second segment with minute silvery 
hairs interspersed among the black except on basal angles; 
pale yellowish hairs largely present on fourtli, also clotliing 
sides of fifth segment, and predominant on following 
segments. Halteres : stalk brownish, knob buff" to oehraceous 
buff. Legs : front and middle femora and hind legs (except 
underside of tarsi) clothed with black hair; under side of 
hind tarsi clothed with ferruginous hair ; front and middle 
tibiffi clothed with pale yellowish hair. 

Nyasaland Protectorate (British Central Africa) : types of 
(J and ? and IG other specimens from the Naugondo 
stream and its vicinity, Masanji-Shire District, 31. iii. 190G 
{Dr. J. E. S. Old) ; 3 specimens from the Upper Shire River, 
near Mpimbi, 20 miles west of Zomba, 1100 feet. May 1905, 
" In large numbers following the nswala antelope " [zEjji/- 
ceros 7/ielainjAis'] {Major F. B. Pearce, C.M.G., Deputy 
Commissio/ier). Tlic field-note by Dr. Old (after whom 1 
have much pleasure in naming this fine species, as a slight 
recognition of the efiurts made by him during the last four 
years to supply tlie National Collection with specimens of 
the blood-sucking Diptera of British Central Africa) is as 
follows : — " Naugondo stream ; here and some miles beyond, 
where I shot an m[)ala \_/Ei)yceros melainjnis], which seemed 
to attract them after u little while, a large Paiu/unia was 
seen. I send several s[)ecimeus of it. It makes a loud 

218 Mr. E. E. Austen on new 

Immmiug noise, resembling that of a large bee, and on 
aligliting immediately thrusts its long proboscis through the 

Pangonia oldii is closely allied to P. zonata, Walk, (a 
Somalilaud species, the type of which is from Tajurrah), but 
may be distinguished as follows : — In P. oldii the shining 
callus on each side of the face is longer and less abruptly 
truncated ; the sides of the second abdominal segment in 
front of the hind border are clothed with black instead of 
golden-yellow hair; the hair on the posterior angles of the 
second and fourth abdominal segments is pure white instead 
of yellowish ; on the fourth segment these white hairs do not 
extend to the middle line, whereas the fourth abdominal 
segment of P. zonata, ? , has a continuous broad hind border 
of yellowish hair ; on the ventral surface the median portion 
of the second abdominal segment of P. oldii, $ , is clothed 
largely with silvery hair, that of the same segment of 
P. zonata, ? , with yellowish hair ; the ventral surface of 
the dark segments at the distal extremity of the abdomen of 
P. oldii, $ , is clothed with black and yellowish hair inter- 
mixed, while in the case of P. zonata, ? , the ventral 
surface of the same segments is exclusively clothed with a 
thick coat of yellowish hair : other differences are to be 
found in the colour of the legs and hair clothing them. 


Pangonia alboatra, Walk. (Ins. Saund., Dipt. i. (1850) 
p. 13. — Cape of Good Hope), = P. anyulata, Fabr. In 
AValker's type the white hind border to the second abdominal 
segment is interrupted in the middle, but the interruption is 
apparently due to denudation, since, when the abdomen is 
viewed obliquely from the right front, the hinder border 
appears to be complete. 

Pangonia mugrettii, Bezzi (Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital. xxxiii. 
(1901) p. 7. — Eritraea), is, perhaps, merely a dark iorm or 
subspecies of P. riippellii, Jaenn., the type of which is from 

Genus H.ematopota, Mg. 
Hamatopota fulva, sp. n. 
?. — Length (6 specimens) 8'5 to 10'4 mm.; width of 

African Phlebotomic Drptera. 219 

hea(r2-4 to 3-2 mm. ; width of front at vertex 1 mm. ; 
lenjijth of winj^ 8-5 to 10 mm. 

Tawny ; thorax somewhat darker, russet ; abdomen uni- 
coJorous, without markings ; wimjs ochraceous, ivith a broad 
light brown or drab-coloured border, commencing just beyond 
the stigma (above the end of the hackwardly -directed appendio; 
to the uj)pe)' hranch of the third vein) and extending to the 
anal angle, or nearly so ; legs tawny, front tarsi and tips of 
joints of middle and hind tarsi broivn. 

Head tawny; frontal callus fairly deep, its upper margin 
straiglit ; brown spot on each side of front well-marked and 
eonspicuous, median frontal spot absent ; a small reddish- 
brown fleck below callus in middle line, between and just 
above bases of anteniicC ; face with a shining triangular spot 
on each side, its apex directed backwards and extending on 
to jowl; hair clothing jowls tawny ; /ja/^« tawny, clothed with 
blackish mixed with bright tawny hair ; antennas tawny, last 
three anuuli of third joint black, expanded portion of third 
joint sometimes considerably infuscated towards the tip, 
first joint short, not incrassated, first and second joints 
clothed with black hair, last annulus of third joint equal in 
length to the two preceding annuli taken together. Thorax 
without conspicuous markings ; close to front margin the 
commencement of a narrow light grey median stripe, at some 
little distance on each side of which is a faintly indicated 
light stripe (sometimes tawny olive) extending to transverse 
suture ; pleurae, pectus, and scutellum of same colour as 
dorsum. Abdomen clothed with minute ochraceous hairs. 
Wings : characteristic Hafjiatopota-markm^s very faint, 
noticeable mainly in the basal halves of the posterior cells, 
from the second to the fifth ; no dark blotch beneath stigma, 
which is large, elongate, and cinnamon-coloured ; first and 
secoiul basal cells, first submarginal cell as far as fork of 
third vein, and first posterior cell to same distance without 
dark markings; one or two faint darker blotches in discal 
cell, and two or three in apical portion of anal cell ; two 
faint, pale, sinuous streaks usually visible in apex of wing, 
running from second to third veins, beyond fork of latter; 
extreme bases of second to fifth posterior cells usually not 
infuscated ; lower down a more or less distinct double row 
of curved light nuukings running across these cells, in a 
direction roughly i)arallcl to hind margin, the upper row 
sometimes merged in the pale bases of the cells ; no pale 
flecks along hind margin itself at tips of veins ; a doubly 
curved light streak across the axillary cell beyond tli'e 
middle; when (he wing is viewed against a dark back- 

220 Mr. E. E. Austen on new 

ground, remains of the usual rosettes round the fork of the 
third vein, distal extremity of the discal cell, and distal 
extremity of the second basal cell can be seen more or less 
distinctly in different specimens ; appendix to upper branch 
of third vein rather long. Halteres mummy- brown, stalk 
ochraceous buff. 

Angola : type and five other specimens from Benguella, 
February 1905 (Dr. F. Creiyhton Wellman). Dr. Wellman 
sends the folloMing note Avith reference to this species : — 
" Found in sedgy and grass-grown marshes, near large 
streams. Like others of its genus, a vicious biter ; fairly 
active; twelve specimens taken."' The collector is to be 
congratulated on the discovery of this remarkable species, 
which, owing to its peculiar coloration, cannot be confused 
with any of its congeners known to me from any part of the 

Hccmatopota denshamii, sp. n. 

?. — Length (6 specimens) 9-6 to ll'S mm.; width of 
head 2*8 to 3 mm. ; width of front at vertex 1 mm. ; length 
of wing 8"6 to lOS mm. 

Olive-brown, with Jive olive-grey longitudinal stripes on 
dorsum of thorax, and a narrow median light stripe on 
abdomen ; frontal callus black ; ivings tinged with buff, and 
ivith a broun border to the tip and hind margin, as far as the 
end of the sixth vein ; coxce dark grey, femora olive- or greyish 

Head smoke-grey to yellowish grey, vertex with a pair of 
faint light brown longitudinal stripes, which meet together 
above callus ; frontal callus of moderate depth, its upper 
margin slightly convex and rising to a point in the median 
line, which in rubbed specimens may be produced into a 
shining ridge ; brown spot on each side of front usually 
well marked, median frontal spot absent ; palpi pinkish buff, 
elongate, blunt at the tips, clothed with black interspersed 
with light yelloAvish hair ; first and second joints of antenna 
ochraceous buff, first joint not swollen, expanded portion of 
third joint dark brown, rufous at the base, last three annuli 
black, last auuulus equal in length to the two preceding 
annuli taken together. Thorax : median stripe on dorsum 
only half as wide as admcdian stripes, latter wider in front; 
pleura; and pectus olive-grey. Abdomen clothed with minute, 
appressed, bufl-yellow hairs ; venter olive-grey on each side. 
Wings : light markings rather coarse ; against a dark back- 
ground remains of the usual three rosettes can be distin- 
guished, otherwise the markings are confined to the brown 

African Pliltbotomic Dijjtera. 221 

border; two sinuous streaks running across tips of sub- 
marginal cells, beyond fork of third vein, the distal streak 
breaking up into a series of detached markings running 
across the posterior cells ; axillary cell faintly tinged with 
brown, with a broad pale streak running parallel with the 
wing-margin and continued along the sixth vein, thus 
enclosing an area of darker colour ; l)asal, anal, and discal 
cells, proximal two-thirds of first posterior cell, and bases of 
remaining posterior cells not infuscated ; a faint dark 
marking usually visible across middle of discal cell; stigma 
dark brown, conspicuous, llalteres light russet to brown, 
stalk yellowish. Legs : tibiae ochraceous buff, clothed with 
minute ochraceous hairs, distal two-thirds of front tibiai 
brown ; front tarsi dark brown, middle and hind tarsi lighter 
brown, ochraceous buff at base. 

Uganda, Nile Province : type and three other specimens 
taken between Nimule and Wadelai, June 1906 {the late 
Dr. W. A. Denshani) ; two additional specimens from Nimule, 
November 1904, " on cattle " {Capt. E. D. W. Greig, I.M.S.). 
Named in memory of the late Dr. W. A. Densham, who, 
Mhen forwarding his specimens, wrote as follows : — '^ This 
species was a great pest in June 1906 between Nimule and 
Wadelai, especially where the grass was long. It did not 
occur particularly near water, but chiefly along native paths, 
through open rolling grassy country. Natives are much 
annoyed by its bite." 

Hamatopota denshamii is closely allied to H. similis, 
llicardo, and H. unicolor, Ricardo, both of which also occur 
in Uganda; from the former, however, it is distinguished by 
the colour of the basal joints of the autenna2, the deeper 
frontal callus, and the last annulus of the third joint of the 
antennae being as long as the two i)receding joints taken 
together, instead of but little longer than either ; from 
H. unicolor it may be distinguished by the colour of the 
Irontal callus, and by the first joint of the antennae not being 

Hccmutopota semiclara, sp. n. 

? . — Length (7 specimens) 7-5 to 9-6 mm. ; width of 
head 225 to 2'6 mm. ; width of front at vertex 0*8 mm. to 
1 mm. 

Greij, hndy narrow ; thora.r light olive-grey, with four 
lighter or darker brown longitudinal stripes ; abdomen olive- 
grey, second to sixth segments inclusive more or less olive on 
each side of median line, leaving a narrow light median strij)e ; 
wing-)narkings exceedingly faint, tip of iving and hind border 

222 Mr. E. E. Austen on new 

Hyhthj infuscaled and variegated ivith vestiges of the usual 
light marks, but central area of wing devoid of markings and 
se7ni-hy aline ; legs dull tawny, tips of tarsi darker. 

Head grey on front, yellowish grey on face and jowls ; 
frontal callus dark brown, sometimes more or less ochraceous, 
very narrow from above downwards, up2)er margin often 
produced upwards into a triangular prominence in middle 
line; blackisli-hrown or black spot on each side of front 
well marked, when seen from above it apjjcars surrounded 
by a very light grey area, median frontal spot absent ; palpi 
cream-buff, clothed on outer side with black hair intermixed 
with some ochraceous hairs ; antennae short, first and second 
joints ochraceous buff, first joint slightly incrassated, clothed 
bke the second with black hair, third joint dark brown, 
ochraceous at base, last three annuli black, last annulus 
about equal in length to the two preceding annuli taken 
together. Thorax : dark stripes on dorsum often not 
reaching front margin ; scutellum with a brown fleck on 
each side, which is sometimes obsolete. Abdomen: olive 
patches on second and majority of following segments 
usually quadrate in shape, lateral margins of segments grey ; 
venter with an olive median stripe. Wings : area devoid of 
markings includes basal, anal, and discal cells, and proximal 
two-thirds of first submarginal and first posterior cells ; 
second and third posterior cells also uithout markings at 
extreme base; stigma elongate, dull tawny ochraceoiis to 
dark brown, conspicuous. Legs : front tarsi reddish brown, 
last joints of middle and hind tarsi brown. 

Angola : type and five other specimens from the vicinity 
of Bailundo, November to December 1904 {Dr. F. Creighton 
Wellman) ; one specimen from Benguella, 1905 {Dr. F. C. 
Wellman). When forwarding these flies Dr. \yellman 
wrote: — "I took about 60 specimens of this species in long 
grass in a treeless valley, and in thin bush on the side of a 
mountain, 220 to 30(3 miles from the coast. Sluggish, 
Eyes bright green when alive. Some specimens were 
infested with a minute red tick /^ Like the foregoing species, 
Hamatopoia semiclara is allied to H. unicolor, Ricardo, 
but it ]s distingaished by its smaller size, more slender 
shape, less swollen first antennal joint, and by the wing- 
markings, inter alia by the discal cell being entirely semi- 

Genus Tabaxus, Linn. 
Tabanus denshamii, sp. n. 
? . — Length (4 specimens) 17 to 21 mm. ; width of head 

African P/debotoinic Diplera. 22.'i 

6 to 7 mm. ; width of front at vertex 0'6 mm. to just under 
1 mm. ; length of wing 14 to 17 ram. 

Seal-brown ; longitudinal stripes on dorsum of thorax and 
a median series of very broad truncated triangles on abdomi- 
nal segments grey or smoke-grey ; wings with extreme base, 
costal border as far as end of first longitudinal vein, and base 
of anal cell dark brown ; veins in proximal two-thirds of wing 
distinctly suffused with brown. 

Head: front, face, and jowls grey pollinose; subeulhis 
cream-buff pollinose; face and jowds clothed with whitish 
hair ; sides of front only slightly convergent below; frontal 
callus and its linear extension (when visilde) chestnut, callus 
elongate quadrate, rounded above, touching or but narrowly 
separated from the eye on each side ; ocellar region slightly 
l)rownish ; eyes bare ; palpi tapering to a point, clothed 
with pale yellowish hairs, sometimes thickly interspersed 
with black hairs on outer side ; first joiut of antenna pollinose 
rufous, its upper angle blackish brown, second joint dark 
brown, third joint black or l)lackish brown. Thorax : pectus, 
pleurae, a broad ill-defined stripe above base of wings, and 
three sharply marked dorsal stripes, the median one very 
narrow and scarcely extending beyond middle, grey ; a stripe 
of black hair in front of base of wing ; postalar callus 
bearing a conspicuous tuft of whitish hair ; grey dorsal 
stripes clothed with yellowish hair, dorsum elsewhere 
clothed with dark brown or blackish hair, pectus and pleurse 
with whitish hair ; scutellum grey pollinose, ground-colour 
ferruginous, brownish at base, clothed at base and on disk 
with dark brown hair, margin fringed with whitish hair. 
Abdomen : median series of very broad, truncated, smoke- 
grey triangles on dorsum very conspicuous and sharply 
defined, forming a continuous series extending from the 
second to filth segment inclusive; on the first segment 
there is merely a median grey spot, in contact with the 
truncated apex of the triangle on the second segment ; on 
the second, third, and fourth segments the broad bases of 
the triangles, which rest on the hind margin, extend on each 
side considerably beyond the truncated apex of the following 
triangle ; a median grey mark sometimes visible on sixth 
segment ; second, third, and fourth segments with a small, 
somewhat oval, grey spot on each side of the median 
triangle, and much less pronounced than the latter ; first 
segment lightly greyish polliuose when viewed obliquely 
from l)ehind ; triangles elothcil with minute pale yellowisli 
iiairs ; lateral margins of segments clothed with whitish 
hair; venter greyish pollinose, clothed with minute pale 

224 Mr. E. E. Austen on new 

yellowish hairs, except last segment, which is clothed with 
coarse, erect^ and much longer black hair, and median 
region of penultimate segment, which is clothed wath short 
black hair ; ground-colour of venter ferruginous, with a very 
broad, interrupted or subinterrupted, dark brown median 
stripe ; second and following segments with a narrow brown 
posterior band in front of hind margin; extreme hind 
margins cream-buff. Wings : among the veins suffused 
with brown are the base of the anterior intercalary vein and 
the posterior transverse vein (together forming the distal 
boundary of the discal cell), and the extreme base of the 
upper branch of the third longitudinal ; alula and base of 
anal angle brown, central portion of alula paler ; squamce 
blackish brown. Halteres brown, knobs usually yellowish. 
Legs : dull ferruginous pollinose, front femora, tips of front 
tibiae, and all tarsi brownish black ; hair for the most part 
whitish or yellowish, a conspicuous fringe on outside of hind 

Uganda and North-eastern Rhodesia : type and two 
other specimens from Unyoro, Uganda, halfway between 
Masindi and Murchison Falls, January 1907 (the late Dr. 
W. A. Densham) ; a fourth specimen from Fwambo, N.-E. 
Rhodesia (near the south-eastern end of Lake Tanganyika), 
between October 1892 and February 1893 {W. H. Nutt). 

This exceedingly striking species has been named in 
honour of the late Dr. W. A. Densham, Medical OfiBcer, 
Sleeping Sickness Extended Investigations, Uganda, who 
unfortunately lost his life at the end of May 1907, through 
being charged by a wounded buffalo. Dr. Densham's 
specimens, which were received barely two months before his 
death, formed part of a small but interesting collection of 
blood-sucking Diptera from Uganda, most carefully pinned, 
in excellent condition, and accompanied by notes. Another 
collection had previously been received from Dr. Densham, 
and there can be no doubt that, had it not been for his 
untimely death, our knowledge of the blood-sucking flies of 
one of the newest dependencies of the British Crown would 
have been largely augmented by the efforts of this pains- 
taking investigator. 

Dr. Densham's field-note on this species is as follows : — 
'' I saw this fly for the first time in January 1907, halfway 
between Masindi and the Murchison Falls. In its flight and 
manner of alighting it resembles Fly no. 4 [Tabanus tmiiola, 
Pal. de Beauv.], and I overlooked the first that appeared. 
I found it in several camps in the neighbourhood, but its 
distribution seems very local. The natives say that it is at 

African Pldehotmuc Diptera. 225 

elephant-fly, but I shot an elephant in the vicinity, and saw 
no biting flies at all on or near it." 

Tabanus denshainii is allied to T. nyasa, Ricardo (Ann. & 
Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, vol. vi. 1900, p. 161:— syn. 71 tar- 
salis, Adams, Kansas Univ. Sc. Bull. vol. iii. (xiii.) 1905, 
p. 151), the type of which is from British Central Africa. 
7\ nyasce, however, is distinguished by its more hyaline 
wings, less deeply suff'used veins, the costal border to end of 
first vein being merely tawny instead of dark brown, absence 
of infuscation at the base of the upper branch of tlie third 
vein, much larger lateral abdominal spots, narrower median 
triangles on the abdominal segments, and paler femora and 

Tabanus welbnanii, sp. n. 

? . — Length (6 specimens) 11*25 to 12-3 mm. ; width of 
head 4 to 4-5 mm. ; width of front at vertex 05 mm. ; 
length of wing 10 to ITS mm. 

Front narrow, yearl-grey above ; thorax clove-brown, with 
a jjair of pearl-i/rey stripes scarcely extending beyond trans- 
verse suture, and a narrow transverse band of silvery pile on 
hind border / abdomen seal-brown, third and fourth segments 
each V)ith a greyish-white median spot, bluntly triangular or 
semioval in outline, and clothed with shining, appressed cream- 
coloured hair. 

Head clove-brown, front, face, jowls, and occiput grey 
pollinose, face and jowls clothed with white hair; frontal 
callus and subcallus (? denuded) dark brown, the former 
elongate quadrate, extending from eye to eye ; jyalpi dark 
brown, slender, clothed with whitish hair ; first and second 
joints of antennae slate-grey, clothed above with minute 
black hairs, first joint also with whitish hairs below, third 
joint narrow, elongate, clove-brown, slightly ferruginous at 
extreme base. Thorax : grey dorsal stripes conspicuous 
when viewed from behind, the interspace also greyisli, 
divided by a narrow median light brown stripe, each grey 
stripe with a light brown outer edging; ground-colour of 
transverse posterior band (including greater portion of post- 
alar ealli) pearl-grey ; pectus and pleurie greyish pollinose, 
clothed with whitish hair; scutellum bluisli-grey pollinose, 
upper i)ortion of hind margin brownish. Abdomen : median 
spots with their bases resting on hind margins of segments, 
spot on third segment not reaching to front margin ; sides 
of first segment, and posterior angles of second, third, and 
fourth segments grey, clothed with whitish hair ; hind 
Ann. <& Mag. N. Hist. «er. 8. Vol. i. 1.^ 

226 Mr. E. E. Austen 07i new 

margins of tliird and fourth segments, on each side of median 
spot, narrowly grey; venter greyish poUinose, basal portion 
of segments usually brownish ; last two segments clothed 
with erect black liair, remainder with short, more or less 
appressed, whitish hair. Winys with a brownish tinge ; 
stigma well defined, brown ; squarnce dark brown. Halteres 
brown, knobs somewhat lighter. Legs clove-brown ; tibiae, 
except tips, cream-coloured and clothed with whitish hair ; 
second, thiid, and fourth joints of front tarsi strongly 

Angola: type and five other specimens from the Chiyaka 
district, March 1906 {Dr. F. Creighton Wellman). I 
have much pleasure in naming this species after its dis- 
coverer, who states that it is a '' pertinacious biter,^^ and 
was " taken in a thick jungle " *. 

This and the following species are allied to Tabanus insignis, 
Lw., but present still closer resemblance to a new species 
which occurs in French Congo (Gaboon), and will shortly 
be described by M. Surcouf, of the Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris, under the name of Tahanus argenteus. 
From this species T. ivellmanii is distinguished by the 
presence of the pearl-grey stripes on the thorax, by the 
band of silvery pile on the hind border being much less 
deep, by the scutellum being for the most part bluish grey 
instead of dark brown except at the base, and by the 
abdominal spots not being semicircular and their transverse 
diameter being much less : the width of each spot is less 
than that of the space between it and the lateral margin of 
the segment, instead of greater, as in T. argenteus. 

Tabanus sharpei, sp. n. 

$ . — Length (1 specimen) 11*5 mm. ; width of head 
4 mm.; width of front at vertex 0"6 mm. ; length of wing 
9*25 mm. 

Closely resetnbling foregoing species, but distinguishable by 
the abdominal markings and icider front. — Clove-broivn ; 
front pearl-grey ; thorax uith a pair of narrow, well-defined, 
pearl-grey stripes, ending just beyond transverse suture, and 
hind hnrder pearl grey, clothed with silvery pile ; abdomen 
with sides of first segment, a large quadrate blotch on posterior 
angles of second, and a doubly emarginate cross-band on hind 

* For description of Chrysops ivellmanii, Austen, discovered by 
Dr. Wellinan in the same district and at the same time, cf. Austen, Ann. 
& Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, vol. xx., Dec. 1907, pp. 512-513. 

African Phlebotom'ic Diptera. 227 

borders of third and fourth segments^ deepest in centre, li<jht 

Head grey pollinose, face and jowls clothed with white 
hair; front narrowing anteriorly ; /rora^a/ callus somewhat 
elongate, extending from eye to eye below, narrower above; 
palpi fairly broad at base, then tapering rapidly, cream-bufF, 
clothed with whitish hair; first two joints of antenna: 
greyish, their uj)per angles blackish, first joint clothed for 
the most part with whitish hair, third joint clove-brown, its 
basal portion broad. Thorax : some yellowish hairs near 
anterior margin of dorsum, between the stripes ; hair on 
latter whitish ; pectus and pleural greyish pollinose, clotlied 
with whitish hair; scutel'um clove-brown, paler at extreme 
base. Abdomen : grey markings clothed with whitish hairs, 
ground-colour with blackish or dark brown hair; venter 
grey, with clove-brown cross-band at base of each segment, 
except first and second, which are entirely grey, and last 
segment, which is entirely clove-brown ; erect coarse black 
hair on under side of lust segment long. Wings hyaline, 
stigma inconspicuous ; squamae brownish. Halteres walnut- 
brown. Legs : femora dark greyish brown ; tibiae, except 
tips, cream-buff ; front tarsi and tips of front tibiae black ; 
middle and hind tarsi, and tips of middle and hind tibiae, seal- 
brown ; front tarsi expanded ; femora and tibiic clothed with 
whitish or yellowish-white hair ; whitish hairs also present 
on upper side of first three tarsal joints. 

Nyasaland Protectorate (British Central Africa) : a single 
specimen from Katunibc, Noith Nyasa, 6. xii. 1906 [Dr. J. 
E. S. Old). The collector's field-note with reference to this 
fly is as follows : — " Country, swampy jungle, with very tall, 
coarse reeds, and forest with low trees. Only game seen 
were bushbuck, waterbuck, and wart-hog ; old eland spoor 
plentiful, and that of buffalo some months old.'' This 
species has been named after Sir Alfred Sharpe, K.C.M.G., 
C.B., Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Nyasaland 
Protectorate, whose efforts on behalf of the big game of the 
territory under his administration have eutitlctl him to the 
gratitude of all who have the welfare of the African fauna at 

For affinities of 7\ sliarpei see notes on T. u-ellmonii above. 
Besides the differences already mentioned, T. sharpei can be 
distinguisiied from T. vellmunii by the hyaline wings, the 
practical abser.ce of the stigma, and the narrower front 
tarsi, in which the angles of the expanded joints arc more 
rounded and much less produced. From T. argenteus, 


228 Baron F. von Huene on Phytosaurian Bemaitis 

Snrcouf, MS., T. sharpei is distinguished inter alia by the 
broader front, the much shorter and broader basal portion of 
the third joint of the antennpe, the shorter palpi, conspicuous 
grey stripes on the front part of the dorsum of the thorax, 
the shape of the abdominal nifirkings, and the hyaline 

XXX III. — Oil Phytosaurian Remains from the Magnesinn 
Conglomerate of Bristol (Rileya platyodon). By Fried- 
RiCii Baron Huene, D.Sc, Tubingen, Germany. 

[Plate VI.] 

Some years ago the writer published (Pal. u. geol. Abliandh 
vi. (x.) 1902, pp. 62 & 63) a description of one humerus and 
two vertebrae from the Bristol Conglomerate as Phytosaurian, 
with the new name Piileya hristolensis. Now, after having 
finished tlie monograph of European Triassic Dinosaurs 
(which has not yet completely appeared), I find some more 
Phytosaurian bones, which I propose to describe here. 

The tooth described by Riley and Stutclibury (Trans. Geol. 
Soc. V. 1836, pi. xxix. fig. 5) as Palceosaurus platyodon (and 
figured by Owen, 'Odontography,' 1845, pi. Ixii.A, fig. 7) 
is not a Dinosaurian, but a Phytosaurian tooth. There is no 
difi"erence between this tooth and some of the Belodont teeth 
in the Stuttgart Museum. The name Palceosaurus cannot be 
accepted, because it is preoccupied by Geoffroy for another 
reptile (Mem. Inst. xii. 1831, p. 48). As this tooth and 
seven other bones are the only Phytosaurian remains amongst 
a great many Dinosaurian bones, it is highly probable they 
belong to the same animal. Some of the bones alone have 
been called Rileya hristolensis, therefore the generic name 
Rileya must now comprise the tooth also. Of course the 
oldest of the specific names has to be applied, so the animal 
will be called Rileya platyodon, Riley and Stutclibury sp. 

Teeth. — The outline of the broad and compressed tooth 
(type specimen in the Bristol Museum) is like that of a 
broad lancet-shaped leaf. The base is a little laced. The 
sharp anterior and posterior edges are finely serrated, so that 
in 1 mm. length there are little more than 3 denticules. 
The latter are disposed vertically to the border. The crown 
is 17 mm. long and 12"5 mm. in maximum breadth. Another 
tooth from Bristol is in the British Museum (PI. VI. fig. 1). 

from the M'lgnesian Conglomerate of Bristol. 221) 

Vertebrae. — Tlie vertebras (fig. 2) are too long for the two 
species of Thecodontosaurus occurring at Bristol. Both centra 
are similar to those of SteqanoUins Rohertsoni^ Huxley, from 
Elgin (Pal. u. geol. Abhandl. vi. (x.) 1<J02, p. 63, fig. 76). 
They are proximal caudal vertebrae. One of them is 30 mm. 
long and 25 mm. high, tiie other is 48 mm. long and 23 mm. 
high. Botli articular faces are slightly concave. There are 
low prsezygapophyses preserved. These vertebras are in the 
possession of the Yale University Museum, New Haven, 
Conn., U.S.A. 

Hcemapophyses. — In the Bristol Museum (no. 30) is a 
proximal hasmapophysis (fig. 3). It is widely bifurcated and 
had probably two separated articular faces. The distal 
extremity is broken off. 


Preserved length 40 

Greatest diameter from one proximal ramus to 

the other .30 

Length of the clasp, anterior side 16 

,, „ posterior side 30 

Transverse diameter of the clasp U 

Humerus. — Tlie writer has already described one humerus 
(Pal. u. geol. Abhandl. vi. (x.) 1902, p. Q>-2, fig. 75), and in 
the British Museum is a second one. Both are right humeri. 
That in the British Museum (fig. 4) is incomplete at the 
distal end, but it is larger than the humerus (fig. 5) in the 
Bristol Museum (nos. 1)5 & 96). The anterior aspect of the 
proximal end is not visible in both humeri ; therefore the 
length of the processus lateralis is unknown. The proximal 
and distal ends have the same breadth. Tlie median border 
is strongly incurved, the lateral one is nearly straight. 
Besides tlic condylus lateralis is a broad and sharp-edged 
ectepicondylus. The caput humeri is broken otf in both 

Bristol Brit. Miis. 
specimen. specimen, 
mm. mm. 

Total length 170 (?) l!)0 (pre- 

served 150) 

Width at proximal end 5.5 (? GO) 7-5 (80 '^) 

„ distal end 50 (? GO) 

Diameter in the middle of shaft . . 'lO 2'i 

Radius. — A bone in the Bristol Museum (no. 52) is to bo 
taken as the radius (fig. G). It is not quite complete at both 
extremities. The thicker end is the distal one: it shows a 

230 Baron F. von Ilucnc on Phytosaurian Eemains. 

stronger curvature to one side, whicli must be tlie ulnar one. 
1'he section at the proximal end is oval. 


Preserved length 130 

Probable length 135 

Diameters at proximal end 25/15 

Diameter in the middle 12 

Diameters at distal end 30/17 

Metacarpal. — A little flat bone (fig. 7) in the Bristol Mu- 
seum (no. 102) is probably a metacarpal bone. It resembles 
a little the metacarpal of Rhytidodon figured by McGregor 
(Mem. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. ix. 1906, pi. ix. tig. 27). 


Lenjrth 56 

Diameters of proximal end 30/12 

distal end 19/11 

„ in the middle 8/17 

The bones of Rileya j)lalyodon indicate an animal of great 
size. It might be as large as My stria suchus^ Belodon, and 
Rhytidodon ; it is even larger than Steganolepis. The 
anterior leg is much more slender than in Steganolepis, about 
as much as in Rhytidodon, o^^ly the metacarpals seem to 
be more enlarged at both extremities. The luemapophyses 
have two articular faces, as in Rhytidodon. 

The teeth of " Falwosauriis " stricklandi, Davis (Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc. xxxvii. 188J, pi. xxii. fig. 6), from the 
RhastiC;, which are very similar to those here described, also 
of course belong to a Phytosaur. 


Fiff. 1. Tooth of Rileya plafi/ocJor),Tl\\ey and Stutchbury sp., about uat. 

size (specimen in the British Museum), a, side view ; b, front 

view ; c, transverse section ; d, enlargement of the serration. 
Fiff. 2. Two caudal vertebrae (in the Yale University Museum, New 

Haven, Conn.), ^ nat. size. Each shows one praezygapophysis. 
Fig.S. Back view of proximal haemapophysis (in the Bristol Museum, 

no. 30), ^ nat. size. 
Fiff. 4. Back view of right humerus (in the British Museum), ^ nat. size. 
Fiff. 5. Back view of right humerus (in the Bristol Museum, no. 95), 

I nat. size. 
Fiff. 6. Kadius (in the Bristol Museum, no. 52), | nat. size, a, whole 

view ; b, distal end from opposite side ; c, distal end from right 

side of fig. a ; d, section at proximal end ; e, section in the 

middle ; /, section at distal end (the flat side of it is upper side 

in tig. a). 
Ftfjs. 7 a, 7 b. Metacarpal (in the Bristol Museum, no. 102), \ nat. size. 

Two views ot the same. 

On the Opfndian Genus Emytloce[)halus. 231 

XXXIV. — Note on the Ophidian Genus Emydocephalus. 
By (Jr. A. BoULENGEIt, F.R.S. 

The genus Emydocephalus was proposed by G. Krefft in 
1869 for two sea-snakes, E. annulatus, KrefFt, and E. tuher- 
culatus, Krefft, distinguished from Aipysurus, Lacep., by 
the presence of only three labial shields above and below. I 
regard Krefft's snakes as based on individual differences of 
the same species, which was described about the same time 
by Bavayas Atpysu7'us chelonice/)haius,iind lately byStejneger 
as Emydocephalus ijima\ I have now examined a good 
number of these snakes from the Loyalty Islands and from 
the Loo Choo Islands, and I have not the slightest doubt 
that they all belong to one species. In his recent work on 
the Reptiles of Japan, Stcjneger dissents " most emphatically " 
from tins procedure, and maintains his E. ijimce as distinct. 
However, it will be seen, by referring to his own work, that 
Major Wall has reported upon six examples from Okinawa, 
Loo Choo, which clearly show the characters on which he 
based the distinction to be inconstant. 

There is, however, one point in which I now agree with 
Dr. Stejneger, and that is that the genus Emydocephalan 
should be held distinct from Aipysurus, with which I had 
united it in ignorance of its very marked cranial and dental 
characters. 8tejneger has already pointed out that, contrary 
to the definition of Aipysurus, the maxillary bone in Emydo- 
cephalus is shorter than the ectopterygoid, and that the poison- 
fangs are not followed by a series of smaller teeth. But this 
is not all. Having had a skull prepared, I find that the 
dentition is rudimentary on the palatine, pterygoid, and 
dentary bones, that the poison-fangs are remarkably small, 
and that the supratemporal bone (squamosal of most authors) 
differs from that of all other sea-snakes in being small and 
not detached posteriorly from the cranium, a condition very 
similar to that of Elaps among the terrestrial Elapines. The 
postorbital, which is large in Aipysurus^ is vestigial in 

The validity of the genus JCmydocepluilus is therefore 
beyond question. 

232 Dr. W. T. Caiman on 

XXXV. — Notes on a small Collection of Plankton from 
New Zealand. — I. 

The collection was made by Miss Margaret Benson, D.Sc, 
in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand, about 35° S., 174° E. 
It is much to be desired that other travellers should follow 
this excellent example ; the necessary outfit is small and 
inexpensive, the work is easy and clean. 

Three hauls were made under different conditions, but all 
were at the surface and between high water and half-tide. 






lA .... 

iB .... 

Ic .... 

18. vi. 06. 
21. vi. 06. 
23. vi. 06. 

6 to 5.45 P.M. 
9.10 P.M. 
4.50 P.M. 

54° F. 
54° F. 
57° F. 

Clear, sunset. 

As might be expected, the bulk of the catch in each case 
consisted of Medusae, Copepoda, and other small Crustacea. 

I. CRUSTACEA (excluding Copepoda). 
By W. T. Calman, D.Sc, British Museum. 

(a) Cladocera. 

Penilia schmackeri, Ricbard, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. (7) xviii. p. 344, 

pi. XV. figs. 5, 7, 11, 15, pi. xvi. fig. 8 (1895). 
Penilia padjica, Kramer, Trans. Is'ew Zealand Inst, xxvii. p. 222, 

pi. xxiii. figs. 1-5 (1895). 
Penilia schmackeri, Hansen, Cladoceren u. Cirripedien, Plankton-Exp. 

p. 4, pi. i, figs. 1-1 b (1899) ; Sudler, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 

xxix. pp. 109-131, 3 pis. (1899) ; Richard, Bull. Mus. Oceanogr. 

Monaco, no. 52, p. 9 (1905). 

The numerous specimens referred to this species (hauls 1 A, 
1 B, and 1 c), which are all females, agree closely with the 
figures and descriptions of Richard and Hansen quoted above, 
and confirm the suggestion of Hansen that the F. imcijica of 
Kramer, from Hauraki Gulf and Port Jackson, is identical 
with Richard's species. The known distribution of the 
species includes Hong Kong, Vera Cruz (Gulf of Mexico), 
Beaufort (North Carolina), the Gulf of Guinea, and the 

Flaiihton Crustacea from Neio Zealand. 233 

Podon polyiihemoides (Leuckart). 

Podon polypheuioides, Poppe, Abh. naturvviss. Ver. Bremen, x. p. 298 
(1889) ; Kriimer, Trans. New Zealand Inst, xxvii. p. 221 (189o) ; 
Hansen, Cladoceren u. Cirripedien, Plankton-Exp. p. 8 (1899) ; Lill- 
jeborg, Nova Acta Reg. Soc. Sci. Upt<al. (3) xix. p. 633, pi. Ixxxv. 
figs. 7-11 (1900). 

Numerous females and a few males are in the collection 
(hauls 1 A, 1 B, and 1 c). They agree closely with Lilljeborg's 
description and figures. It is interesting to confirm the 
occurrence of this sj^ecies in New Zealand waters, since it 
has not been recorded from any locality nearer than the Gulf 
of Guinea {Hansen). 

Like the last, this is a " neritic " species, only occurring 
close to land ; unlike it, however, it is by no means confined 
to the warmer seas, being found as far north as the Lofoten 

{b) I SO POD A. 
Munna sp. 

Three immature female specimens, not exceeding 1"3 mm. 
in length of body, are in the collection (haul 1 b). They 
apparently belong to an undescribed species, but in the 
absence of i'ully adult specimens it seems inadvisable to 
attempt to diagnose it. The antennules consist of six seg- 
ments, apart from a very minute and somewhat doubtful 
terminal segment. The only species recorded from New 
Zealand is M. neozelam'ca, Chilton *, which has five large 
segments and two minute terminal ones in the antennule. 
Chilton's species further differs from the present in its much 
larger size (3 ram.) and in having the female operculum 
broadly truncate instead of pointed. 

(c) Ampiiipoda. 
Paradexamine pacijica (G. M. Thomson). 

Paradcxamine lyacijica, Stebbiug, Das Tierreioh, Amphipoda, 1. Uam- 
maridea, p. 518 (190(3). 

Numerous small specimens (haul 1 b), none exceeding 
2*5 mm. in length, a[)pear to belong witliout doubt to this 
species, which is known from New Zealand and from East 

• Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, (d) ix. \\ 1, pl^- i- '■'^ »• (IB92). 

234 Dr. W. T. Clahnan on 

In addition to the species mentioned above tliere occurred 
(haul 1 b) numerous specimens of a species probably belongino- 
to the family Aoridae, None of the specimens exceed 4 mm. 
in length, and only in a few of the more minute are the 
antenimles and antenna? preserved. In the absence of adult 
specimens it does not appear jwssible to identify the species. 

[d] M Y S I D A C E A. 
Pseudomma sp. 

Among a number of minute specimens of Mysidacea 
(haul 1 b), too immature for identification, there is one, 
belonging to the genus Pseudomma, vvhicli deserves mention, 
since, so far as I can discover, no species of the genus has 
hitherto been recorded from the surface *. The specimen, 
which measures 3 mm. in length, is further remarkable in 
possessing on each side of the plate which represents the 
metamorphosed and coalesced ocular peduncles a well-defined 
crescentic mass of bright red pigment. In the species 
hitherto described the ocular pigment is completely absent. 
The specimen approaches Ps. roseuin, Sars, in the shape of 
the antennal scale, which has the external tooth very little 
beyond the middle of its length, and in having four spines on 
the truncated distal end of the telson. It differs in the 
absence of distinct serrations on the margin of the ocular 
plate and in the presence of only three pairs of lateral denticles 
on the telson. These denticles are not articulated spines, 
but I learn from Mr. W. M. 'i'attersall that this is probably 
a character of immaturity, since in allied genera the spines 
are at first formed as teeth, which later become articulated. 

[e) C U M A C E A. 
Leptostyh's (?) insidarum, sp. n. (Figs. 1-5 a.) 

Description of adult female. — Total length 9"3 mm. 

Carapace a little more than two sevenths of total length, 
nearly twice as long as deep and 1^ times as long as broad, 
its dorsal surface not strongly arched. Pseudorostrum hori- 
zontal, acute, about \ of total length of carapace. Antennal 
notch obsolete. Ocular lobe a little broader than long, 
inflated, without pigment. Frontal lobe crossed by two low, 
rounded, crescentic, transverse ridges. Near the posterior 

* Ps. australe is recorded b}' Sars from 33 fathoms at the entrance to 
Port Philip, in company with Decapod larvae. Other species are on 
record from depths of 45-1675 fathoms. 

rianhlon Crustacea from ?\(Ao Zealand. 235 

end of the fronto-lateral suture on eacli side is a shallow 
depression, and there is a median depression posteriorly 
between tlie branchial regions. Posterior margin of carapace 
slightly raised dorsally. The whole surface of carapace is 
rough with minute spiniform points and short sette, and there 
is a line of minute spines running obUquely downwards and 
forwards on the anterior part of the lateral surface. 

Posterior thoracic and abdominal somites nearly smooth. 
Third and fourtii leg-bearing somites distinct. Postero- 
lateral angles of the fifth rounded. 

Abdomen rather stout and, including the telson, about 
equal in length to the cephalothoracic region. Telson a 
little longer than last somite, with about nine pairs of lateral 

Antcnnular peduncle extending well beyond tip of pseudo- 
rostrum, its three segments subequal. 

Fi-. 1. 

Leptostylis (?) instddruin, adult female, from the side. 

Third maxillipeds with the ischium produced externally as 
a finger-shaped lobe, ai)parently soft-skinned, carrying a few 
short setai (tigs. 2 & 2 a). 

First legs witii basis about three fourths as long as distal 
segments together, with numerous and very long plumose 
hairs distally. Dactylus equal to carpus and a little shorter 
than propodus (fig. 3). 

►Second legs with basis about four fifths as long as the 
slender distal segments together, with numerous long hairs. 
Dactylus nearly twice and carpus four times as long as 
propodus. Posterior legs stout, with numerous seta3. I3asis 
of third and fourth pairs carrying small exopodites of two 

Uropods slender. Peduncle twice as long as telson, with 
numerous short spines on its inner edge. Kami subequal, a 


Dr. W. T. Caiman on 

Fig. 2. Fij^. 2, 

Fig. 2. — Leptostylis (?) insularum, ad. fern. : third maxilliped from under 
side. 2 a. Ischium of same, from upper side, further enlarged 
Fig. 3.— First leg. 

Plankton Crustacea from New Zealand. 


little less than half as long as peduncle. Endopodite of 
three segment.^, the first slightly longer than second or third, 

Fitr. 4. 

Fig. 5. 

Fij?. 4. — Telson and uropnd. 

Fig. 5. — Antenuule of male. 5 a. Inner tlagclluni of same, further 

first with six, second with five, third with four spines on 
inner edge. Two unequal apical spines and a few short 

238 Di-. W. T. Caiman on 

setas on outer edge. Exopodite witli tliree slender apical 
spines and some setge on outer edge (fig. 4). 

Adult male. — Total length y-4 mm. 

Carapace less inflated than in female, more than twice as 
long as deep and one and two thirds as long as broad. 
Pseudorostrum not more than one seventh of length of 
carapace. The ridges and depressions described above in 
the female are all present and there is a slight vertical ridge 
on the anterior part of the side of the carapace. The surface 
of the carapace is nearly smooth. 

Abdomen a little longer than cephalothoracic region. 
Telson 1^ times as long as last somite, strongly gibbous 
dorsally, with nine pairs of lateral spines. 

Antennular peduncle (fig. 5) stouter than in female, third 
segment nearly. as stout and less than half as long as the 
preceding, bearing distally a brush of sensory filaments. Outer 
flagellum of five segments, the basal one dilated. Inner 
flagellum (fig. 5 a) of three segments, the last very minute 
and the first having a pair of stout spines at its distal end. 

Antennae as long as the body, of normal structure. 

Structure and proportions of third maxillipeds and legs 
much as in female. All the legs except the last pair bear 
exopods and have the basal segment expanded. 

Peduncle of uropods about one and four fifths as long as 
telson, with numerous spines on its inner edge. Exopod 
slightly longer than endopod and about two fifths of length 
of peduncle. Endopod with seven spines on inner edge of 
first segment, six on second, and three on third. 

First and second pairs of pleopods well developed, bi- 
ramous ; exopod of two segments and endopod unsegraented. 

Remarks. — In the possession of vestigial exopodites on the 
second and third legs of the female this species agrees with 
those commonly referred to Leptostylis, and I accordingly 
place it provisionally in that genus. It must be admitted, 
liowever, that this character is open to suspicion as a generic 
distinction in view of its variability, as described by Bonnier 
in his Diastylopsis (?) dubia. In other respects the new 
species differs considerably from L. longimana, the type of 
the genus Leptosfi/Iis, notably in having the telson of mode- 
rate size, with more than one pair of lateral spines. I have 
elsewhere described a species (L. walkeri, Bull. Mus. d'Hist. 
Nat. Paris, 1907, p. 121) having numerous lateral spines on 
the telson, which is nevertheless closely allied to certain 
undoubted species of Leptostylis, and the same character is 
found in several species which Zimmer has referred to that 

Plankton Crustacea from N^eio Zealand. 239 

Diastylis neo-zealanica, G. M. Tliomson (Journ. Linn. Soc, 
Zool. xxiv. p. 268, pi. xviii. figs. 1-11, 1892), of which I 
liave examined a specimen kindly sent me by Mr. Tliomsou 
agrees closely with the present species in the form and arma- 
ture of tlie telson and uropods, in havin^f minute exopods on 
the third and fourth pairs of legs, and in the form of the 
ischium of the third maxilliped (the original figure of this 
appendage is defective in this point). The two species are 
at once distinguished, however, by the form of the carapace, 
which in i\Ir. Thomson's species is obli(|uely costate. 

Leptostylis sp. 

A species closely allied to, but apparently distinct from, 
Zimmcr's Leptostylis thileniusi (Zool. Jahrb., Abth. Syst. 
xvii. )). 4:49, 1902) is represented by a number of males (the 
largest only 3'3 mm. in length) and a single young female. 
As all the specimens are in poor condition, however, I do not 
attempt to describe the species fully. It differs from that 
described by Zimmer in having the cephalothoracic region 
not longer than the abdomen, the third free thoracic somite 
not strongly produced backwards at the sides, so that there is 
only a slight interval between the second and third pairs of 
legs, and the telson armed with only three pairs of lateral 
spines. The two forms agree in the armature of the abdomen, 
with ventral spines and dorsal seta?, and apparently in the 
disposition of the ridges on the carapace, altliough these are 
difficult to see in our specimens. They further agree in the 
remarkable and chnracteristic structure of the third maxilli- 
ped, which, however, I interpret somewhat differently from 
Dr. Zimmer. The large rounded plate which he describes as 
a process of the second segment (basis) of the limb is, 
according to my observations, an outgrowth from the third 
segment or ischium, and is an erdargement of the digitiforra 
process of that segment observed in L. insularum. It is, 
indeed, adherent along its proximal border to the distal 
border of the basis ; but this connexion is simply a continua- 
tion of the articulation between the basis and ischium. 

(/) Dec A PC DA. 
P innothercs sp. 

A single male specimen belonging to this genus occurred 
in haul 1 B. In the present state of our knowledge the 
identification of solitary specimens of this sex appears to be 

240 On Plankton CJuetognatha from New Zealand. 

liavdlj possible. Two species of tlie orenus, P. pi'sum (L.) 
and P. novce-zealandiat, Filhol, are mentioned in Hutton's 
' Index Faun?e Novai Zealandige ' (1904, p. 250). I am not 
aware of any observations on the swimming-powers of the 
males, but the occurrence of a specimen in a tow-net gathering 
is unexpected. 

By G. Herbert Fowler, B.A., Ph.D. 

Two specimens only occurred in the collection, both in 
haul 1 A. They were immature, sliowing neither ovaries 
nor testes, and no trace of the corona ciliata was left. 
Formula3 * : — 

10 25 8 3 3 

10 23 9 3 2-3 

While the formulas and the flaccid body suggest hexaptera, 
the presence of a neck-constriction beliind the head and the 
apparent extension of the lateral fins are against this deter- 
mination ; further, the tips of the jaws are clearly not of 
liexapteran type. On the other hand, no species, even at 
10 mm. in length, has been recorded with so few teeth. The 
specimens seem pretty clearly to belong to an undescribed 
species, but it is eminently undesirable to give a name to 
two immature examples. In the hope that further specimens 
may be captured elsewhere in Southern Seas are appended 
the diagnostic characters : — 

Head small, separated from the trunk by a neck- Q 
constriction ; no collarette present. Body flaccid, 
thickest about the middle of the total length, 
tapering gradually forwards, diminishing rapidly 
near the tail-septum. Longitudinal muscles broad 
but weak, lateral flelds narrow. Tail-segment 
narrow, 23 to 25 per cent, of the total length (in- 
cluding tail-fin). Anterior fins long, (?) widest 
about the middle of their length, reaching ante- 
riorly to the ganglion, posteriorly almost to the 
posterior fin. Posterior fins fairly long, (?) about 
as wide as the anterior fins, widest in front of tiie 
tail-septum ; about two thirds are on the trunk 
and one third on the tail. Jaws slender, the oldest 
with slightly curved tips; tip small. Vestibular ridge unde- 
veloped; corona ciliata not seen. 

* For these and the terminolog'y employed should be consulted 
' Siboga ' Expedition, Report on the Cheetognatha, by G. Herbert Fowler. 
Leiden, 190G. 

On some new Species of Miiuela. 241 

Tlie lateral fins were a good deal folded and the epidermis 
had become detached from the bodj-wall, so that it was not 
possible to ascertain the exact boundaries of the fins ; the rays 
were very inconspicuous. 

XXXVI. — On some new Species of the Coleopterous Genus 
Mimela. By Gilbert J. Arrow. 

The species of this brilliant genus of Rutelidaj, although 
ranging as far as Japan and Java, appear to flourish to a 
special and remarkable degree in the eastern part of the 
Himalayan region, Burma, and Tonkin. Half the fifty 
described species are inhabitants of that region, and eight 
more are here described from the same part, all of them 
contained in the British Museum collection. One from 
Western and another from Eastern China have been added. 

Mimela loevigata, sp. n. 

Lsete viridi-metallica, nitida, supra paulo magis aureo-viridis, 
elytrorum sutura angustissime violacea; capita irregulariter 
punctate, prothoracis et elytrorum lateribus grosse punctatis, 
supra fere la^vigatis, pygidio fere Isevi, punctis nonnullis margin- 
alibus, corpora subtus glabro, metasterni lateribus solum crebre 
punctatis ; mesosteruo sat longa producto, baud acuto, tibiis 
anticis extus sinuatis, baud dentatis. 

Long. 21-22 mm. ; lat. max, 12 mm. 

Ilab. Sikkim {Sir J. D. Hooker) ; Mungphu (E. Atkin- 

Entirely bright metallic green, with the upper surface 
rather more golden green and the extreme edge of the elytral 
suture violet. It is a large species, of elongate oval form 
and almost devoid of hairy clothing. The head is irregularly 
punctured, the clypeus rngosely. The pronotum is scarcely 
visibly punctured on its disk, but strongly and confluently at 
the sides. 'J'he scutellum is short and smooth. Tiie elytra 
are almost without punctures on the inner half, but very 
strongly and irregularly punctured on the outer half, and the 
pygidium is very smooth, only exhibiting a few punctures 
near its circumference. The prosternal process is broad and 
triangular at the summit, and the niesosternal process is 
moderately long but rather blunt. The front tibia? are 
without a lateral tooth in either sex. 

Our collection contains one specimen of each sex. 
Ann. dc Mag. N. hist. Ser. 8. Vol. i. 16 

242 Mr. G. J. Arrow on 

Mimela marginahfi, sp. n. 

Saturate viridis, baud metallica, antennis, clypeo, pedibus, abdo- 
minis extremitate supra et subtus, prothoracis et elytrorum 
marginibusque exterais flavibus, plus minusve viriditinctis, 
corpore subtus fusco-aeneo ; corpore supra tenuiter minute punc- 
tate, clypeo subtiliter rugoso ; mesosterno paulo producto sat 
acuto, tibiis anticis bidentatis. 

Long. 19-23 mm. ; lat. max. 12-13 mm. 

Ilab. Allahabad, Mungphu, Bhotan. 

Deep non-metallic green, with the antennae, clypeus, legs, 
the hind margins o£ the propygidium and pygidium, the 
outer margins of the pronotum and elytra, and usually the 
extremity of the abdomen beneath testaceous, more or less 
suffused with metallic green. The body is oval, very smooth, 
very lightly punctured above and thinly clothed at the sides 
beneath with greyish hairs. The clypeus is finely rugose, 
the forehead, pronotum, and scutellum minutely and sparingly 
punctured. The elytra are finely and rather irregularly 
punctured, with a complete line of punctures upon each 
adjoining the suture, and a few other imperfect lines. The 
pygidium is rather more coarsely but not deeply punctured. 
The antennae are long, the mesosternal process is short but 
rather slender and acute, and the front tibiie are bidentate, 
the apical tooth being blunt and long and the lateral one 
short and rather sharp. The inner claw of the front tarsus 
is rather widely cleft. 

? . The terminal tooth of the front tibia is very long. 

M. marginalis is most nearly related to the Ceylon species 
M. mundtssi?7ia, Walker, but is larger, more elongate, and 
has a less sharply defined marginal yellow band. In tlie 
Ceylonese species the mesosternal process is not produced 
and the front tibise are not distinctly bidentate. It, again, is 
closely allied to the S. -Indian M. xanthorrhina, Hope, which 
differs in its paler green colour, less definite marginal band, 
and more strongly sculptured elytra. 

Mimela ainabiUs, sp. n. 

Saturate viridis, supra baud metallica, corpore subtus pedibusque 
metallicis, antennis fere nigris ; corpore convexo, subgloboso, 
supra sat Isevi, subtiliter punctato ; mesosterno angulato, sed 
ultra coxas medias baud producto, tibiis anticis foeminse distiucte, 
maris vix bidentatis. 

Long. 15-16 mm. ; lat. max. 9*5 mm. 

Hah. Burma, Karen Hills; Siam, Renong [Doherty). 

aome new Species 0/ Mimela. 243 

Deep green, with the legs and lower surface metallic, au'l 
the upper surface non-metallic but with a very faint rosy 
roflection, generally visible at least in the anterior part. 
The head and prothorax are finely and rather closely punc- 
tured, the clypeus almost rugoseiy. The scutellum has a 
few very ininute punctures and the elytra are lightly and 
thinly punctured, in rows, the subsutural interstice being 
irregularly punctured. The pygidium is finely punctured — 
a little more strongly at the sides. The mesosternum is not 
produced in front of the coxae. 

cJ . The front tibia has a rather long blunt apical tooth, 
but only a vestige of a lateral one. 

? . Tiie front tibia is distinctly bidentate. 

This species is very closely related to M. downesi, Hope, 
but that is almost entirely devoid of puncturation upon the 
upper surface. 

Miniela ohausi, sp. n. 

Laete viridi-metallica, capitis medio, prouoto utrinque, elytri utrius- 
que vitta externa aliaque media, fomorum 4 posteriorum medio, 
segmcntorum abdominalium lateribus pygidiique apice igneo- 
rufis, scutello coeruleo ; capite crebre rugoso, postiee fortiter 
punctato, prothorace, scutello, elytris pygidioque leviter ac sparse 
puuctulatis ; mesosterno baud producto, tibiis auticis utriusque 
sexns fortiter bidentatis. 

Var. tola violacea. 

Long. 14-5 mm. ; lat. max. 8 mm. 

Hah. Assam, Tonkin, Yunnan. 

Bright metallic green, with a deep blue scutellum and 
fiery-red patches on the head, each side of the pronotum, tlie 
end of the pygidium, the four posterior femora and the sides of 
the ventral segments, and a discoidal and lateral stripe on each 
elytron. It is a small species of elongate-oval shape. The 
head is closely and finely rugose in front and strongly punc- 
tured on the vertex, the pronotum and scutellum very thinly 
and minutely punctured and the former deeply channelled 
filong the middle and rather inflated on each side. The 
elytra are very lightly punctured, some of the punctures 
forming double rows. The pygidium has a few moderately 
strong punctures. The prosternal process is narrow and not 
very prominent, and the mesosternum is not produced. The 
front tibiie are strongly bidentate in both sexes. 

In the female the apical tooth of the front tibia is longer 
and blunter and the club of the antenna rather shorter than 
in the male. The only female I have seen is a specimen of 
a deep violet colour in the collection of Dr. Ohaus. 


244 Mr. G. J. Arrow on 

This species very closely resembles M. horsjieldi, Hope, in 
its form, colouring, and puncturation, but is generally rather 
smaller. It is less regularly oval in shape, and the form of 
the prosternal process, mesosternum, and front tibiae are 
quite different. In addition the eyes are larger, the head 
much more strongly sculptured, the pronotura has a deep 
median groove, and its sides are more convex and not 
strongly punctured. 

Mimela atkinsoniy sp. n. 

Parva, ovata, sat globosa, polita, omnino brunneo-senea, corpore 
supra subtiliter punctato, clypeo paulo rugoso, prothorace sat 
angusto, sequaliter punctato, baud sulcato ; pedibus brevibus, 
posticis crassis, tibiis anticis leviter bidentatis ; mesosterno baud 

Long. 13 mm. ; lat. max. 8 mm. 

Hah. Pegu, Tenasserim. 

Collected by the late E. T. Atkinson. 

Very shining deep metallic olive-green above and below, 
except the antenna, which are deep red. The form is oval, 
convex, and rather globular, the head relatively rather large, 
and tlie legs short, the hind legs very thick and the femora 
strongly arched. The clypeus is strongly and almost 
rugosely punctured, the forehead and prothorax rather closely, 
but a little less closely at the sides of the latter, the scutellum 
very sparingly. The elytra are minutely punctured in nearly 
regular longitudinal lines, of which the innermost are strongly 
impressed at the posterior margins. The pygidium is rather 
deeply but not closely punctured, the lower surface of the 
body almost smooth. The presternum is large and the 
mesosternum not produced. The front tibiae are bidentate, 
and the upper tooth is minute and obtuse in the male and 
rather more marked in the female. 

In the type ( ^ ) specimen the outer margins of the elytra 
have a rosy tint which I have not seen in others. 

In colouring, sculpture, the compact form, and the structure 
of the hind legs M. atkinsoni very nearly approaches 
M. exci'sipes, B-eitter, but it is smaller, more globose, and a 
little less strongly punctured, the sculpture of the sides of the 
pronotum in particular not being rugose. 

There are specimens in the British Museum and in 
Dr. Ohaus's collection, all of them collected by the late E. T. 

some 7iew Species o/Mimela. 245 

Mimela subsericea, sp. n. 

Viridi-metallica, corpore subtus, pedibus antennisque seneo-testaceis, 
tarsia rufo-cupreis, corpore supra, creberrirae punctate, capitis 
antice pronotique margiuibus lateralibus punctis confluentibus, 
aliis distinctis ; mesosterno minutissime producto, coxas inter- 
medias baud superante, processu prosternali lato, robusto ; 
pedibus sat robustis, tibiis anticis baud acute bidentatis, autennis 
sat gracilibus. 

Long. 14-15 mm. ; lat. max. 8-9 mm. 

Hab. Assam, Naga Hills [Doherty) ; Burma, Ruby Mines 
{Doherly), Mandalay (^Atkinson). 

Bright metallic green, with the lower surface and legs 
coppery testaceous and the tarsi more or less fiery-copper- 
coloured. The body is rather globose and the legs short and 
stout, and the whole upper surface is very strongly and 
densely punctured, but moderately shining. The punctures 
are conHuent on the clypeus and at the sides of the head and 
pronotum. Tiiere is a straight line of punctures on each side 
of the elytral suture, leaving a quite smooth inner margin to 
each elytron, and slight traces of three or four other smooth 
longitudinal lines upon each. Tiie pygidium is strongly but 
less densely punctured. The prosternal process is rather 
broad, the mesosternal process pointed but not produced, and 
the front tibia has a very long blunt terminal tooth and a 
slight upper tooth. 

This species is nearly allied to the succeeding one {M. soror) , 
but smaller and more densely punctured, except upon the 
pygidium, which is smoother and more shining. The meso- 
sternum is not distinctly produced as in that species, and the 
hind angles of the pronotum are much more rounded. 

It is represented in the British Museum and in Dr. Ohaus'a 

Mimela soror, sp. n. 

Leete viridi-metallica, pygidii lateribus nounihil, corpore subtus 
pedibusque testaceo-dilutis, ore antennisque flavis ; corpora supra 
toto dense punctato, clypeo rugoso ; processu mesosternali minuto, 
acuto, tibiis anticis baud acute bidentatis, antenuis gracilibus. 

Long. 19-20 mm.; lat. max. 10'5-ll-5 mm. 

Hab. N. India, Manipur {Doherty), 

This species is metallic green above and the antennre, legs, 
and lower surface are ferruginous and more or less suffused 
with green. A small pale patch is vaguely traceable on each 
side of the pygidium in certain lights. The form is oval and 

24G • Mr. G. J. Arrow on 

convex. Tlie clypeus is broad and coarsely rugose, the 
foreliead strongly punctured, the pronotum coarsely and 
densely at the sides and a little more finely in the middle, the 
scutellum very minutely and the elytra densely and inegu- 
larly, leaving only a narrow smooth sutural strip and slight 
vestiges of two or three others upon each. The pygidium 
is strongly and thickly punctured, the punctures becoming 
confluent at the sides, and the lower surface of the body is 
smooth in the middle and rugose and hairy at the sides. The 
mesosternal process is very short but sharp, and the front 
tibiae {in the female) have a long blunt terminal tooth and a 
feeble upper one. 

It is very closely related to M. chrysojrrasa, Hope, of 
Borneo and the Malay Peninsula^ but a little smaller, with 
the prothorax rather less strongly punctured, the scutellum 
more minutely, the pygidium punctured instead of finely 
granulated, and the femora and tibige of a rather darker 

The two females in the British Museum were collected by 
the late W. Doherty. 

Atimela pyriformis, sp, n. 

Tiridi-metallica, corporis supra marginibus externis omnibus an- 
guste flavescentibus, corpora subtus, pedibus antennisque testaceis 
leviter vuidi-micantibus ; corpore supra densissime punctato, 
pygidio minute granulate et setoso, elytris postice dilatatis ; 
processu mesosternali acutissimo, tibiis anticis bidentatis, dente 
superiore minuto, acuto. 

Long. 23 mm. ; lat. max. 14 mm. 

Hah. Assam, Naga Hills. 

This insect has a peculiar pear-shaped outline, producing an 
approximation to the curious form of M. sericea, Ohaus, but 
it is larger and more convex and much less opaque. 

It is metallic green, slightly shining, with the outer margins 
of the clypeus, prothorax, and elytra, the lower surface, legs, 
and antennce testaceous, with a greenish reflection. The 
head is rugosely punctured, the punctures almost obliterated 
upon the clypeus ; the pronotum is very densely punctured, 
the scutellum moderately, the elytra densely and uniformly, 
with a smooth juxta- sutural line and an almost obliterated 
dorsal one. The outer edges of the elytra are nearly straight 
and diverge slightly for almost their whole length, so that 
their greatest breadth is very little before the extremity. 
Thej are long and slope rather gradually at the hinder part. 
The pygidium is short and broad, finely granulated and 

totne new Species c;/Miinela. 217 

thinly pubescent. Tlie mesosternal process is small but 
acutely produced. The front tibiae are distinctly bidentate 
and the antennee slender. 

There are two male specimens in the British Museum, one 
of them collected by the late E. T. Atkinson and the other 
by Col. W. F. Badgley. 

Mimela ohlonga, sp. n. 

Elongata, convexa, laete olivaceo-viridis, clypeo, prothoracis lateribua 
pygidiique lateribus postice pallidioribus atque raetallicis ; sat 
crebre baud grosse punctata, clypeo, prothoracis marginibua 
pygidioque rugosis ; corpore subtus sat dense hirto, cum femori- 
bus testaceo, abdomine cuprascente, tibiis brunneis, tarsis nigris ; 
mesosteriio haud producto, tibiis anticis obtuse bidentatis. 

Long. 21 mm. ; lat. max. 12 mm. 

Hah. Sze-chuen, Chin-fu-san. 

Four specimens (all females) have been sent to us by the 
Kev. Wilfred A. Maw. 

Light olivaceous green, with the clypeus, the lateral 
margins of the pronotum, and the posterior part of the sides 
of the pygidium pale and metallic, the femora and breast 
testaceous, the abdomen more or less dark coppery, the tibiae 
brown, and the tarsi black. It is strongly convex, shining, 
and elongate, with the sides subparallel, and the breast and 
the sides of the abdomen are thickly clothed with grey hair. 
The clypeus is coarsely rugose and rather straight in front, 
the forehead strongly punctured, the pronotum, scutellum, 
and elytra moderately finely but closely, the punctures 
becoming much coarser and confluent at the sides of the 
pronotum. The pygidium is coarsely rugose but slightly 
shining. The rnesosternura is pointed but scarcely extends 
beyond the middle coxae, and the front tibias are bluntly 

This species is very closely related to M. passertnii, Hope, 
and of the .same colour and shape, but its smoother upper 
surface gives it a quite different appearance. The elytra are 
much more finely but moderately closely punctured, and the 
pygidium is rugose, but not so densely as in M. passerinii, 
and scarcely hairy. The prosternura also is blunter and 
scarcely produced. 

Mimela plicicollis, sp. n. 

Yiridi-eenea, clypeo, pronoti lateribus elytrisque paulo dilutioribus, 
corpore suhtus pedibupqup cupreis ; ilypeo rugnso. fronte rugose 

248 Mr. G. A. Boulenger on a new 

punctata, prothorace seqnaliter et subtiliter punctato, medio pro- 
funde longitudinaliter sulcato, lateribus sat leviter arcuatis, 
postice plus minusve plicatis, eljtris fortiter punctatis, lineis 
geminatis longitudinalibua postice improssis, pygidio grosse fere 
rugose punctato ; mesosterao baud producto, tibiis anticis 
Long. 13-15 mm. ; lat. max. 8-9 mm. 

Hah. E. China, Tientsin. 

A considerable number of specimens were collected from 
April to June 1906 by Mr. F. M, Thomson. 

It is nearly related to M. specularis, Ohaus, and M. vittaii- 
coUis, Burm., and the colour is that of the latter except that 
it is almost uniform above, only the clypeus, the lateral 
margins of the prothorax, and the elytra being a shade lighter. 
It is smaller than either of those species, and the curious 
corrugation of the posterior part of the sides of the pro- 
thorax distinguishes it at a glance from all. This corrugation 
is variable in its extent, but is almost invariably a very 
marked feature. The upper surface of the insect is strongly 
and closely punctured, except the prothorax and scutellum, 
of which the puncturation is fine. The pygidiura is coarsely 
punctured and the sides of the body are thinly pubescent 
beneath. The mesosternum is pointed, but not produced 
beyond the coxse, and the front tibiae are bidentate in both 

I printed in 1899 a few synonymical notes relating to 
Mimela. To these I may add the following : — 

M. lucidula, Hope, and lathamt, Hope, belong to M. splen- 
dens, Gyll. 

M. glabra, Hope, type, is a female of M. downesi, Hope. 

M. limhata, Burm., and M. ijomacea, Bates, are M. passe- 
rinii, Hope, 

M. coxalis, Ohaus, is M. (" Anomala ") inscripta, Nonf. 

M. pyroscelis, Hope, is a species of Anomala. 

XXXVII. — Description of a new Elapine Snake of the 
Oenus Apisthocalamus, Blgr., from Neio Guinea, By 

Apisthocalaraus loennhergii. 

Snout short, broadly rounded. Rostral a little broader 
tliau deep, the portion visible from above measuring one 

Elapine Snake j/om New Guinea. 249 

fourth to one third its distance from tlie frontal ; internasals 
about half the length of the praBfrontals ; frontal once and 
one fifth to once and one third as long as broad, as long as 
or a little shorter than its distance from the end of the snout, 
much shorter than the parietals ; nostril between two nasals, 
narrowly separated from the intcrnasal and the first labial ; 
prgeocular once and a half to twice as long as deep, in contact 
with or narrowly separated from the posterior nasal ; one 
postocular (exceptionally two); temporals 1 + 1 or 2; six 
upper labials (exceptionally seven), third and fourth (or 
third, fourth, and fifth) entering the eye, last largest ; three 
or four lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, 
which are as large as the posterior. Scales in 15 rows. 
Ventrals 213-218; anal divided; subcaudals 22-32. Dark 
olive-brown above, lateral scales yellowish in the centre ; 
upper lip and lower parts yellowish, witiiout spots; indica- 
tions of a vellowish nuchal collar may be present. 

Total length 500 mm. ; tail 40. 

Four specimens from Dutch New Guinea, north of Fak 
Fak, altitude 1700 feet, obtained by Mr. A. E. Pratt, to 
whom we owe the discovery of another species of the same 
genus {A. pi-at(i, Blgr.) a lew years ago. 

The present species is named after Prof. E. Lonnberg, who 
described in these ' Annals ' another member of the same 
group under the name of P seudapisthocalamus nymani. It 
is still doubtful whether Ajnsthocalamus and Pseudapistho- 
calamus can be regarded as valid genera, so closely are they 
related to the previously described Toxicocalamus. The 
species, six in number, all from New Guinea, are, at any 
rate, easily distinguished by means of the following cha- 
racters : — 

A. Prseocular present ; scales in 15 rows ; anal divided. 

a. Nostril between two nasals. 
Twopostoculars; ventralsl96; subcaudals 

50 or more Apisthocalamus lorice, Blgr, 

One postocular ; ventrals 190 ; subcaudals 

41 Apist/iocalatUKS pratti, Bljjr. 

One postocular (exceptionally two) ; ven- [l^^BT' 

trals 213-218 ; subcaudals 22-32 . . Apisthociihtmus loennbergii, 

b. Nasal single ; ventrals 196-205 ; [Liinub. 

subcaudals 2<)-29 J'sciiddpint/iucn/amiis nymani, 

B. No prteocular ; nostril between two nasals. 

Scales in 15 rows ; ventrals 261 ; anal L^lgr. 

entire ; subcaudals 25 To.ricocalamun stanlci/onus, 

Scales in 17 rows ; ventrals 299-305 ; L^^Kf- 

anal divided ; subcaudals 30-31 .... Toxicocolmnvs />»iffi^siiniis. 

250 Mr. O. Thomas on the large Flying-Squirrels 

XXXVIII. — On the large Flying- Squirrels referred to 
Petaurista nitida, Desm. By Oldfield Thomas. 

The members of the Petaurista nitida group of Flying- 
Squirrels have not hitherto been very exactly determined, 
partly owing to want of Javan material, representing true 
nitida, and partly to doubt as to the application of Gray's 
name melanotus. 

Now, however, thanks to the generosity of Mr. W. E. 
Balston, the ^Museum has received two good examples of the 
true Javan nitida, while an examination of Gray's type of 
" Pteromys melanotus " shows clearly enough to which form 
that name belongs. 

Comparison of the whole series in the Museum shows that 
each of the four great Malayan land-areas — the Peninsula, 
Sumatra, Borneo, and Java — has its own local form. All 
agree with each other in size and in the general characteristics 
of rich rufous colour with brown or black nose-tip and chin, 
hands, feet, tail-tip, and a variable amount of black round 
the eyes and behind the ears. 

The diagnostic characters of the different forms are as 
follows : — 

Petaurista nitida melanotus, Gray. 

Pteromys melanotis, Gray, P. Z. S. 1836, p, 83 {nom. tmd.). 

Pterotnys inelanotus, Gray, Charlesw. Mag. Nat. Hist. i. p. 684 (1837). 

General colour bright bay, the head markedly lighter than 
the body. Ears comparatively long and narrow, coloured 
like the head, except that the hinder part of their outer 
surface has generally a certain number of long black hairs 
upon it. Dark eye-rings inconspicuous. Hands and feet not 
■wholly dark, the rufous trespassing more or less upon the 

Hah. Malay Peninsula and neighbouring islands. Ex- 
amples in Museum from Perak, Selangore, Malacca, Johore, 
Singapore, and Pulo Tioman. 

Type. Young. B.M. no. 116 a. 

It is rather unfortunate that the name melanotus falls on 
tiie form which is markedly less black-eared than either the 
Sumatran or Bornean animal, but the light head of the type 
and its " bright red-bay colour '' (in 1837 — now somewhat 
dulled by time) indicate that it can only be referred to the 
present subspecies. 

referred to Petaurista nitida, Desm. 251 

Petauristd nitida niarchio, subsp. ii. 

Colour comparatively dark, a number of the dorsal hairs 
with black ends, which overlie and partly hide the deep 
rutbus chestnut of the fur in general. Ears themselves not 
unlike those of melanotus, though the dark hairs of the 
metectote are blacker and more prominent ; but in addition 
the long hairs of the side of the head behind the ears are 
also black-tipped so as to form a darker area in this region. 
Hands with the chestnut penetrating on to the metacarpals 
nearly to the base o£ the digits. 

Condylo-basal length of skull 67'2 mm. j upper tooth- 
row, exclusive of p*, 15'5. 

IJab. Sumatra. Type from Si Rambi ; another specimen 
from Kotta Sani, near Solok ( Weber), and a third from 
" W. Sumatra" [baher). 

Type. Adult female. B.M. no. 0. 8. 2. 24. Collected by 
Dr. E. Modigliani in 1890-91 and presented by the Museo 
Civico, Genoa. 

Petaurista Jiitida rajah, subsp. n. 

" Fteromys melanopis, Gray " *, Mottley & Dillwyn, Nat. Hist. Labuan, 

p. 2 (1855). 
" Pteromys melanopsis, Mottl. & Dillw.," Trouess. Cat. Mamm. i. p. 397 

(1899) * (iu synonymy of P. nitidus). 

Ground-colour almost as light as in melanotus, but darkened 
by blackish tips to the dorsal hairs, so that the general colour 
is intermediate between that of melanotus and marchio. 
Head like body. Dark orbital rings at a maximum. Ears 
apparently shorter than in the other forms and less narrow; 
their backs heavily tufted with deep black hairs, which form 
a conspicuous black patch on each side. Hands and feet 
wholly dark, the rufous not trespassing on to the metapodials. 

Condylo-basal length of skull 64'5 mm.; upper tooth-row, 
exclusive of jt>*, 14. 

iJab. Borneo, 'i'ype from Mt. Dulit, Baram, E. Sarawak. 
Alt. 2000'. 

Ti/pe. Adult female. B.M. no. Collected 
1st October, 1896, and presented by Dr. Charles Hose. 

Fteroniys nitidus, Desm. N. Diet. d'll. N. xxvii. p. 403 (1818) ; Mamm. 
ii. p. 342 (1822). 

Colour darker and more brownish chestnut than in the 

* Should any eccentric wish to resuscitate either of 
these misprints as tlie name of the Bornean subspecies, the type of the 
name would be Mr. l^illwxn's specimen No. 51. 5. 0. 7. 

252 Mr. O. Thomas on the 

other forms, especially posteriorly, where the dark tone of 
the hinder back and thighs grades into the dark of the feet, 
instead of being contrasted witii them. Head like body. 
Dark orbital rings scarcely perceptible. Hairs on back of 
ears not darker than those on rest of head. Hands and feet 
wholly dark brown or black. 

Hab. Java. Specimens examined from Preanger and 

XXXIX. — The Nomenclature of the Flying-Lemurs. 
By Oldfield Thomas. 

In the * Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington ' 
Mr. G. S. Miller* has recently drawn attention to the 
unfortunate fact, first published by Palmer, that the well- 
known name of Galeopithecus is antedated by CynocephaluSy 
each name having the same type, the Lemur volans of 

But the conclusions drawn by Mr. Miller as to the con- 
sequent names of the family and its two constituent genera 
are, as I believe, all invalidated by the important fact that 
the type locality of Linnteus's Lemur volans is the Philippines, 
and that therefore the name volans and the many generic 
names based on it, Cynocephalus^ Galeopithecus, Galeopus, 
Dermopterus, and Pleuropterus f, are, like Colugo, all appli- 
cable to the Philippine form and not to the Malayan one. 

The references are as follows : — 

Xemwr volans, Linu. Syst. Nat. (10) i. p. 30 (1758), ex Petiver, Bontius, 
and Seba. The quotations being : — 

Cato-Simius volans camelli, Pet.(iver), Gaz.(ophylacii Naturae et Artis), 
t. 9. f. 8 (1702) ; and Act. Angl. 277. n. 1065 ( = Phil. Trans. Roy. 
Soc. pt. 277, included in vol. xxiii. 1704). 

Vespertilio admirabilis, Bont.(ius), Java, p. 68 (1658). 

Felis volans ternatea, Seba, Mus. 1. p. 93, pi. 58. figs. 2 & 3 (1735), 

Of the three authors quoted, Petiver has to be taken as the 
primary one, both because I consider it compulsory to take 
the first one (except when Linnaeus quotes his own earlier 
works) and also, in this case, because the localities given by 
Bontius and Seba (Guzerat and Ternate respectively) are 

* P. Biol. Soc. Wash. xix. p. 41 (1906). 

t An additional name, Galeolemur, has been formed in the group, 
based on Temminck's " Galeopithecus macriirus " from Ceylon. But this 
animal proves, as might have been expected from its locality, to 
have been a Flying-Squii-rel {Petaurista). Cf. Schlegel, Men. Singes 
pp. 335-6 (1876). 

Nomenclature of the Flyiny- Lemurs. 25H 

botli erroneous, no member of the group occurring in either 
place, so that their account might refer to either the Philippine 
or Malayan forms. 

In Petiver's * Gazophylacii ' the locality is put as " Philippine 
Islands," and in the Royal Society paper the province 
Pampanga, in Southern Luzon, is specially mentioned. 

As a consequence the synonymy of the Luzon Colugo 
would be : — 

Cynocephalus volans, L. 

Lemur volans, L. (as above). 

Cynocephalus volans, Bodd. Dierkundig Mengelweik, ii. p. 8, footnote / 
(17G8). (So fav as the reference to Lemur volans is concerned.) 

Oaleopithecus volans, Pall. Act. Ac. Petrop. iv. p. 208 (1780). (Re- 
ference to Lemur volatis, but not the specimens figured.) 

Galeopithecus phiHppinensis, Waterh. P. Z. S. 1838, p. 119. 

Galeopithecus {Colu//o) philijypinensis, Gray, Cat. Monk. &c. B.M. p. 98 

Colugo phiHppinensis, Miller, I, c. 

In drawing up this synonymy I act on the assumption that 
a generic name must be allocated in accordance with the 
specific name mentioned by its author as his type, and that 
if his specimens are wrongly determined, his genus will none 
the less retain as its genotype the species to which that name 
is originally and rightly applicable, unless he has guarded 
himself by expressly stating the contrary *. 

This ruling, in extreme cases, may seem contrary to 
common-sense, but the technical difficulties and confusion 
resulting from an attempt to make the author's specimens 
the primary basis for the allocation of his generic name are 
so great that I am convinced that the plan followed above is 
alone satisfactory f- 

* As Mr. Pocock has done in forming the genus Phormictopus (Ann. 
& Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) viii. p. 546, 1901). 

t To those who do not admit the general rule here formulated, it may 
be pointed out that, in this particular case, the question may be said fo 
be determined by the title to Pallas's paper : " Galeopithecus . volans, 
Camellii . descriplus," as it was " the Reverend and Learned Father 
George Joseph Camel " who sent home from the Philippines the original 
types of Petiver's description, itself in turn the basis of Linnaeus's Lemur 

Moreover, there is no hope of saving the time-honoured name of 
Galei'jnthecus, which might have been a temptation to abandon the 
.siiii]ili' rule of making generic names follow specific ones; for Cyno- 
cepliains antedates Galeopithectis by many years, and has absolutely the 
same basis, i. e. volans as type-species name, witli references to Pallas's 
animal and that figured by Seba. 

'I'he only result therefore, in this case, of refusing adherence to the 
uljove rule, would be the disaster of having the confusing name Cyno' 

254 On the Xouienclattire of the Flying-Lemur.^. 

For example, in literally hundreds of cases genera have 
been based oa earlier described species without any clear 
description of the specific cliaracters of the specimens repre- 
senting, in the eyes of their founders, the species named as 
genotypes. It would be preposterous to maintain that any 
or all such names might be upset or transferred merely by 
evidence (perhaps disputable) being brought forward (say in 
the form of labelled specimens) that what the genus-founder 
thought was one species was really another belonging to a 
different genus. 

The author must suffer the penalty for his own mistakes, 
and if he makes a genus for, say, Lemur volans, to Lemur 
volans (/. e. the true original L. volans) his name must stick, 
whether his specimens were rightly determined or not. 

As a result, the common Malay Colugo would seem to be 
without a generic name, and I would propose for it that of 
Galeopterus, like enough to recall the familiar Galeopithecus, 
different enough to avoid confusion. And as genotype I 
would take Waterhouse's G. temmincl:ii,of which the typical 
skull has been figured and is now in the British Museum *. 

Following out Mi-. Miller's sensible suggestion that the 
name Gynocephalus should not be made the basis of the 
family name in this group, and being prohibited by the rules 
from using his name Oolugidas, I would call the family 

The group names would then be ; — 

Family Galeopteridae. 
Genua I. Galeopterus. 

Type. G. teinminckii. Range. Malay Peninsula and Islands. 

Genus II. Cynocephalits. 
Syn. Galeopithecus and Colugo. 
Type. G. volans. Range. Philippine Islands. 

With regard to the species of Galeopterus^ I am at present 
only able to state that G. temminckii, Waterh., appears to be 
the name of the Sumatran form, and G. undatus, Wagn., 
that of the large, large-toothed Javan species. 

There is an extreme resemblance between the Colugos of 
the Malay Peninsula, Natuna Islands, aiid Borneo ; indeed I 
fail to liud any cranial difference whatever between examples 

eeplialus for the Common Colugo, instead of its being relegated to com- 
parative obscurity as the name of the rare and seldom-quoted Philippine 

* Tomes ooll., ex Zool. Soc. Mus., B.M. no. 7. 1. 1. 220. 

Oh TJine neic African Sjjpciefi oj Mu3. 2.v5 

from Pinanj^, Bunguran (typical of natunce, Miller), and 
North Borneo. On the other hand, the Malay specimens 
vary immensely among themselves, sometimes even when 
coming from the same locality. 

In this connection it is to be noted that while most of 
^Ir. Miller's insular species of mammals have been founded 
on fine series of specimens, those of Galenpterus have, with 
one exception, been based on either one or two examples, and 
therefore he has hardly had sufficient material to test the 
cranial variability of these animals. 

XL. — Three new African Species o/"Mus. 
]3y R. C. Wroughton. 

The recent receipt by the Natural History Museum of a 
collection (Rudd Exploration) from Tette containing speci- 
mens of the multimammate group of mice, and thus fixing 
Peters's Mus microdon^ of which they are the topotypes, led 
me to examine all the individuals representing this group in 
the Museum Collection. The species of this group extend 
almost all over Africa, filling the place which Micromys 
occupies in Europe. The National Collection possesses fine 
series from many localities, but nevertheless insufficient to 
justify a monograph of the whole group ; two forms, however, 
which came under ray notice are sufficiently distinct to be 
worthy of description. 

Mus huberti, sp. n. 

A multimammate mouse rather larger than M. erythro- 
leucus and of a paler colour. 

Fur rather short, 7-8 mm. long on the back. 

General colour above near "wood-brown," below pale 
grey. Individual hairs of the upper surface pale slate-grey 
basally, tipped with black, and with a subterminal pale buff 
ring ; of under surface pale grey basally, white at the point. 
Chin, hands, and feet white. 

Skull markedly larger than in M. erythroleucus. 

Dimensions : — 

Head and body (circ.) 135 mm.; tail (circ.) 135; hind 
foot 27; ear 19. 

Skull : greatest length 32 ; zygomatic breadth 16 ; 
diastema 9 ; upper molar scries -i'O. 

IJab. N. Nigeria (type from Zungeru). 

Type. Adult male. B.M. no. 4. 7. i». IS. Original 

256 f>n Three new African Species 0/ Mus. 

number 4. Collected 15tli August, 1903, and presented by 
Capt. H. G. Cock, R.A. 

Temminck's M. erythroleucus was based on a young 
individual from Guinea. A similarly young specimen from 
Ashantee in the Museum Collection agrees very well with a 
series collected by Mr. Robin Kemp in S. Nigeria, and 1 
have taken this series as adequately representing Temminck's 
M. erythroleucus^ of whicli Gray's M.gamhianus is apparently 
a synonym. The S. Nigerian series quite constantly shows a 
marked shortness of tail, which thus distinguishes M. erythro- 
leucus from the present species even without the richer darker 
colour (near " mummy-brown ") of the former species. 

Mus cuninghamei, sp. n. 

A multlmammate mouse about the size of M. ugandce, with 
a very short tail. 

Fur soft and rather long, 12 mm. long on the back. 

General colour above a brownish " sepia/' with a buffy 
grizzling; below buffy white ; bright buffy on the flanks. 
Individual hairs of upper surface pale slate basally, then pale 
buff with black tips ; black tips entirely wanting on flanks 
and belly. 

Dimensions : — 

Head and body 150 mm. ; tail 120 ; hind foot 27 ; ear 19. 

Skull: greatest length (circ.) 33 ; zygomatic breadth 17; 
diastema 95 ; upper molar series 5. 

Hah. Islands of Victoria Nyanza (type from Chivi 

Type. Old male. B.M. no. 2. 7. 5. 11. Original num- 
ber 4. Collected 27th December, 1901, and presented by 
Mr. R. J. Cuninghame. 

Mr. de Winton described M. ugandce on a young animal 
from Entebbe, but older specimens since received from the 
same place establish the fact that in that species the head 
and body and tail are of about equal lengtiis, as they are 
also in M. hildehrandti, Peters. This character at once dis- 
tinguishes the present species from both its neighbours. 
M. kildehrandti further differs by its much smaller size and 
M. ugandce by its different colouring (near " vandyke-brown " 
in the adult). 

In working out the above my attention has been drawn to a 
series of another Mus taken at Deelfontein which seems to me 

On a Megalosaurian Tibia from the Loioer Lias. 2.j7 

to be quite difFerent from any other species I know. I 
propose to call it 

Mus granti, sp. n. 

A mouse about the size of M. colonus, with tail equal in 
length to head and body. 

Fur soft and rather long, 10-12 mm. long on back. 
General colour above a buffy drab, below white. Indi- 
vidual hairs of upper surface "plumbeous" basally for | 
their length, then " pinkish buff," with, however, a consider- 
able admixture of all-black hairs, proportion of these latter 
smaller on flanks; on the lower surface from chin to anus 
basal I " cinereous," remainder pure white. Hands and. 
feet white. Tail dark, rather tliickly clothed with stiff hairs, 
2 mm. long near base, lengthening to 5 ram. at tip of tail, 
almost forming a brush. 

Posterior median tubercle of second molar larger than 
anterior and than any of the median tubercles of anterior 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — 
Head and body 120 mm ; tail 122 ; hind foot 23; ear 17. 
kSkiill : greatest length 31*0 ; basilar length 25 ; zygomatic 
breadth 15; diastema 9; upper molar series 5. 
Ildb. Deelfontein, Cape Colony. 

Ti/pe. Adult female. B.M. no. 2. 9. 1. 86. Original 
number 114. Collected February 2nd, 1902, by C. H. B. 
Grant, and presented by Col. A. T. Sloggett, R.A.M.C. 

A series of six specimens agreeing in all essential cha- 
racters. The mammary formula is rather doubtful, but is 
most probably 5 — 2 = 10, as in M. colonus. 

This species resembles M. damarensis in the large size of 
the posterior median tubercle of the upper second molar, but 
in both skull and body it is much smaller and lacks the pure 
white belly of de Winton's species. This character also 
separates it at sight from M. lehochla, Sm., M. pedulcus, Sund,, 
and M. namaqaensis^ Sm. 

XLI. — Note on a Megalosaurian Tibia from the Lower 
Lias of Wi/mcote, Warwickshire. Bv A. Smith "Wood- 
ward, LL.D., F.R.S. 

The British Museum is indebted to ]\Iiss Evelyn Irby for the 
tibia of a Megalosaurian Dinosaur recently discovered in 
the Lower Lias of Wilmcote, near Stratford-on-Avon. 'i'he 
Ann. (f; .1%. A'. His'. Ser. 8. Vol. i. 17 

258 On a Megalosaurian Tibia from the Lower Lias. 

bone was obtained during the sinking of a well near Wilmcote 
railway-station, and was found imbedded in a shelly limestone 
which Mr. R. Bullen Newton assigns to the zone of Am. 
angulatus. As the only evidence of a Megalosaurian hitherto 

Rig-lit tibia of a Megalosaurian Dinosaur, one quarter nat. size, posterior 
view (A), with the lower part in anterior view (B) and in end- 
view (C). — Lower Lias ; Wilmcote, Warwickshire. [Brit. Mus. 
no. R. 3542.] ag,, facette for ascending- process of astragalus ; 
en., cnemial crest, bent inwards and backwards ; fi., facette for 
fibula ; r., ridge ; tr., trochlear surface for astragalus. 

recorded from the Lias is a single tooth from the Lower Lias 
of Lyme Regis*, this new specimen is of considerable 

* R. Lydekker, ' Catal. Foss. Rept B.M.' pt. i. (1888) p. 173, fig. 28. 

Descriptions and Records of Bees. 259 

The 1)0116 measures 45 cm. in extreme length, and its 
form and pioportions are shown in the accompanying text- 
figure. Its outer face is dense and smooth, as usual in the 
carnivorous Dinosaurs; and there is a large internal cavity, 
which lias caused its anterior wall to collapse and the upper 
end to be twisted by crushing in the rock. The upper end 
is expanded into the usual large cnemial crest (en.), but this 
is distorted backwards and inwards. Tlie vertical ridge for 
contact with the upper part of the fibula is similarly displaced. 
The lower end, being more nearly solid, is better preserved, 
and displays clearly the facette for tiio astragalus. Posteriorly 
this facette (fig. A, fr.) is shown as a well-formed trochlea, 
bounded externally by a low ridge (r.), which is also con- 
spicuous in end-view (fig. C). Anteriorly the facette 
(fig. B, a(/.) is produced upwards as a low triangular 
depression, wliich would accommodate an ascending process 
of the astragalus. Externally there is a large facette for 
contact with the fibula (fig. B,fi.). 

Compared with the tibia of Megalosaurus'^ and ifs 
immediate allies f, the new bone from the Lias is remarkably 
slender. This slenderness, indeed, and the trochlear shape 
of the facette for the astragalus, suggest a lighter and more 
active reptile than the ordinary Megalosaurians. The great 
develo|)ment of the anterior ascending process of the astra- 
galus shows that the Liassic genus is more nearly related to 
the Jurassic and Cretaceous than to the Triassic families of 
carnivorous Dinosaurs ; but the tibia alone is insufficient for 
a more exact determination of its affinities. 

XLIl. — Descriptions and Records of Bees. — XVI II. 
By 'J\ D. A. COCKERELL, University of Colorado. 

Mecjacldh lielianihi^ sp. n. 

? .—Length V?)\ mm. 

Black, robust, but of the parallel-sided type ; ventral scopa 
entirely white (in the type specimen full of bright orange 
pollen) ; lower margin of clypeus strongly undulate, with a 
broad, shallow, central emargination ; claws with a large and 

* R. Owen, ' Foss. Rept. Weald, .t Piirb. Form.' pt. iii. (Mon. Pal. 
Soc. 1857), p. 18, pi. ix. 

t O. C. Mivrsh, ' The Diuosaiu's of North America ' (^l(Jth Ann. Hep. 
U.S. (leol. 8urv. 1896), pp. 153-163, with plates. 


260 Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell — Vescriptio^is and 

sharp basal tooth. Head large, round ; cheeks flattened, not 
spined ; punctures of head and thorax dense and coarse, on a 
dullish surface, but clypeus (convex in middle) and middle o£ 
supraclypeal area shining, with well-separated strong punc- 
tures ; hair of head and thorax greyish white, the vertex also 
with dark fuscous hair, very short and easily overlooked ; 
antennse dark ; mandibles short and thick, 4-dentate, fringed 
beneath with pale golden hairs ; first joint of labial palpi about 
^ or f length of second ; tegulaj black. Wings strongly 
and broadly infuscated on apical margin ; nervures black. 
Abdomen strongly but not densely punctured, with narrow 
white hair- bands, more or less failing in the middle; sixth 
dorsal segment rapidly descending, strongly concave in 
piotile, its basal half with sparse, erect, pale hair, its apical 
with pale tomentum. Legs black, tlie tarsi (especially the 
middle and hind ones) broad and thick ; hind basitarsus not 
quite so long as the other joints together, if claw is included. 
Third joint of maxillary palpi with very tine short pubescence 
and shorter than 1 + 2. 

Belongs to the subgenus Sat/apis, and is related to M. sayi, 
Cresson, but easily distinguished by the shining sparsely- 
punctured clypeus, the character of the clypeal margin, and 
the wholly white ventral scopa. 

Uab. Boulder, Colorado, at flowers of Helianthiis Unticu- 
laris, Aug. 29, 1906 {S. A. Rohwer). 

Megachile terrestris, sp. n. 

$ . — Length about 10^ mm. 

Black, moderately robust, in build something like M. monti- 
vaga or M. melanopyga, the abdomen strongly convex in 
profile ; ventral scopa tntirely rather 2^<^is orange, as are the 
narrow but very distinct abdominal bands ; cli/peus undulate, 
loith three low broad dentiform angles, one being median ; 
claws with a strong basal tooth. Head and thorax densely 
punctured, with the copious long pubescence very pale 
yellowish, becoming strongly fulvous on clypeus, lower part 
of cheeks, and vertex, and a little so in middle of mesothorax ; 
head ordinary ; clypeus closely punctured but shining ; 
mandibles with only three distinct teeth, the innermost 
rounded ; first joint of labial palpi a little shorter than 
second ; last joint of maxillary palpi with the pubescence 
very short, indistinct ; antennge dark ; mesothorax dull ; 
tegulse piceous. W ings strongly infuscated, yellower basally ; 
nervures ferruginous, the outer ones piceous. Tarsi f err u- 
(jinous, more or less infuscated, and clothed with orange- 

Records of Btus. 261 

fulvous hair; exirenie apices of tibiae slightly fenugiuou-, 
the legs otherwise black, with pale yellowish hair; hiiul basi- 
tarsus not greatly broadened. The hair of the abdomen 
between the bands, which in most species is black, i-ifuloous, 
and as it is long and overlaps the bands, it makes them 
appear yellower than they otherwise would ; sixth dorsal 
segment descending almost perpendicularly, and then abruptly 
bending to the strong lip, the descending portion covered with 
long fulvous hair. 

A very distinct species, not closely related to any other, so 
far as I am aware. 

Hub. Florissant, Colorado, 8000 feet, June U, 1907, 
flying over the ground (S. A. Rokwer), 

Me<jachile anoijric, sp. u. 

? . — Length 11 to 12 mm. (13^ with the head thrust 

Black, rather robust, with greyish-white pubescence; the 
abdomen shining, with narrow white entire hair-bands, that 
on first segment broader and enlarged at sides; ventral scopa 
white, entirely black on the last two segments ; claws with a 
strong basal bristle, but no well-developed tooth. Head and 
thorax densely punctured, with copious greyish-white hair ; 
on the clypeus the hair is a shade greyer and thin, showing 
the shining and strongly punctured surface ; margin of 
clypeus normal ; matidibfes j^^culiar, sJiort and thick, with an 
apical blunt toothy and a lo?ig straight cutting-ed(je beyond; 
cheeks rounded ; eyes sage-green ; tegulie very dark brown. 
Wings only moderately dusky ; second r. n. joining second 
s.m. very near its end. Legs black, with light hair, that on 
inner side of tarsi fuscous or reddish fuscous ; ajncal corners 
of middle tarsal joints with pectiniform spines or bristles; 
hind basitarsus not greatly broadened. Abdomen between the 
bands, and the sixth segment, very shiny, with coarse bhick 
hair; sixth segment wholly without pale hair and not rapidly 

A pretty and distinct species, rather like Af. generosa, 
Cresson, but easily separated by the wholly light hair of 
vertex and mesothorax and other characters. 

JIab. Florissant, Colorado, at flowers of Anogra coronopi- 
folia (scopa full ot light yellow |)ollcn), July 21, l'J07 ; also 
July 22, 1907 (6". A. Rohwer). 

262 IMr. T. D. A. Cockerell — Descriptions and 

Meyacliile chrysothamni, sp. n. 

? . — Length 13 mm. or a trifle less. 

Black, ^vitll white pubescence, having rather a mouM-like 
appearance on thorax ; abdomen shining, rather parallel- 
sided, witli creamy-wiiite hair-bands; ventral scopa white, 
black on last segment and apical third of penultimate one; 
claws without any distinct basal tooth. Head normal; eyes 
pale greenish grey, parallel ; vertex with a band of black 
liair, and middle of mesothorax with a little of the same 
colour ; clypeus shining, but closely punctured, its anterior 
edge very thick, but not dentate ; mandibles 4-dentate ; 
antennaj dark ; mesothorax very densely punctured ; tegulae 
dark reddish. Wings moderately dusky. Legs black, with 
light hair, that on inner side of tarsi pale yellowish ; middle 
tarsi thick; hind basitarsus only moderately broadened. 
Abdomen with hair on first two segments wholly j^alc, beyond 
these coarse and black between the bands, as also on sixth 
segment, which, however, is covered with pale tomentum at 
its tip; sixth segment ordinary, not subvertical. 

Rather like 21. texana, Cresson, but the black hair does 
not cover the penultimate ventral segment, and the last three 
abdominal bands are very entire and conspicuous, giving the 
insect a distinctive appearance. Tlie shining, ratlier parallel- 
sided abdomen is also peculiar. Perhaps the closest real 
affinity is with M. manifesta, Cresson, although this would 
never be suggested by superficial appearances. 

Bab. Boulder, Colorado, at flowers of Chrysothamnus 
graveolens (scopa full of bright yellow pollen), Sept. 1, 1906 

2Iegachile newelli, sp. n. 

$ . — Length about 11 mm. 

Very black; short, broad, with a heart-shaped abdomen ; 
ventral scopa white (full of bright orange pollen, doubtless 
from some species of Compositae), the last segment with 
black bristles at the sides ; pubescence greyish white, rather 
scanty ; the thorax seen from above is black, with a creamy- 
white band in the scutello-mesothoracic suture, and a spot on 
each side of it, a little in front, these markings being very 
conspicuous ; abdominal bands present, but only moderately 
developed. Head very broad ; flagellum inclined to be 
reddish beneath ; clypeus very densely punctured ; man- 
dibles \QYj broad, the teeth low and obtuse ; lower margin 
of mandibles strongly concave ; apical joint of maxillary 

Records of Bees. 263 

palpi not or hardly pubescent ; tlie broad an J Hat vertex, the 
rnesotliorax, and scutellum with thin black hair; tegulai 
very dark brown. Wings dusky. Legs black, spurs very 
pale ; middle tarsi greatly broadened ; hind basitarsus very 
large and flat, much longer than the remaining joints to- 
gether, and with light yellow hair on its inner side. Abdomen 
with very short black hair between the bands ; last segment 
with erect hair only at sides. 

Very closely allied to the Mexican M. chrysophila, Ckll., 
but differing in tlie colour of the ventral scopa, the propor- 
tionately longer hind basitarsus, the shape of tlie mandibles, 

Hah. Keatchie, Louisiana, July 8, 1905, two specimens 
{Wilinon Neivell). 

Meyachile niuriiiella, sp. n. 

? . — Length about 10 mm. 

Black, broad, the abdomen long-cordiform ; pubescence 
greyish white, scanty, becoming mouse-grey on sides of 
metathorax ; abdominal bands well developed, but hardly 
noticeable because dull mouse-grey, the last and the sides of 
the penultiniate scantily overlapped by shining white hairs ; 
ventral scopa dull white, black on last segment except at 
extreme base, and some black hair at sides of penultimate ; 
claws with a sharp basal tooth ; no light hair-markings on 
thorax above. Ilead ordinary, rather large, eyes distinctly 
converging below; clypeus shining, with strong, rather close 
punctures, its apical margin straight ; mandibles 4-dentate, 
with golden hairs projecting from the lower margin ; an- 
tennaj dark ; mesothorax densely punctured ; tcgulte dark 
rufous. Wings moderately dusky ; recurrent nervures 
joining second submarginal cell at equal distances from apex 
and base. Legs black, hair on inner side of tarsi pale 
yellowish ; spurs whitish ; hind basitarsus only moderately 
large. Abdomen between the bands with a pale hardly 
noticeable pruinosity ; some black hairs, not readily observed, 
on the last two segments, particularly the penultimate one. 

I had formerly supjjosed, from a superticial examination, 
that the grey abdominal bands were accidentally discoloured; 
but this seems not to be the case. The species is related to 
M. cleomis^ Ckll., but much smaller. 

J lab. Mosilla Park, New Mexico, Sept. 2, 1898 {Cockerell). 

2 ('.4 Mr. T. D. A. Cockercll — Descriptions and 

Megachile kalhtiuemiie, sp. \\. 

? . — Length nearly 11 mm. 

Black, short and broad, with cordate abdomen, and having 
a white line of pubescence in front of scutellum, and spot on 
each side, as in M. newelH^ to which it is closely allied. It 
differs from newelli in being a little smaller, less robust, 
creyer (from the pubescence), with whiter hair-bands, the 
hair of face very white ; tiie last dorsal segment with obvious 
pale pruinosity. It is evidently a desert representative of 
the same stock (originally neotropical) wliich produced 
newelli. The dusky wings, black hairs at sides of apex of 
abdomen, and mesothorax in front with a widely interrupted 
band of white hair, are characters separating it from the 
hitherto undescrlbed female of M. toionsendiana, Ckll., the 
latter having wings clear or almost, no black hair at sides of 
apex of abdomen, and mesothorax in front with two spots or 
bars of white hairs. 

Hah. Mesilla Park, New Mexico, at flowers of Kulhtrcemia, 
July 27 (Cockerell) ; Mesilla, July 15, at flowers of Verbesina 
encelioides {Cockerell) ; Las Cruces, New Mexico, at flowers 
of Solidago canadeiisis, Sept. d (C. H. T. Toionsend). 

Females of M, townsendiana, taken in company with males, 
are from Las C^ruces, Aug. 23. M. toicnsendiana was also 
taken at San Augustine, at the base of the Organ Mts., New 

Megachile verhesince, sp. n. 

$ . — Length about 15 mm., width of abdomen 45. 

Black, parallel-sided, with white pubescence, and narrow 
entire white abdominal hair-bands ; sixth segment with pale 
tomentum ; ventral scopa entirely white ; clypeus shining, 
with well-separated punctures, its margin straight, but with 
a little dentiform prominence, not projecting at all below 
the margin, in tlje middle. Thorax above without any con- 
spicuous ])ale hair-markings. Superficially, tiiis species 
looks just like M. heierodonta^ Ckll., except that the abdomen 
is not quite so long and narrow. It is, however, entirely 
distinct from heterodonta by tiie last dorsal segment, which 
instead of being nearly vertical and covered with black 
bristles, is subhorizontal and tomentose. The mandibles 
also are not as in heterodonta, but have four ordinary teeth, 
counting the inner angle. A closer real affinity is found 
with M. casadcE, Ckll. ; but in that species the abdomen is 
shorter, the sixth segment is strongly concave in profile, and 
the hind basitarsus is not nearly so long and broad. (In 

Records of Bees. 265 

verhesince i\\& \\\\\(\ basitarsus much exceeds the other joints 
together.) From M. sidalce<p, (!kll., the new species is easily 
known by tlie absence of the cons[)icuou3 white line of hair 
across the thorax, and the total absence of black hair on the 

The vertex has a small amount of fuscous hair among 
the white, but the mesothorax none. The second abdominal 
segment has a little fuscous hair, almost concealed by the 

IJah. Upper Hio Grande, at llinconada, New Mexico, at 
flowers of Verbesina exauriculata, Sept. 20 [Cockerell) . 

Alegachile popuU, Ckll. 

Renewed study convinces me that M. opuntiarum ^ Ckll., is 
conspecific with populi. 

Megachile emoryl^ Ckll. 

This fine species has hitherto been known only by the 
unique ty])e, but Mr, S. A. Rohwer took a female at Boulder, 
Colorado, Aug. 30, 1907, at flowers of Ilelianthus pumilus. 

Megachile perihirta, Ckll. 

rjopeland Park, Boulder County, Colorado, Sejjt 6, 1907 
{S. A. liohiLcr). This is the second specimen known. 

Megachile mucorosa, sp. u. 

($ . — Length about 11 mm., width of abdomen about 1^. 

Black, with dull white pubescence, abundant on head and 
thorax, pure white and dense on face and lower part of 
cheeks ; no black or fuscous hair angwhere, but inner side of 
tarsi with orange hair. Head rather large ; eyes yellowish 
green, slightly converging below; antennse black, faintly 
crenulated, not flattened or expanded at apex ; clvpeus 
normal ; vertex and mesothorax dull, with feeble punctures; 
tegulse reddish, darker basal ly. Wings nearly clear, the 
nervurcs and stigma rather dark ferruginous. Legs black, 
the anterior ftviora largely red above and the anterior tibicc 
with the inner surfacts red, their tarsi simple; coxal spines 
distinct but short, with a little patch of sliining copper-red 
hair at outer base ; hind tarsi rather thick. Abdomen with a 
large shining basin on first segment, the other segments 
strongly depressed basally and furrowed apically ; sixth 
segment densely punctured above, ivith a strong longitudinal 
keel, which points toward the apex of the transverse Icetl, 

26G Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell — Descriptions and 

xoliich is 'produced into a hroad heaJc-like structure, perfectly 
entire, its point forming somewhat more than a right angle, 
and curved downwards ; beneath, the segment presents two 
large oblique teeth on each side, the inner the larger, and in 
the broad median interval ap))ears the stout spine-like process 
of the seventh segment. Four ventral segments are visible. 

Related to M. reflexa, Cresson, but differs in the colour of 
the legs and pubescence. It cannot be the male of M. populi, 
as the sculpture of the thorax is quite different, and the 
venation of the hind wings differs. 

JIah. Boulder, Colorado, Aug. 9, 1906 ( \V. P. Cockerell). 

Megachile onohrychidisj sp. n. 

^ . — Length 81- mm. 

Black, with dull white hair, dense and pure wdiite on face 
and lower part of cheeks and pleura ; no black or fuscous 
hair, that on inner side of tarsi orange ; vertex shining, ivith 
strong well-stparated punctures ; antennas slender, black, 
flagellum faintly reddish beneath, not flattened or expanded 
at apex ; mandibles with a reddish spot just before tip ; first 
joint of labial palpi shorter than second ; mesothorax very 
densely punctured ; tegula3 very dark reddish, with a white 
patch of hair in front. Wings moderately dusky ; second 
r. n. joining second s.m. a considerable distance from its 
end. Legs black ; anterior femora with no red patch, their 
tibiee faintly reddish on inner side, their tarsi simple ; coxal 
spines strong but rather short ; hind tarsi slender. Abdomen 
short, rather shining, with narrow white hair-bands ; in 
addition to the usual apical bands there are distinct, but less 
pronounced basal ones ; sixth segment above very densely 
punctured, with fine whitish tomentum, and a pit or depression 
in the middle just before the transverse keel, which is jagged 
apically, and with a slight rounded emargination ; beneath, 
the lateral teeth are very low, the points of the inner ones 
scarcely more distant than they are from the lateral ones ; 
median projection of seventh segment small, but evident ; 
four ventral segments. 

Hah. Mesilla Park, New Mexico. 

On the Agricultural College farm, April 25, 1^95, I 
observed what I supposed to be a single species of Megachile 
visiting the flowers of Onohrychis sativa in some numbers, 
these flowers being the only ones at which 1 had so far 
obtained Megachile that year. Two specimens were caught, 
and these now ]nove to belong to different species, M. ono- 
hrychidis and M. schisniatura. 

Records of Bees. 2G7 

Megacliile schismatura, sp. n. 

(J. — Lcncith about 9^ mm. 

{Superficially like M. oiwhrychicUs^ but difFeritig as follows : 
face broader, eyes less converging below ; vertex with a 
good deal of fuscous hair ; the recurrent nervures joining 
second s.m. about equally far (a short distance) from base 
and apex ; keel of sixth abdominal segment presenting a very 
large circular emargination, the lateral corners of which are 
sharply pointed, forming much less than right angles ; on 
each side of the emargination the margin is crenate, but not 
jagged : sixth segment above tiie keel densely white-pruinose. 
The pubescence of M. o7\ohrychidis has a faint yellowish tint, 
Avanting in schismatura. The eyes of scliismatura are dis- 
tinctly darker and narrower than those of onobrychidis. In 
the apical emargination of the abdomen, M. fruyalis, Cress., 
is like schismatura, but the latter has only minute lateral 
teeth, instead of the prominent ones oifrugalis. 

llah. Mesilla Park, as described under M. onobrychidis. 

Megachile albula, Lovell & Cockerell. 

Described from Maine. 1 find I have a male which I took 
at Beulah, New Mexico, 8000 ft., July 11. 

JS'oie on Gilbert Turner s Australian Bees. 

I take the opportunity to add a note explaining the localities 
of Gilbert Turner's bees, described in earlier numbers of this 
series. I am indebted to Mr. Rowland E. Turner for the 
following inforn)ation : — " The abbreviations on the labels on 
the Australian bees are : Seat"., ISeaforth, a locality on the 
coast 20 miles north of Mackay, Queensland ; Kidg., The 
Kidges, a small property 1.) miles from Mackay which was 
held by my brother the late Gilbert Turner and myself in 
partnership for many years. Hy. is merely short for Hymeno- 
ptera. All the bees sent by my brother to the Museum 
were taken at one of the two above places, but as they 
are not settlements of any size I always use the locality 
Mackay." {Litt., Dec. 2, 1907.) 

University of Colorado, 

Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A., 

Jan. 12, 1908. 

268 Miss G. Ricardo on 

X.hlll. —Descripfions of Thirty new Species o/' Tabani /Vow 
Africa atid Madagascar. By Geetrude Ricardo. 

The new species now described will be shortly embodied in 
a larger work to be issued by the Paris Museum. 

Tahanus hrucet, ? , sp. n. 

Type (female) and four other females from Aukole, 
Uganda, 16. 5. 03 [LL-CoL Bruce), 1903. 206. 

A large species with a reddish abdomen, banded wings, 
and fore tibiae incrassate ; related to Tahanus septempunctatus, 
sp. n., but distinguished by the absence of black spots on the 

Length 20-21 mm. 

Head large, almost broader than the thorax. Face and 
forehead rusty red ; face, cheeks, and beard with reddish 
pubescence. Palpi large, reddish, black at the apex, longer 
than those of T. septempunctatus, stout at the base, tapering 
to a point ; pubescence red. Antennaj black, with black 
pubescence on the first two joints ; the first joint stout, 
cylindrical, the second very small, the third broad at base 
with a moderate tooth. Forehead about four times as long 
as it is broad, equal in width throughout, with short reddish 
pubescence. Frontal callus brown, broad, transverse, not 
reaching the eyes, beyond is an oblong brown spot, not con- 
tiguous. Eyes bare with no markings. 

Thorax and scutellum brown, covered with dense short 
reddish pubescence, sides and breast reddish with longer red 
hairs. 8quama3 blackish. Abdomen rather broad, short, 
uniformly bright red, with short reddish-yellow pubescence; 
on the extreme lateral margins of segments 3, 4, and 5 
are some coarse black hairs ; underside black, with narrow 
yellow segmentations and short yellow pubescence. Legs 
wholly black ; fore tibise incrassate, curved ; the first tarsal 
joint as long as the other four, which are short and oblong; 
the claws and pulvilli large ; the pubescence on legs black, 
thickest on the posterior femora. Wings hyaline, brown at 
base and on the fore border as far as the end of the first longi- 
tudinal vein, with a brown band extending across the wing 
to the fifth posterior cell. 

Tabanus septempunctatus ^ ? , sp. n. 

The type and specimens mentioned below are in the 
British Museum Coll. 

7iew Species o/Tabani. 269 

Type (female) and three other females from Fwambo, 
N.E. Rhodesia, near the south-east end of Lake Tanganyika 
(IF. //. .V«//), 90. 83. 

One female from .Mazoe, Mashonaland, Dec, 1898 {G. A. 
K. Marshall). 

This specie.'!, which is related to Tahanns latipes, Macq., in 
the markings of the wings, is easily distinguished from it by 
the black spots on the abdomen. It is a handsome reddish- 
yellow large species, with black legs and antennre and broad 
fore tibi«^; there are seven black spots and three black bands 
on the abdomen. 

Length 20 mm. 

Plead large, as broad as the thorax. Face and forehead 
rusty red, with long reddish-yellow j)ubescence on the face 
and cheeks, the beard being of the same colour. Palpi rather 
more yellow, stout, ending in an obtuse point ; pubescence 
short, tbe same colour as that on the face, tips of the palpi 
black with black pubescence. The antenna3 wholly black ; 
the tirst joint stout, the second small, cap-shaped, both with 
black hairs, the third long with an obtuse tooth. Frontal 
callus dark brown, broad, transverse, not reaching the eye=, 
and no prolongation from it is visible. Eyes have no bands 
or markings. Forehead broad and short, about 3^ times 
as long as it is broad. Thorax brown, with reddish-yellow 
tomentum, most noticeable on the anterior border ; sides 
and shoulders rusty red, with reddish-yellow pubescence ; 
breast browner ; scutellum as thorax, with traces of the bright- 
coloured tomentum. Abdomen large, rather broad, rusty 
red ; in the centre of the second segment is an oblong, brown- 
black spot reaching the anterior border of the segment, but 
posteriorly triangular, not reaching the border; on the third 
segment are three spots, the centre one semicircular in shape 
with its base on the anterior border not extending beyond 
half the width of the segment, the side spots more oblong, 
touching the anterior border; on the fourth segment are three 
simihar spots ; on the tilth and sixth a black band on the 
anterior border, extending over about half the segment; the 
seventh almost wholly bh\ck, the short si)are pubescence is 
reddish yellow : the underside yellowish, with broad black 
bands on the anterior half of eacli segment, beginning 
from the second, the posterior borders densely covered 
with yellow pubescence. Legs wholly black, with short 
black pubescence, some yellow pubescence on the hind 
femora; the coxre with yellowish tomentum ; the fore tibiaj 
broad, swollen, curved ; the first tarsal joint as long as the 
other four, which are broad and short ; the pulvilli and claws 

270 Miss G. Ricardo 07i 

long. Wings liyaline, dark brown at the extreme base and 
on the fore border to the end of the first longitudinal vein. 
A broad brown transverse band extends from the stigma 
across the wing into the fiftli posterior cell; veins brown, the 
first longitudinal vein thickened, black. 

The specimen from ]\Iaslionaland has the pubescence on 
the face and forehead rather more yellow than in the type, 
and a fine short black line proceeding from the frontal callus 
is present. The thorax and scutellum are almost entirely 
covered with the reddish-yellow tomentum, otherwise it is 
identical with those from Rhodesia. 

Tabanus suhvittatus, $ , sp, n. 

Type (female) and two other females from Bihe, Angola, 
Dec. 1903 {Wellmark), 1904. 243, in Brit. Mus. Coll. 

This species is very nearly related to Tabanus septem- 
jnmctatus, ? _, Ricardo, but differs in the spots on the abdomen. 

The black spots of the fourtli segment are all included in 
one black band, the spot on the second segment is more oblong 
than square, and the pubescence of the posterior borders of 
the segments on the underside is of a paler yellow. The 
yellow pubescence of the posterior femora is more distinct 
and in one of the specimens extends to the posterior libiaj. 
The specimens are of smaller size, 18 mm. On two of them 
is a note, " Cauglit near cattle." 

Tabanus quadriguttatus, $ , sp. n. 

The type is in the British Museum collection, and was sent 
me with three other females for identification by Dr. Krober ; 
they were taken at Usambara, Nguele River, near Victoria 
Nyanza Lake, on the south-east sliore. 

A medium-sized blackish species, with hyaline wings, brown 
on the fore border and at the apex ; legs, palpi, and antennai 
black ; abdomen black, with grey spots. It is related to 
Tabanus UUingtoni, Newstead, but distinguished by the 
black fore tibial and by the markings of the abdomen. 

Length 19 mm. 

Head broader than the thorax. Face reddish, but entirel}^ 
covered with dense whitish tomentum, with long, fine, white 
hairs on the cheeks and some black hairs beneatii the 
antennae ; beard white. Palpi blackish, with grey tomentum 
and black pubescence, rather long, the same width through- 
out with the exception of the short pointed apex. Antennae 
black ; the first joint twice as large as the second, which is 
small, cap-shaped, both with black pubescence ; the third long 

neio Species o/Tabani. 271 

and slender, with a medium-sized tooth. Forehead tlie same 
colour as the face, aliout five times as long as wide, with 
reddish-brown oblong callus reaching the eyes and continued 
as a raised line almost to i[\<i vertex. Eyes with no band. 
Thorax brownish red, covered with grey toraentum, no dis- 
tinct stripes visible ; traces of golden pubescence on the sides 
above the wings, continuing to the base of the scutellum, 
some short l)LicIc pubescence is present on the dorsum ; sides 
and breast reddish with grey tomentum, black hairs above 
and grey hairs below ; the scutellum is similar to the thorax. 
Abdomen rather long, dull blackish; the second segment 
])artly dull reddish, with a grey tonientose triangular spot on 
the base of the second, third, fourth, and fifth segments, and 
narrow greyish segmentations on the first four segments, with 
golden or whitish hairs at the sides of these segments, else- 
where on the sides the pubescence is black, also ou the 
dorsum of the abdomen wherever the dark colour prevails ; 
the underside black, with narrow segmentation of whitish 
pubescence. Legs wholly black, the coxa3 with grey toraen- 
tum and pubescence, the femora with s'ome whitish pubescence, 
especially on the hinder ones, elsewhere the pubescence is 
black. Wings longer than the abdomen, hyaline with yellow- 
brown veins and stigma, tinged with brown along the fore 
border and at extreme base and on the whole apex ; the brown 
colouring is, however, faint in the upper part of the second 
submarginal cell and a pale streak is visible in the first sub- 
marginal cell, the hind border is also tinged with brown, 
leaving the discal, basal, and apical cells clear, except along 
the veins; all posterior cells widely open. 

Tahanus grandissiinus, ?, sp. n. 

The following specimens are in the British Museum 
Collection : — 

Tyi)e (female) and another female from Fwambo, N.E. 
Ehodcsia, near the south-east end of Lake Tanganyika 
{W. II. Nutt), 9(). 83 ; two females from Lake Tanganyika 
(IF. A. Cunning ton), 1906. 76; two females from Lunzua, 
British Central Africa {A. Sharpe) , 1901. 29 ; one female 
from Deep Bay, west coast of Lake Nyasa, 1G70 feet, 
26. ii. 94 (/?. Craicshoy), 98. 81. 

A large robust black species with dark brown wings, the 
largest S[)ecies of Tahaniis as yet described from Africa, 
the type nieasuring 29 mm., the other specimens ranging 
from 23 mm. to 26 mm., the two from Lake Tanganyika 
being the smallest. Bigot described a species as Tahanus 

272 Miss G. Ricardo on 

deyrolhi, 27 mm., the type of wliicli is apparently lost. This 
species is distinguishe'd from Tabanus biguttatus, Wied., by its 
larger size and red tibife. 

Head large, wider than the thorax. Face brown, with 
yellowish-brown tomentum and ratlier thick black pubescence; 
beard blackish. Palpi yellow, but very thickly covered with 
black pubescence on the outside, on the inner side they are 
yellow, nearly bare of pubescence. Antennae black, the 
second joint reddish ; the first joint stout, covered with black 
pubescence, the second with some black hairs ; the third long, 
slender, the tooth very near the base. The subcallus is the 
same colour as the face, bare. Forehead blackish, densely 
covered with yellowish tomentum, about five times as 
long as it is broad ; the frontal callus brown, oblong, not 
reaching the eyes, the line usually proceeding from the callus 
is here separated from it and indistinct. The thorax is black, 
shining, with red colour sometimes showing through, the 
sides with grey tomentum and black hairs ; the breast brown 
with black pubescence; the scutellum similar to the thorax; 
the squamae dark brown. Abdomen long, black, covered 
witli bluish-grey tomentum, devoid of pubescence, the sides 
with black hairs, thickest on the first segment and at the 
apex ; the under^'^ide black with some black pubescence. 
Legs black with red tibise ; the fore tibioe black at the apex, 
the middle tibia? and the first joint of the tarsi wholly red, 
the posterior tibia? black at the extreme apex; the pubescence 
on the red tibiEe black, thickest on the posterior tibiae ; on the 
underside of these last is some red pubescence, on the under- 
side of the posterior tarsi bright red pubescence. Wings 
dark rich brown, becoming paler at the apex and on the hind 
border, the centres of the second basal, the discal, and anal 
cells hyaline, veins and stigma brown ; all the posterior cells 
widely open. 

Tabanus obscurissimus, sp. n. 

One female from Lokkoh Creek, Sierra Leone, April 1904 
{Major F. Smith) , 1004^. 143; one female from the Congo, 
1900. 120; one female from Libreville, Gaboon (presented 
by Dr. A. L. Bennett), 99. 134, with note "Draws blood 
from man and beast"; one female from Wassau Territory, 
Gold Coast {Br. S. H. Jones), 1901. 81. 

This dull mahogany-coloured species, with a narrow abdo- 
men and brownish wings, is distinguished from T. testacei- 
ventris, Macq., and T. gabonensis, Macq., by the black hairs 
on the face, the black beard, and the bright red third joint 

new Species -'/Tabani. 273 

of antennae hardly daiker at tlie apex, and by its long narrow 

Length 18 mm. 

Head wider than abdomen. Face brown, with dnll fulvous 
tomentum and bUick pubescence, the latter consisting of fairly 
long black liuirs, thickest Vi^^low the aittennre and on the 
cheeks ; the beard blackish brown. Palpi yellowish brown, 
with black jiubescence, which (f ten gives tliem the appearance 
of being blackish ; they are yellower on the inner side, slightly 
stout at base, terminating in a long point. Antennae red ; the 
third joint bright red, a little duller at the apex, the first 
and second with black pubescence ; the first stout, the second 
very small, cup-shaped, with a long upper projection covered 
with black hairs, the third long with a moderate tooth. 
Forehead above tlie antennaj the same as face, when denuded 
shining brown, narrower at vertex, eijzlit times as long as 
broad, above a little browner, with shining red-brown long 
callus reaching the eyes and continued as a raised stripe 
almost reaching the vertex, gradually narrowing to a tine 

Thorax dull brown, no stripes, lighter brown at the sides; 
the [)ubescence on the dorsum short, dull yellowish, mixed 
with some black hairs; sides wiih long Hue black hairs, behind 
the wings they are fulvous and short; breast brown, with 
black pubescence. 

'J'he scutellum same as thorax. Abdomen long 


dull mahogany- brown in colour, covered with short black 
pubescence; the underside identical; the squamse brown. Legs 
reddish brown, the femora being brownish ; the tibiaj reddish, 
the fore tibiae yellowish red or yellow, black at their apices, 
and the fore tarsi are black ; the pubescence on legs blaik, 
thick and long on the femora, on the lighter fore tibiai is some 
yellowish pubescence. Wings pale brown, paler at the 
extreme apex, on the second submarginal cell, and on the 
interior border, which in some of the specimens is almost 
hyaline. Veins brown. 

Tahauus fuseymarg Inatus, ? , s]i. n. 

The following specimens are in the British Museum 
collection : — 

Type (female) and two other females from Kampala, 
Kiadondo, Uganda, in banana-plantation, 9. 5. U3 [Lt.-i'ol. 
Bruce), ld03. 206. 

A species very nearly allied to Tabanus percasus, Wll<., 
but certainly distinct; it is a large robust species, with a 

Ann. d; Mag. X. Hist. Scr. 8. Vol. i. 18 

274 Miss Gr. Kicardo on 

broad cl)estnut-l)rown abdomen, reddish legs, narrow forehead, 
and bLickish antennae. 

Length 2o mm. 

It is distinguished from Tahanus pervams, Wlk., by the 
bare abdomen, on wliich is no trace of bluisli-grey tomentum, 
and the underside is the same colour; the palpi are a little 
longer, with more attenuated point. It lias the same narrow 
foreliead, about five times as long as it is broad and narrowed 
anteriorly, with the oblong reddisii callus continued as a fine 
line hfilfway up the forehead, the callus with a median 
indented line; the face is yellowish brown, with yellowish- 
brown hairs above and blackish ones below, the scanty beard 
being blackish ; the palpi are reddish, with black pubescence, 
not very stout at base, with a rather long point. The an- 
tennae are blackish, tlie first two joints dull red, with black 
hairs; the first joint stout, large, cap-like, the second very 
small, the third with the usual tooth rather near the base. 
Thorax reddish brown, with some yellowish-brown and grey 
tomentum and some black hairs anteriorly ; no stripes are 
visible. Scutellum chestnut-brown like the abdomen, with 
black pubescence, darker at base. Abdomen bright chestnut- 
brown, almost devoid of pubescence, traces of yellowish- 
brown tomentum only on the first segment ; sides with short 
black hairs ; the lateral maigins of fourth, fit'th, and sixth 
segments yellowish transparent ; the underside the same 
colour as the dorsum. Legs reddish brown, coxse with black 
pubescence and some brown tomentum. Femora dull red- 
dish, the fore femora darker, all with black pubescence ; tibiae 
brighter red, apex of fore tibia3 black; fore tarsi black, the 
others the same colour as the tibise, both with black pubes- 
cence, which is thickest on the hind tibias and tarsi. Wings 
liyjiline, tinged with brown, on the fore border brown, a 
little yellowish at the base ; veins brownish, tinged with 
brown, which becomes paler towards the apex of the wing. 

Tahanus obscurehirtus, ? , sp. n. 

Type (female) from Lutete, Congo, Nov. 10, 1903, and 
another female from Leopold ville, Congo (presented by 
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine), Dec. 7, 1903, 
1904. 267. 

A yellow robust species easily distinguished from T. par, 
T. thoracimis, P. B., and T. obscuripes, sp. n., by its long 
black-haired femora and white fore tibiae. The thorax also 
appears redder than in the above-mentioned species. 

Length 15 mm. 

n e w Species of Taba n i . 275 

Head a little wider than the thorax. Face red, thickly 
covered with yellow toinentutn and with yellow pubescence; 
beard yellow. Palpi long, slender, slightly broader at the 
base, tapering to a point, with thick black pubescence and 
some yellow hairs below. Antennae bright red, only the 
extreme aj)ex black ; the first and second joints pale yellow, 
with block pubescence ; the tooth fairly prominent near the 
base. Forehead narrow, six times as long as it is broad, 
yellow, the frontal callus brown, red, shining, not reaching 
the eyes, narrow, produced to a point posteriorly, whence a 
nairow line proceeds nearly reaching the vertex. Thorax 
fulvous, with short yellow tornentum on the dorsum ; no 
sfri[)es, sides with longer yellow hairs; the breast yellow, 
with thick pubescence consisting of long yellow hairs. Scu- 
tellum and abdomen fulvous, the segmentation of the latter 
very narrovvly pale yellow, the dorsum with short yellow 
pubescence, the lateral borders of the last four segments with 
yellow transparent margins; the underside similar, with 
slu)rt black pubescence. Legs dull reddish, the basal half 
of the fore tibiae white, with wiiite pubescence, the basal half 
of the other tibia? pale reddish, with some black pubescence 
on the middle pair, and on the posterior pair with thick black 
pubescence, long on the outer and inner borders, mixed with 
a few fulvous hairs ; the fore femora dull black, the middle 
and ])osterior femora dull red, but all so thickly covered with 
black ])ubescence that they appear black ; the fore and middle 
femora with fringes of long black hairs on the outer and inner 
borders; all the tarsi blackish, with black pubescence; the 
coxse blackish, with grey tomentum. Wings tinged with 
brown, yellow on the fore border ; veins yellow ; no ap- 
pendix ; all the posterior cells widely open. 

Tabanus ohscnripea, ? , sp. n. 

The following specimens are in the British Museum 
collection : — 

Type (t'emal(^) and another from Zegi, Tsana, Abyssinia, 
V. & vi. 1902 {De(jen), 11)02. 222 ; two females from Dem- 
bratcha, Godjam, Abyssinia, April and May, 1902 {Depen), 
1902. 222. 

This yellow species from Abyssinia is nearly allied to 
Tal>anus par, Wik., and Tabanus thoracinus, P. B., but is 
distingnishetl from them by the black fore temora. 

Length 14 mm. 

Forehead narrow, nearly six times as long as it is broad. 
The palpi have a few black hairs, but chiefly whitish pubes- 


276 Miss G. Ricardo on 

cence^ tliick below. The fore femora are black, sliinin2f, pale 
yellow at the extreme apex, with black pubescence anrj White 
hairs on their outer borders ; the other femora have al>o 
some whitish pubescence, the fore tibise at the apex and all 
the fore tai si black; the other le^^s are reddish yellow, the 
tarsi with black pubescence. The wings are tinged with 
yellow ; a very short appendix is present in all the specimens 
except one. 

Two damaged S])ecimens from Ruwe, Lualnba River, 
Congo Free State, area 10° S., 2&^ E., Feb. 1906 {Dr. A. 
Yale Murray), 1906. 98, may possibly belong to this species, 
which would thus have a wide distribution ; the specimens 
are too poor to enable us to speak with certainty. It is 
probable that with the advent of fresh material many varia- 
tions will be found in this group represented by the typical 
form of T. par of AValker, and that the species will only be 
distinguished by small diffeiences, such as the colouring of 
the legs and of their pubescence and colouring of the wings. 

Tahanus ohscuriorj ? , sp. n. 

The following specimens are in the British Museum 
collection : — 

Type (female) and three other females from Wathen, 
Congo Free State, 1904 (per Rev. W. H. BentJey) , 1905. 207. 

This species from West Africa is very closely allied to 
Tahanus obscuripes, sp. n., from Abyssinia, and is only 
distinguished from it by the browner wings with no appendix, 
by the fore femora and tibige having no yellowish-white 
l.airs but only black pubescence, and on the middle and poste- 
rior femora the pubescence is here reddish yellow, not 
whitish; the palpi are slightly daiker, with yellowish hairs 
below, and the hairs on the face are darker than in Tahanus 
obscuripes, and have some reddish-yellow hairs intermixed. 

Length 14 mm. 

Tabanus clari tibialis, ? , sp. n. 

The following specimens are in the British Museum 
collection : — 

Type (female) from south end of Nyasa to Upper Shird, 
C. Africa, 1500 feet, 14. i. 06 (E. L. Rhoades), and another 
female from Upper Shire, 1500 feet, 20. i. 06 {E. L. Rhoades). 

A species approaching in general resemblance the group 
represented by Tabanus par, VN'lk., but differing from all the 
known species in tlie colouring of the legs and shape of 
forehead ; for the present we place it in this group. 

A species with reddish-yellow abdomen, black thorax, clear 
wings, and black legs with all the tihice white. 



Length 14J, nun. 

Head wider lluui the thoiux. Face covered with w' 
grcy ton)entuni and with white pubescence; beard whit;. 
Palpi a little stout at base, ending in a rather obtuse ))oint, 
reddish, covered with dense white pubescence and some short 
bh\ck hairs towards the apex on the ui^per border. Antenuse 
reddi.sii, darker at the apex, the first joint cylindrical, rather 
smaller than usual, the second very small, both witli black 
[)ubescence ; the third long-, with tooth very near the base 
and small, the first division wvtli i2:rey tomentum. Subcailu-j 
reddish brown, shining;, furrowed in centre, with some grey 
tonientuin chiefly round base of antennse. B^orehead not so 
narrow as in the species belonging to T. par group, one 
width throughout, about four times as long as it is broad, 
blackish, covered with grey tomentum ; the frontal callus the 
same colour as the subcallus, almost square, not quite 
reaching the eyes, the line proceeding from it short, thick ; a 
dark, shining, small, oblong spot on vertex; there are white 
hairs on each side of the frontal callus and at its base. Back 
of head whitish, with black pubescence. Thorax black, 
somewhat shining, with the beginnings of three grey median 
stripes, and with some grey tomentum ; otherwise bare; sides 
reddish, with black hairs. Breast brown, with grey tomen- 
tum and some white pubescence. Soutelluni blackish, with 
grey tomentum and some white pubescence. Abdomen 
uniformly reddish yellow, with the last three segments 
brownish or blackish, pubescence black, short ; underside 
identical, but with some whitish tomentum. Legs black, with 
black pubescence; the tibiie pale yellowish white, with 
whitish pubescence, black at their extreme apex, the fore 
tibiie more witlely so. Wings hyaline, veins brown, stigma 
yellow; no appendix; the first posterior cell widely open. 

Talnxmis viorsi'fans, ? , sji. n. 

'J'he following specimens are in tlv; British ^NFu^eum 
collection : — 

Type (female) from Somaliland {(Jupf. R. E. Drake 
Brukinan)^ 1905, and two other females from iSomaliland 
{('<il>t. iSivajjne), 9-4. 201 (damag'd). 

This fly is believed by the donor (('apt. Brokman) to dis- 
seminate a disease which is fatal to horses and mules and 
occurs in certain districts at times when th", flv is also found. 
" Letter from donor to Mr. E. F. Fagan, 20. v. 0.5." The 
two specimens collected by (^apt. 8wayn(! are mentioned in 
a note in ' Monograph of Tsetze Flies' by Mr. E. E. Austen 
on page o67 as representing " Balaad," a lly callcil thus by 

278 On new Species o/Tabani. 

the Matives in Somaliland, and stated by Col. Swayne to be 
by far the worst fly on the Webbe, the natives stating that 
uhen numerous it kills horses and camels. 

A narrow-bodied brownish species with two distinctly 
separated calli on the broad forehead and with round grey 
spots on each side of the abdomen, clear wings, yellowish 
legs and antennfe. It resembles a Hnematopota in general 
appearance and is related to Tabanus sufis, Jaennicke, but 
distinguished from it by the large, convex, transverse, black 
frontal callus, with both borders straight, not indented ; the 
eyes apparently not striped ; the lateral spots of the abdomen 
are round, isolated, not obliquely placed, touching the posterior 
borders of the segments as in the above-mentioned species. 

Length 13 ram. 

Head wider than the thorax. Face greyish with long 
white hairs ; beard white. Palpi white, short, stout at base, 
ending in a short point, hairy with short Vjlack pubescence 
and some silvery-white hairs. The reddish-brown band on 
the upper part of face bearing the antenna is covered with 
grey tomentum. The first and second joints of antennae 
yellow with black pubescence ; the third joint is wanting. 
Forehead broad, the same width throughout, hardly more 
than twice as long as it is broad, covered with yellowish- 
brown tomentum ; the frontal callus large, black, shining, 
very convex, transverse, reaching the eyesj beyond and dis- 
tinctly separated from it is an irregular, almost heart-shaped, 
black spot slightly indented in the middle, and another 
smaller larownish spot on the vertex. Eyes bare with ap- 
parently no stripes. Thorax blackish brown, with grey 
tomentum and with two greyish indistinct stripes and the 
sides greyish, the dorsum with very scanty black pubescence ; 
the breast and sides reddish, covered with grey tomentum and 
■white pubescence; the scutellum reddish brown, shining. 
Abdomen long and narrow, dark brown, more reddish brown 
on the basal segments; the first segment with a small median 
grey spot, and two oval grey spots on sides, of grey tomen- 
tum ; every other segment, except the last one, with a distinct, 
round, isolated, grey spot on each side and traces of a median 
grey ppot, wliich is most distinct on the second and third 
segments ; the dorsum is almost bare of pubescence, the seg- 
mentations narrowly greyish ; underside brownish, with 
greyish-yellow segmentations. Legs reddish yellow, fore 
tarsi and apex of fore tibiae darker. Wings hyaline, veins 
and stigma yellowish (the two collected by Capt. Drake have 
an appendix), the first posterior cell is widely open. 

TTo be continued.' 

On a new Lonyicorn Beetle from South Africa. 279 

XLIV. — Description of a new Lonfjicorn Beetle from South 
Africa. By VV. L. Distant. 

Megac<elus gustavi^ sp. n. 

Black, with a more or less olivaceous tint ; elytra crossed 
by a transverse yellowish-white fascia at middle ; head 
somewhat thickly brownishly pilose, finely punctate at base, 
with a central medial linear impression not quite reaching 
base ; antennae robust, first joint thickest and clavate towards 
apex, second very short, third longest, a little longer than 

Meyacoelus gustavi, sp. n. 

fourth or fifth which aresubequal, remaining joints excluding 
apical gradually narrowing and almost subequal, apical joint 
shortest ; pronotum finely punctate, centrally anteriorly sub- 
cordately depressed, on each side of the anterior margin of 
the depression a transverse flattened tuberculous ridge, at 
base a central transverse ridge; scutellum slightly centrally 
concave, broadly ridged on each side ; elytra somewhat 
thickly |)unctate, the punctures more visible on the trans- 
verse pale fascia, each elytron with two longitudinal discal 
linear ridges, their apices angularly rounded and in the 
? not reaching the abdominal npex; body beneath more 
or less brownly pilose ; legs finely shortly pilose, the margins 
of the femora and tibiae more distinctly so. 

Long. $ 30 mm.; max. hit. hum. angl. 10 mm. 

Ilah. Cai)e Colony; East London ((r. Distant). 

Allied to M. didelphis, Chevr., but not only differing in 
colour and markings, the narrow transverse pale fascia being 
placed at middle of elytra, but also in the antennae, which 
are almost twice as broad. 

280 Mr. A. Patience on a new 

XLV. — On a new Brituh Terrestrial Isopod (\^\\(:\\on'\^c\xs 
linearis, sp, n.). By Alexander Patience, 

[Plate XI.] 

Family Trichoniscidae. 

Genus Trichoniscus, Brandt, 183.3. 

Trichoniscus Imearis, sp. n. (PL XI.) 

Description of species. — Body oblong linear in form, fully 
three and a halt" times as long as broad. Dorsal face 
moderately convex and very strongly taberculated trans- 
versely across the segments. Ocphalon -with front obtusely 
rounded ; lateral lobes fairly prominent and each bearing 
one or two tubercles. Lateral parts of the segments of 
mesosome having no obvious spicules, the lateral parts of the 
three posterior segments recurved and acuminate. Metasome 
occupying less than one fourth of the length of body, the 
terminal expansion being broadly rounded at the tip and 
carrying three small spicules. Eyes consisting apparently 
of a single visual element imbedded in daik pigment. 
Antennulse with the last joint about twice the length of 
.second and having from five to seven sensory filaments. 
Antennae about one-third the length of body, the joints of 
])eduncle being strongly spinulose, and the flagelluin being- 
composed of four articulations. Left mandible with two, 
right with one, penlcil behind the cutting part. The meral 
joint of seventh perseopod in male is broadly expanded, 
while the last joint is densely ciliated on the outer edge. 
The seventh perteopod in female not observed. Liner ramus 
of first pair of })leopoda in male biarticulate ; the terminal 
joint about same length as first, and ending in a sharp 
point turned slightly inwards and finely serrated on the outer 
edge. Inner ramus of second pair biarticulate, proximal 
joint short; the distal joint greatly produced, contracted at 
about half its length and then produced to a fine hair-like 
point. The tip of the outer plate reaches to about the middle 
of distal joint of inner ramus. Uropoda with outer ramus 
about twice the length of basal part, the inner ramus 
being narrower and shorter. Colour of the living animal, 
white, semipellucid, the male exhibiting; slight ramifications 
of minium-red across the segments. No trace of pigment 

British Terrestrial Isopod. 281 

discernible on the dorsal face of the female. Length of adult 
male and female specimens about 3 mm. 

Remarlcs. — 'J'liree sjiecimens of this species (one male and 
two females) were sent to me for examination by my friend 
Mr. R. S. Bagnall, F.E.S., Winlaton-on-Tyne, and, so far as 
I have been able to ascertain, it does not seem to have 
been hitherto described. It is at once distinguished from all 
the other British species of Trickoniscus by its consj)icuonsly 
linear form, ap})roaching nearer to T. pi/gmceus, G. 0. Sars, 
in this respect than any otiier member of the genus. It 
offers some further points of resemblance to the just-named 
species, notably in the form and structure of the first and 
second pairs of pleopoda of the male. T\\& inner ramus of 
the tir>t pair in both species shows a close resemblance ; the 
proximal p;irt of the outer plate, however, is more broadly 
exp;inded in T. linearis; while the distal joint of the inner 
ramus of the second pair appears to be more flexible than 
that found in T. pijgmceus. It differs obviously, however, 
from that species in the structure of the eje, having only 
one visual element — in this respect resembling not only 
T.roseus (Koch), but also Trichoniscoides albidus (B.-Lund), 
Ihiplophthalmus danicus, B.-Lund, and //. mengii (Zaddach) ; 
while the dorsal face is very much more strongly tubercu- 
lated, and the tip of the last segment of the rnetasome is 
rounded, whereas in T. pygmccus it is truncate. T. linearis 
agrees in the form of the telson with T. atebhingi, Patience, 
and T. fpinosus, Patience. 

Occurrence. — Mr. Bagnall found three specimens in Kew 
Gardens, London, December 3rd, 1'..07, in company with 
J/aplo/dithalmus danicus, Budde-Lund, under flower-pots, in 
a moderately cool greenhouse. In these fl )\ver-pots, among 
the roots of several plants, T. stehbingi was also found. 
Mr. Bagnall informs me that its movements are slower than 
any other species of the genus, resembling rather the move- 
ments of IJaplop/iihalnius, and, in consequence of this, was 
regarded as belonging to that genus until examined under a 

The genus Trichoniscxis is readil}' distinguished from 
Uaplophtlialnnis by the abiuptly contracted metasome, the 
epinieral plates of the two anterior segments not bL'iiig 
concealed. These latter in llopU phthulmus are small and 
concealed by the lateral part ot the last segment of the 
mesosome, while the three })Osterior segments are broadly 
expanded. The sculpture of the tlorsal tace in this genus is 
also somewhat different, having more or less distinct longi- 

282 Geological Society. 

tudinal ribs. In the oral parts HaphphtJiahnus differs from 
Trichoniscus in the structure of the maxillipeds, the terminal 
part of which is 5-articulate, while the epignath is simple 
and lanceolate. 

Other species belonging to the Tn'choniscidce taken at 
Kew on that date were Trichoniscus pusillua, Brandt, 
T. pygmceus, G. O. Sars, T. roseus (Koch) , Trichoniscoides 
alhidus (B.-Lund), Haplophlhalmus dauicus, B.-Lund, and 
H. mengii (Zaddach). 

Note. — A preliminary description of T. linearis was read 
to the Glasgow Natural History Society on January 28th, 


(5 . Male specimen of Trichoniscus linearis, about 3 mm. 

a'. Antennula. 

A. Antenna. 

Jl. Flagellum of antenna. 

??i' . First maxilla. 

mp. Maxilliped. 
prp. 7 (5" . Seventh peraeopod of male. 
pip. 1 c? ■ First pair of pleopoda of male. 
pip. 2 S • Second pair of pleopoda of male. 

T. Last segment of metasome with uropoda. 

m^ is magnified on a higher scale than mp. 



November 6th, 1907.— Sir Archibald Geikie, K.C.B,, D.C.L., Sc.D., 
Sec.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. ' On a Collection of Fossil Plants from South Africa.' By 
Prof. Albert Charles Seward, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

The material on which this paper is based was, for the most part, 
collected by members of the Geological Survey in Cape Colony from 
the Molteno and Burghersdorp Beds, The Molteno Beds are placed 
at the base of the Upper Karroo, or Stormberg Series ; the Burghers- 
dorp Beds constitute the uppermost strata of the Middle Karroo, or 
Beaufort Series. Mr. A. L. Du Toit, who has contributed accounts 
of the stratigraphy of the plant-bearing and associated rocks. 

Geological Society, 


describes the occurrence of a transitional zone between the Molteno 
and the Burghersdorp Beds. The following species are described : — 

(A) Molteno Beds. 

Schizoneura Carrerei, Zeill. 

Schizoneura s,\). 

TkitmfeUia odontoptermdes (Morr.). 

Thinnfeldia sp. 

Thiiwfddia sp. nov. 

Taniopieris Carruthersi, Ten.Woods 
Cladophlebis ( Todites) Bcesserti 

FteraphyUum ep. 
Baiera sp. nov. 

Schizoneura sp. 

Ihinvfeldia sp. nov. 

TcBiiiopteris Carruthersi, Ten.Woods, 

BancBopsis Huyhesii, Feist. 

Odontopteris sp. noT. 

(B) Burghersdorp Beds. 

Strohilites sp. nor. 

Pierophi/llum sp. cf. Pt. Tielsii, 

Stiymatodendron sp. nov. 

A description is also given of Schizoneura africana, Feistmantel, 
a species originally figured by Hooker in an appendix to Bain's 
paper, published in 1845. 

The additional plants recorded from the Molteno Beds afford 
further evidence in favour of assigning this member of the Slormberg 
Series to the Rhjetic Period. While possessing certain Khaetic 
species, the Burghersdorp flora as a whole indicates a somewhat 
lower horizon. 

2. 'Permo-Carboniferous Plants from Vereeniging (South Africa).' 
By Prof. Albert Charics Seward, M.A., F.K.S., F.G.S,, and 
Thomas Nicholas Leslie, F.G.S. 

The majority of the specimens described in this paper were 
obtained by Mr. Leslie from a sandstone-quarry 1| miles from 
Vereeniging, on the banks of the Klip Kiver ; the sandstones are 
associated with shales, coal-seams, and glacial conglomerates. In 
the opinion of the Authors, the plant-beds should be included in 
the Ecca Series (Lower Karroo). AVliile recognizing certain well- 
marked differences between the Glossoi<ttris-^ox'A& and the Upper 
Carboniferous and Permian floras of the ^'o^theru hemisphere, they 
are inclined to think that there are more types common to the two 
botanical provinces than is generally supposed. 

The following species have been recognized at Vereeniging : — 

Schizoneura sp. 

Glosfopferis angustifolia, Brongn., 

var. nov. 
Glossopteris angustifolia, Brongn. 
Glassopteris Browniana, Brongn. 
Glossopteris indica, Schiinp. 
Glossapteris sp. cf. Gl. retifcra. Feist. 
Gangomopterts ci/clopteroides, Feist. 
Callipteridium sp. 

Xeitropteriditim validiim. Feist. 
Bothrodendron Leslii, Sew. 

* Lepidodcudron sp. nov. 

* Lepidodendrvn Pedroanum (Carr.). 
Sigitlaria Brardi. Brongn. 
Psi/gmophyllum Kidsimti, Sew. 
Cordaites (yaggerathiopsis) Hislopi 

Conites sp. 

Those marked with an asterisk are recorded for the first time. 

284 Mtscel/aiieous. 


The Echinoid Name Cidaris and its Modern Application, 
By F. A. Bathek, British Museum (Nat. Hist.). 

EoE 'many years past the writers on Echinoidea have been at 
loggerheads over the meaning to be attached to the name Cidaris, 
and, as was pointed out to them in the Introduction to the ' Zoolo- 
gical Eecord ' for 1903 (Section " Echinoderma "), the confusion 
seemed likely to continue until they decided "who, under the rules 
of nomenclature, was its author, or which species was the genotype." 
At last a few have ventured on this attempt ; but the conflict of 
opinion continues. It would be safer to remain a spectator, but 
having now occasion to discuss some genera of Cidaridse, I have 
been forced to choose a side in the quarrel. This choice has been 
determined by the elaborate and carefully considered rules recently 
issued by the Nomenclature Committee of the International 
Congress of Zoologists — rules by which every zoologist should feel 
bound, whatever his private views or previous practice. As an 
example of their application to an old and common genus, the 
present enquiry may have more than a special interest. 

How does the case stand ? Taking only leading writers during 
the present centurj-, we find J. Lambert * saying " Cidaris, dont le 
type est le G. matiri Schynwoet, 1711 "j T. Mortensen f says 
" Cidaris Klein (emend.)," and, from page 19, it appears that he 
regards Echinus cidaris Linn, as genotype, and believes that 
Love'n showed this to be identical with C. haculosa Lamarck; 
L. Doederlein J has changed his view once since 1900, and his 
latest statement is " Cidaris Lcske (Syn. Dorocldaris A. Agassiz), 
Type C. papillata Leske " ; H. L. Clark § sa3'8 " Cidaris Leske. 
Type species tribxdoides Lamarck." 

Preliminary criticism of the simplest kind shows that Mr. Lam- 
bert's view, however logical from his peculiar standpoint, is out of 
court. The Dutch author S. Schynvoet was entirely pre-Linnean ; 
the name " Cidaris mauri " occurs also in the equally pre-Linnean 
Klein II wwdier Cidaris mammillata {-^AQ), and is supposed by A. 
Agassiz ^ to be a synonym of " PhyV acanthus imperiaUs Brandt," 
= Cidarites imperialis Lamarck. If the last-mentioned has any 
claim to be the genotype of Cidaris, that claim cannot be based on 
C. mauri. 

We pass to Dr. Mortensen. It is a contradiction to ascribe 

* 1902. " Ech. foss. Barcelona, 1= partie," Mem. Soc. g6ol. France, 
Pal., ix. fasc. 3, Mem. 24, p. 27. ^ 

t 1903. ' Ingolf ' Exped. vol. iv. Echinoid: a, pt. ],p. 28. Copenhagen. 

X 1906. " Echinoiden," Wiss. Ergeb. der deutschen Tiefsee-Exped. 
Bd. v. Lief. 2. Jena. 

§ ]907. "The Cidaridae," Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, li. no. 7. 

11 1734. ' Natnralis dispositio Echinodermatuni.' Gedani. 
\ 1872. ' Revision of the Echini,' p. 175. Cambridge, Mass. 

Miscellaneous. 2S5 

Ci'Iaris to Klein, 1734, and to take as genotype Echinus ciduris 
Linn., a species that dates at earliest from 1752. To the bearing 
of this specific name on the post-Linnean Ci'Iaris we shall recur, 
merely pointing out that, if it equals C. baculosa, then Cidaris 
replaces J'hi/llacanfhus Brandt, according to the usual diagnoses 
and content of that genus, though not according to the views of 

Professors Doedcrloin and Clark, it will be observed, agree in 
ascribing Cidaris to Leske *, and here they appear to be in com- 
plete accord with the facts and with every code of nomenclature. 
They differ, however, as to the genotype, for which, to all appear- 
ance, Clark adopts a species not mentioned by Leske. Such a 
course is not permissible unless the later name can be shown to 
have supplanted one of Leske's names. Prof, Clark does, in fact, 
attempt to justify his choice by stating that his genotype, Cidarites 
trihidoides Lara., was included in Cidaris papillata Leske, and that 
it was selected as type by Brandt. The former statement is correct 
in so far as Lamarck himself referred to Leske's figure of Cidaris 
pnjnllata, var. minor Leske, a reference which was accepted by 
A. Agassiz (1872, ' llevision,' p. 99). It therefore appears that 
Clark, no less than Docderlein, regards Cidaris papillata Leske as 
containing the genotype ; indeed, lie says that all the rest of 
Leske's twenty-eight species have been removed to other families. 

Taking, then, Leske as author of Cidaris, let us apply the rules of 
nomenclature. Those relating to the determination of a genotype 
are now summarized in Article 30 of the International Code f. 
Applying them in order of precedence, as we are definitely instructed 
to do, we are checked first by {d): " If a genus, without originally 
designated or indicated type, contains among its original species one 
possessing the generic name as its specific or subspecific name, either 
as valid name or synonym, that species or subspecies becomes ipso 
facto type of the genus." Now the opening sentences of Leske's 
" Additaraentum ad Kleinii § 21. Species 11. Cidaris mauri 
&c." (1778, p. 125) run thus: " Spec. XIX. Cidaris papillata. 
Tab. VII. Non possum non, quin hie iterum cum Klkinio et 
LiNNEO sentiam, qui ad unam speeiem referunt omnes varietates, 
quia alii, praesertim CI. Van Phelsim, species esse existimant. 
Nominatur haec species a Linneo: Echinus cidaris, hemispha>rico 
depressus ; ambulacris quinis repandis linearibus ; areis alternatim 
bifariis. S. N. p. 1103. sp. 8. Mus. L. vi. p. 710. Faun. Sv^c. 
p. 513, n. 2118." The diagnosis quoted is that of Syst. Nat. ed. x. 
(1758). It would not have been possible for Leske to say more 
plainly or precisely that he regarded his G. pnpiUaia and Echinus 
cidaris Linn, as synonymous. It seems to follow that, whichever 
name bo accepted, this species must be the genotype by rule ((/). 

♦ 1778. ' Additamenta ad Klein ' : Lip^ire. pp. xvii, 74, et sqq. 

t See 'Sciencf',' n. s. xxvi. p. 621 ; Oct. 1907. Also J. A..\llen, 1007, 
" A List of the Genera and Subgenera of North-American I5iiiis,'' Bull. 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. xxiv. pp. 1-50. 

286 Miscellayieous. 

Since C. papMata Leske is merely a substitute for the pre-Linnean 
andnou-bionominal '^Cidaris Mammillata Mauri" oiKlQin, Lambert 
also may be claimed as a supporter of this view. Happily, then, our 
four tweutieth-century authorities seem to be essentially in agree- 
ment with the course that the rule imposes. It is with the next 
step that trouble begins. 

It is generally admitted that C'idaris papillata Leske is a 
composite species. Leske himself (1778, pp. 125 et sqq.) divided it 
into four varieties : I. major, Tab. vii. a, Tab. xxxix. f. 2 ; 11. minor. 
Tab. vii. B, Tab. xxxvii. f. 3; III. spinis conoideis, a Scilla 
tab, xxii. f. 1. 2, 3 delineata ; IV. spinis claviculatis. The last 
includes only various fossils not regarded as truly characteristic. 
The first three varieties were placed by Lamarck * in three fresh 
species : I. Cidarites imperialis ; II. C. trihuloides ; III. C. hystria:. 
Those references are on the whole accepted in A. Agassiz (1872, 
'Revision,' pp. 151, 99, 105 respectively). Since Lamarck made 
no other mention of Cidaris papillata, it seems to foUow that one 
of his three species must fall into the synonymy of that species. 
The obvious course would have been to take Yar. I. as the type of 
C. pajnllata ; but, as things happened, the name papillata became 
generally attached to a form that appears to represent C. hystrix. 
Therefore it is safest to follow A. Agassiz and others in regarding 
C. hystrix as a synonym of C. papillata ; otherwise there would be 
terrible confusion. 

We have, then, three species representing the original C. papillata, 
viz. I. imperialis Lam., II. tribuloides Lam., III. jjajyillata Leske. 
The last of these must be regarded as carrying on the traditions of 
the species, so to speak. Its holotype is the specimen from Sicilian 
seas lisured as a " Hj-strix " by Scilla (1759, ' De corporibus marinia 
lapidescentibus,' ed. 2, tab. xxii. f. 1, 2, 3). Now, as we have 
already agreed that C. papillata Leske is the type of C'idaris, and 
as we have now defined C. papillata Leske, it might seem that the 
question was settled. Not so ! 

Let it be remembered that the reason for selecting C. papillata 
as genotype of Cidaris was its alleged synonymy with Echinus 
cidaris Linn. But if the species be thus divided, the hegemony 
might be held to lie with that division which corresponded to 
Echinus cidaris. Sere a totally different difficulty arises. Mortensen, 
for instance, professing to follow Loven, identifies Echinus cidaris 
with Cidarites baculosa Lam., and therefore regards the last- 
mentioned species as the genotype, although no one has hitherto 
supposed it to represent a Leskian species. This course, however, 
depends on a misreading of Loven, who has discussed the meaning 
of Echinus cidaris at great length f- Loven shows that the type- 
specimen of Echinus cidaris Linn., 1752, belongs to Cidarites 
baculosa Lam. We, however, are concerned not with this, but 
with Echinus cidaris Linn., 1758. Here the diagnosis was altered 
from " globoso-depressus " to " hemisphaerico-depressus," and 

* 1816. ' Hist. nat. Anim. sans Verlebres,' iii. pp. 54-56. 
t 1887. " Echinoidea descr. by Linnfeus," Bih. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. 
Hand], xiii. Afd. 4, no. 5, pp. 138 et syy. 

Misfiellaneous. 'l>il 

references were added to C'idaris mammillata mauri of Klein and to 
Echinometra digitata 2 of Humph, both of which are included by 
Leske in C. pajjilluta. Loviii therefore supposes {op. cit. p. 149) 
that " the species which caused him [Linnaius] to alter the word 
' globoso' to ' heraispliairico ' was , . . the C'idaris papillata Leske." 
This conclusion is confirmed, in Loven's opinion, by the change of 
habitat from the East Indies (1752) to the Ocean (175S) and the 
Norwegian Ocean (1761, ' Fauna Suecica '). The reasoning seems 
inevitable that Echinus cidaris Linn., 1758, was rightly regarded 
by Leske as synonymous with his Oidaris papillata, and that, to 
bo more precise, it corresponded with Lcske's var. 3, which now is 
the restricted and universally accepted C. papillata. So clear is 
this that it is really hard to see why this species should not be 
called Cidaris cidaris (lAna.). 

I have worked out this conclusion quite independently ; it agrees 
with the conclusion reached by Doederlein in 1906. Clark objects 
to it because Dorocidaris A. Ag. thus becomes a synonym of 
Cidaris ; and he correctly says that Doederlein does not discuss 
the divisions of C. papillata Leske. The preceding discussion 
shows, however, that the same conclusion would have followed had 
he done so. Clark, it is true, comes to different conclusions in the 
process, but he does not use the rule of type by tautonomy. 
Doederlein appears to have acted on the principle of elimination, 
which, so far as I can see, does lead to his conclusion. Clark 
applies in addition rule (ry) of the International Code, or Type by 
subsequent designation. This certainly takes precedence of 
elimination, and it will be interesting to see how Clark applies it 
— ignoring for the moment the Tautonomy rule, 

Clark says (p. 174) " Brandt, who was the first writer to 8ubdi\ 'de 
Cidaris, distinctly states that trihnloides is the type of Cidaris s. str.'' 
I suppose that Clark is here referring to J. F. Brandt (1^35) f, 
but, if so, he can hardly be speaking by the book. Brandt did 
nothing of the kind. Here are his actual words (p. 67) : — 
" Genus Cidarites Lamk. Subgen. [nov.] Phyllaoanthus Br. . . , 
(p. 68) Sectio B. Nob.* Spec. 1. Cidarites (Phyllacanihus) dubia 
Br. [sp. nov.]. . . . Sectioni B. e spccierum cognitarum numero ad- 
jungenda?, C. imperialis Lamk. . . . C. hystrix. . . . C. geranioidcs 
. . , C. pistillaris. . , . [Footnote]* Sectio A sou prima subgeneris 
riiyllacanthus. . . . amplectitur Cidaritidem tribuloidem Lamarckii 
aliasque affines." It is clear that Brandt mentions no species of 
Cidaris a. str. Brandt ; that every species mentioned is referred by 
him to his new sul)genus Phyllacanthus ; that he fixes on no type ; 
tliat, though the species wliich, owing to our conventions with 
regard to footnotes, comes highest on the page is C. dabla, yet the 
species that comes first in reading, in actual writing, and in sense 
is the only species named under Sectio A, viz. CidarittS {P/ii/Uu- 
canthas) tnhaloides. I do not hero propose to en(]uire whether 
any valid reason exists for considering C. duhia { = imperialis 
Lam.) as genotype of Pliyllacanihus : the question does not couccrn 

t ' Prodromus descript. anim. nb TL Mertensio , . . observ. . .' Fftsc. i. 

288 Miscellaiieoua. 

the subject of this paper. But I do deny that Brandt made C. trihu- 
loides genotype of a restricted Cidaris. 

If the rule of first reviser is to be applied, we must turn to a 
paper quoted by many, but entirely overlooked by Prof. Clark. 
J. E. Gray (1825, Ann. Philos, xxvi. p. 420) fixed the genotype as 
C. imperialis Lam., still further defining that species by a reference 
to Klein, t. vii. f. A. This, it will be remembered, was the type of 
Leske's Var. I. major ; it was also the first species mentioned by 
Lamarck; therefore on both counts Gray was only following the 
dictates of common-sense in taking it as the genotype. Under the 
rules of nomenclature, however, this choice can be justified only by 
reinstating papillata as the trivial name of this species, leaving 
hystrix to Leske's Var. III. This conclusion would, of course, cut 
out PhyllacantJms, a much older genus than Dorocidaris. 

This line of argument need not, however, be pursued further. 
Cidaris imperialis, by whatever name it be callel, is excluded by 
the previous application of the tautonomy rule. The genotype of 
Cidaris by that rule is C. papillata = Echinus cidaris. 

Among the results, " unfortunate " or otherwise, of this rule are 
the retention of PhyUacaiithus, tlie suppression of the name Doro- 
cidaris, and its replacement by Cidaris transferred from the section 
to which it is applied by Clark (viz. C. metularia, C. tnbuloides, 
C. ihoiiarsi), as well as from that to which it is applied by Mortensen 
(viz. the same three species -f- 1'. cffi'iis, C reini, and C. bacidosa, of 
which the two former are referred by Clark to Tretocidaris Morten- 
sen, and the last to PhyllucaatJius). For a genus including all 
these species and others Doederlein (1906) has revived the name 
Cidarites Lamarck, without fixing on a genotype. In Clark's 
protest against this resurrection I heartil)' join, for the simple 
reason that Leske himself used Cidarites and Cidaris indifferently, 
applying the former name to C. excavntas, C. coronalis, C. corollaris, 
C. circinuatus, and C. ovarius merely because they were fossils. 
As Clark says, Cidarites, in Lamarck's sense, " is clearly a substitute 
for, and synonym of, Cidaris." 

If a generic name be required for this section, one is already 
provided in Gymnocidaris A. Agassiz, 1863, with genotype Cidaris 

The main results of tliis enquiry may be summarized thus : — 
Cidaris Leske (synn. Cidarites Lam., Dorocidaris A. Ag.). 
Genotype, C.papillata Leske, restr. (synn. Echinus cidaris 
Linn., 1758, and Cidarites hystrix Lam.). 

Gymnocidaeis a. Ag. (synn. Cidarites restr. Doederlein, 
Cidaris restr. Clark). 

Genotype, O. metularia (Lam.). 
Phyllacanthxts Brandt (syn. Cidaris restr. Gray). 

Genotype, P. imperialis (Lam.). 

I express no opinion as to the validity or extent of these generic 




No. 4. APRIL 1908. 

XLVI. — Descriptions of some neio Species of Noctuidte from 
Peru. By HERBERT Druce, F.L.S. &c. 

All the species now described were collected by Mr. W. F. 
Rosenberg's late collector Mr. G. Ockenden. 

Fam. Noctuidge. 

Subfam. Hadtsninm. 

Miselia alhistriga, sp. n. 

Head and thorax greenish brown ; antennaj and palpi pale 
brown ; abdomen dark brown above, paler on the underside; 
a tuft of greenish hairs at the base of tlie abdomen and two 
tufts of reddisli-brown hair above the anus. Primaries dark 
brown, crossed from the costal to' the inner margin by two 
curved greenish lines ; a white spot at the end of the coll, 
the apex and outer margin mostly greenish : secondaries very 
(lark brown, the fringe paler. Underside pale brown. 

Expanse IjV inch. 

Uah. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 0000 feet {Ockenden, 
Mus. Druce). 

Miselia albistellata, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, togulic, thorax, and abdomen blackish 
brown, the underside of the abdomen and legs pale brown; 
antennas and palpi brown. Primaries pale fawu-colour, 

Ann. tD Miu/. X. Hist. Ser. {?. Vol. i. 19 

290 Mr. H. Druco on 

darkest about the middle, the base of the wing white, tlie 
costal margin spotted with white ; a small spot in the cell 
and a large one at the end of the cell, both white ; several 
white dots below the cell and along the inner margin; a sub- 
marginal row of white dots extends from the apex to the anal 
angle; the fringe pale fawn-colour: secondaries creamy- 
white, with a black spot at the end of the cell ; the fringe 
very pale fawn-colour : the underside much paler than the 
upj)erside, darkest along the costal margin of tlie primaries. 
— Female similar to the male, but the primaries much darker 
and redder brown, with all the white spots much smaller and 
more indistinct; the secondaries dark blackish brown. 

Expanse, c? 1, ? V'o vach. 

IJab. S.E. Peru, Oconeque, Carabaya, 7000 feet; Santo 
Domingo, 6000 feet {Ockenden^ Mus. Druce). 

Miselia cTirysochlora, sp. n. 

Head, collar, tegulee, and thorax pale yellowish green 
mixed with dark brown hairs ; abdomen dark brown. Pri- 
maries pale yellowish green, the costal margin spotted with 
dark brown from the base to the apex; the central part of the 
wing and the inner margin thickly covered with dark brown 
spots of various sizes ; a curved, narrow, zigzag line crosses 
the wing beyond the middle ; a submarginal row of various- 
sized dark brown spots extends from the apex to the anal 
angle ; the fringe alternately dark brown and yellowish green : 
secondaries dark brown ; the fringe yellowish green mixed 
with dark brown liairs. Underside : primaries dark brown, 
paler at the base : secondaries greyish, irrorated with dark 
brown scales to beyond the middle ; a black spot at the end 
of the cell ; the outer margin from the apex to the anal angle 
broadly dark brown ; the fringes of both wings as above. 

Expanse 1| inch. 

Hub. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, GOOO feet {Ockenden, 
Mus. Bruce). 

Miselia ignepectus, sp. n. 

Head red ; collar, tegulse, and thorax dark reddish brown ; 
abdomen above greyish brown, the sides and anus bright 
red, the underside pale brown; the legs clothed with red 
hairs. Primaries very dark brown, irrorated with grey scales; 
a rather wide olive-green band crosses the wing from the 
costal margin close to the base to the inner margin ; a large 
olive-green spot at the end of the cell, and a submarginal, 
waved, olive-green line extending from the apex to the anal 

new Species of '^octmdx from Peru. 291 

angle; the fringe greyish brown: secondaries dark brown, 
palest at the base ; the marginal line red; the fringe brown. 
Underside : j)rimaries dark brown, the costal and outer 
margins broadly banded with red ; a black line at the end of 
the cell, beyond wiiich a very indistinct dark line crosses the 
wing from the costal to the inner margin: secondaries pale 
brown, thickly irrorated with red scales; a dark submarginal 
line crosses the wing from near the apex to the anal angTe. 

Ex))anse 1^ incii. 

JJiib. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet {Ockenden^ 
Mus. Vruce). 

Miselia albitela, sp. n. 

Head, collar, tegulre, and thorax yellowish brown ; an- 
tenna3 pale brown ; abdomen greyish ; anus yellowish brown ; 
underside of abdomen and legs pale yellowish brown. Pri- 
maries dark reddish brown, yellowish brown at the base ; a 
wide (2/7 -shaped mark at the end of tlie cell and a submar- 
ginal broken band of spots extending from the apex to near 
the anal angle, both yellowish brown ; a marginal row of 
very indistinct grey spots extends from the apex to the costal 
margin ; a white angular-shaped spot below the cell, not 
reacliing the inner margin ; the fringe pale yellowish brown : 
secondaries sordid white, the outer margins broadly dusky ; 
the fringe yellowish. Underside : primaries dark blackish 
brown, the outer margin from the apex to the anal angle 
reddish ; secondaries very similar to the upperside, but 
slightly reddish. 

Expanse 1^ inch. 

IJab. Peru, Oconeque, Carabaya, 7000 feet {Ockenden, 
Mus. JJnice). 

Miselia erylhurus, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, antennre, collar, tegula3, thorax, and abdo- 
men dark brown ; the sides of the abdomen and anus reddish 
brown ; legs dark brown. Primaries dark brown ; a very 
indistinct spot in the cell and one beyond ; a row of very 
minute black dots crosses the wing from the costal to the inner 
margin; a > -shaped yellow mark below the cell and a 
submarginal row of small yellow spots extending from the 
apex to the anal angle ; the fringe dark brown : secondaries 
wliite, the aj^ex and outer margin irrorated with brown scales, 
the fringe white. Undert-ide : primaries brown; secondaries 
white. — Female very similar to the male, but with the 
secondaries dark brown, palest at the' base. 


292 Mr. H. Druce on 

Expanse, ^ Ijoj ? li inch. 

Hah. N.E. Peru, Aqualani, 10,000 feet {Ockenden, Mus. 

Allied to Miselia imitata, Mssn. 

Miselia melanoleuca, sp. n. 

Male. — Head white, antenna? black; collar white, edged with 
black ; tegnlse white, edged with black ; thorax and base of 
abdomen white ; abdomen and underside of thorax black; legs 
spotted with white; anus greyish. Primaries white, costal 
margin spotted with black ; three large black spots close to the 
apex ; two elongated black spots at the anal angle and a large 
elongated black spot crossed by two narrow white lines extend- 
ing from the base along the inner margin, the outer margin 
thinly irrorated with small black dots ; tlie fringe black and 
■white : secondaries white, the apex and part of the outer margin 
black. Underside of primaries black ; secondaries white, 
with the costal margin broadly black. 

Expanse 1^ inch. 

Hab. Peru, Oconeque, Carabaya, 7000 feet {Ockenden, 
Mus. Druce). 

Chabuata erythrias, sp. n. 

Female. — Head, collar, tegulae, and thorax reddish brown ; 
abdomen above dark brown, the sides and the underside and 
legs reddish brown. Primaries dark reddish brown ; a grey 
spot at the end of the cell ; the outer margin from the apex 
to the anal angle black, the marginal line pale brown ; the 
fringe black : secondaries dark brown, palest at the base. 
Underside : primaries black, the costal and outer margins 
red : secondaries reddish brown, palest on the inner margin. 

Expanse 1^ inch. 

Hab. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet [Ochenden, 
Mus. Druce). 

Hyssia ruficana, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, antennoe, collar, and tegulse reddish fawn- 
colour ; thorax grey ; abdomen dark brown ; anus and under- 
side of abdomen and legs pale brown. Primaries reddish 
fawn-colour ; a small grey spot close to the base ; two 
large grey spots about the middle of the costal margin ; two 
fine grey lines cross the wing from the grey spots to the 
inner margin ; between the grey lines on the inner margin 
are two rather large black spots; the outer margin from the 

new Species o/'Noctuidse/rom Peru. 293 

apex to the anal angle broadly banded with grey, much 
waved on the inner side ; the fringe grey : secondaries pale 

Expanse 1^ incli. 

Iloh. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet (Ockenden, 
Mus. Druce). 

Ilyssia melanopis^ sp. n. 

Male. — Head, collar, tegulaj, thorax, and abdomen dark 
brown ; antenna? daik reddish brown ; underside of thorax 
and legs blackish brown. Primaries very dark brown, 
crossed by fine broken black lines; an indistinct black spot 
at the end of tlie cell, tlie outer margin from the apex to the 
anal angle pale brown ; a submarginal black waved line 
crosses the wing from the costal margin near the apex to the 
inner margin ; tlie fringe dark brown : secondaries cream- 
colour, darkest from the apex to the anal angle ; the fringe 
yellowish white. The underside of botii wings brown, the 
primaries the darkest. 

Expanse 1^ inch. 

IJah. Peru, Oconeque, Carabaya, 7000 feet {Ockenden, 
Mus. Druce). 

IJi/ssia stenore?ia, sp. n. 

Head, antennre, collar, tegulse, and thorax dark reddish 
brown ; abdomen pale greyish brown above ; the underside of 
thorax, legs, and abdomen dark blackish brown. Primaries 
dark reddish brown, the base green ; a round green spot in 
the cell ; a large greenisii-white spot at the end of the cell, 
the inner margin pinkish brown almost from the base to the 
anal angle; a rather wide submarginal line edged with black 
extending from the apex to the anal angle olive-green ; a 
marginal row of white dots ; the fringe dark brown : second- 
aries dark brown, palest at the base; the marginal line green ; 
the fringe brown. Underside : primaries black, the apex and 
outer margin red : secondaries greyish, thickly irrorated with 
brown scales ; a black spot at the end of the cell and a very 
faint submarginal black line from the costal to the inner 

Expanse 1^ inch. 

J lab. Peru, Oconeque, Carabaya, 7000 feet {Ockenden, 
Mus. Druce). 

Jlj/asia ulivescens, sp. u, 
Male. — Head, collar, tegulaj, and thorax olive-green ; palpi 

204 ^^i- il- Driice on 

and antenna? black ; abdomen brownish black ; anus and 
underside of thorax olive-green ; legs alternately brown and 
olive-green. Primaries olive-green ; a zigzag black line 
crosses the wing near the base from the costal to the inner 
margin ; a pale square-shaped spot in the cell and a rather 
large whitish spot edged with black at the end of the cell ; a 
faint submavginal line with a few black spots about the 
middle extends from the apex to the anal angle; the fringe 
olive-green : secondaries brownish black ; the fringe olive- 
green. Underside : primaries brownish black, the costal 
maro-in and a marginal row of small spots reddish brown : 
secondaries greenish grey thickly irrorated with dark brown 
scales ; a dark marginal band extends from the apex to the 
middle of the outer margin. 

Expanse 1^^- inch. 

llah. Peru, Quinton, Carabaya, 5000 feet (OcJcenden, 
Mus. Druce). 

Hi/ssia poliorhoda, sp. n. 

Male. — Head and thorax grey ; antennge, collar, and 
tegular reddish brown; abdomen dark grey; the underside 
and the legs reddish brown. Primaries dark reddish brown, 
thickly irrorated with silver-grey scales ; a faint greyish 
spot at the end of the cell ; a dark brown submarginal line 
extends from llie apex to the anal angle ; the fringe brown : 
secondaries white, the costal margin, apex, and part of the 
outer margin clouded with brown. Underside : primaries 
black, the costal margin from the base to the apex red : 
secondaries white, the costal margin irrorated with red scales. 

Expanse 1^% inch. 

Ilah. 8.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet (^Ochenden^ 
Mus. Druce). 

Eriopyga phceostigma, sp. n. 

Mah. — Head, antennae, collar, tegulse, and thorax reddish 
brown ; abdomen black, the anal tuft reddish brown ; under- 
side of the abdomen and thorax dark brown. Primaries 
reddish brown ; a blackish-brown spot in the cell and a 
larger spot at the end of the cell, both edged with small 
black dots ; the outer margin blackish brown ; the marginal 
line pale brown ; the fringe dark brown : secondaries dark 
blackish brown ; the fringe pale brown. Underside brown ; 
primaries darker than the secondaries. — Female similar to 
the male, but very much darker in colour and with the spot 

new Species of l^octnidsa from Peru. 295 

at the end of the cell mucli paler in colour ; the underside is 
also much darker than in the male. 

Expanse, S l^ ? ^2 ^'^^^• 

Ilah. S.E. Peru, Oconeque, Carabaya, 7000 feet {Ocken- 
derif Mas. Druce). 

Eriopyga metaleuca, sp. n. 

Head, collar, tegulae, thorax, and abdomen pale greyish 
brown; aiitennaj brown. Primaries pale brown, tliickly 
irrorated vvilii scales; two greyish spots in the cell; 
a reddish subniarginal line crosses the wing from tlic apex to 
the inner margin near the anal angle ; the fringe pale brown : 
secondaries Aviiite. 

Expanse 1;^ inch. 

JJab. Peru, Quinton, Carabaya, 5000 feet (Ockenden, 
Mus. Druce). 

Eriopyga griseorufa, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, collar, teguliB, thorax, and abdomen grey ; 
antennae and palpi reddish brown ; underside of the abdomen 
and legs reddish grey. Primaries grey, shaded with reddish 
brown along the outer margin; two zigzag, fine, reddish- 
brown lines cross the wing from the costal to the inner 
margin, the first nearest the base, the second beyond the 
cell ; a faint brown dot in the cell ; the marginal line 
yellowish ; the fringe grey : secondaries pale greyish, the 
apex and outer margin the darkest. Underside : both wings 
pinkish grey. 

Expanse 1^ inch. 

Hah. Peru, Oconeque, Carabaya, 7000 feet {Ockenden, 
Mus. Druce). 

Meliana disticta, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, collar, tegulje, thorax, abdomen, and legs 
pale brown. Primaries brigiit ochreous ; 11 pale whitish line 
down the middle of the wing from the base to the outer 
margin ; a black streak below the base of the cell ; two small 
black dots at the end of the cell, several small whitish spots 
with black points close to the apex ; the outer margin spotted 
with black from the apex to the anal angle ; the fringe 
ochreous : secondaries white. 

Expanse 1^ inch. 

llah. Pcro, Quiuton, Carabaya, r>000 feet {Ockcndcny Mas. 
Druce) . 

296 Mr. H. Diuce on 

Subfara. CvcuLLiANjs. 
Dascuphxia Uchenifera, sp. n. 

Male. — Head and palpi green ; antennte black ; collar 
green, with a black line ; tegulse and thorax grej, irrorated 
with green and brown hairs ; abdomen grey, with three 
tufts of green hairs at the base ; the legs grey, banded with 
green. Primaries grey, darkest at the apex and along the 
costal margin, also thickly irrorated with small black dots ; 
two broken green bands cross the wing about the mi'ldle 
from the costal to the inner margin ; the outer and inner 
margin and a line close to base of the wing pale green ; the 
fringe grey : secondaries brownish white, darkest at the apex 
and round the outer margin ; a black spot at the end of the 
cell ; a submarginal row of brown dots extending from the 
apex to the anal angle ; the fringe brown and grey. Under- 
side of the primaries dark brown; the secondaries very 
similar to tlic upperside. — The female very similar to the 
male, but darker in colour. 

Expanse, $ 1^^, ? 1^ inch. 

Hah. Peru, Oconeque, Carabaya, 7000 feet {Ockenden, 
Mus. Druce) . 

Rhizotype confluens, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, palpi, antennse, collar, tegulse, and thorax 
dark reddish brown ; abdomen blackish brown, the anal 
tuft yellowish ; underside of the abdomen and legs pale brown. 
Primaries dark reddish brown, the costal margin from the 
base to the end of the cell pale brown streaked with black ; a 
large (_j -shaped spot at the end of the cell pale brown ; the 
outer and iimer margins pale brown ; a dark brown spot at 
the anal angle ; a pinkish-brown line crosses the wing from 
the apex nearly to the middle of the iimer margin ; the fringe 
alternately light and dark brown : secondaries dark brown. 
Underside : both wnngs pale brown, crossed by a black line 
beyond the middle. — The female similar to the male, but 
darker in colour. 

Expanse 1^ inch. 

Hab, S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet ; Oconeque, 
Carabaya, 7000 feet {Ockendeyi, Mus. Druce). 

Subfam. AcRONYCTiNM. 
Cropia viridtmicans, sp. n. 
Head, collar, tegula3, thorax, and upperside of the abdo- 

new Species q/'Noctuidse /rom Peru. 297 

men greyish brown ; antennse brown ; underside of abdomen 
and legs pale brown. Primaries green, crossed from the 
costal to the inner margin by fine brown and black lines ; a 
wide white band crosses the middle of the wing from the 
costal to the inner margin, the band is slightly clouded with 
brown at the aides and at the end of the cell ; the marginal 
line black ; the fringe dark brown : secondaries reddish 
brown ; a black-and-white dot at the anal angle and a marginal 
row of small black-and-white dots extending from the apex 
to the anal angle. Underside : both wings reddish brown. 

Expanse l), inch. 

Ilah. Ecuador, Sarayacu {Buchhy, Mus. Druce). 

Perigea p)/rosticta, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, antennas, collar, tegulse, and thorax golden 
brown; abdomen and legs black. Primaries dark brown, 
shaded with golden brown at the base, along the costal 
margin, and at the apex ; two golden-brown spots in the 
cell and a small tuft of white scales at the end of the cell ; 
the fringe dark brown : secondaries black. Underside of 
both wings dark glossy brown^ the secondaries irrorated with 
grey scales at the base. 

Expanse 1^ inch. 

IJab. S.E.'Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet {Ockenden^ 
Mus. Druce). 

Perigea ruhrifusa, sp. n. 

Head, antennae, collar, tegula3, and thorax reddish brown ; 
abdomen dull brown ; legs red and brown. Primaries dark 
reddish brown, the costal margin spotted with darker brown; 
a light spot at the end of the cell ; a waved submarginal 
line extends from the a])ex to the anal angle ; the outer 
margin spotted with black ; the fringe reddish brown : 
secondaries brnwn ; the fringe reddish. 

Expanse Ij'^^ inch. 

Ilab. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet {Ockenden, 
Mus. Druce). 

Perigea purpurea, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, collar, tegulre, and thorax purple-brown ; 
antenncC dark brown ; abdomen pale brown ; undorside of 
thorax and legs ])urple-bro\vn. Primaries purple-brown, 
streaked with white on the custal margin ; several .small 

298 Mv. II. DiMice on 

white spots at the end of the cell ; beyond the cell a series of 
black streaks ; a submargiiial row of black dots with white 
points extends from the apex to the anal angle ; the fringe 
purple-brown : secondaries pale brownish white, shaded with 
pink round the outer margin. — Female similar to male, the 
secondaries much darker. 

Expanse, (^ li, ? If inch. 

Bab. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet {Ockenden, 
Mus. Druce). 

Macapta Jiolophcea, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, palpi, antennae, collar, tegulse, thorax, and 
abdomen greyish brown ; legs brown. Primaries pale brown, 
thickly irrorated with grey and black scales ; a submarginal 
row of small black dots extends from the apex to the inner 
margin ; the fringe dark brown : secondaries similar in 
colour to primaries, but paler at the base; the fringe paler 
brown. Underside similar to the upperside, but slightly 
more red in shade. 

Expanse 1^ inch. 

Hah. Peru, Oconeque, Carabaya, 7000 feet {Ockenden); 
Huaucabamba, 6000-10,000 feet [Boettger, Mus. Druce). 

Gonodes albijissa, sp. n. 

Head, palpi, collar, tegulw, and thorax grey ; antennae 
black; abdomen above blackish, the underside and legs 
grey. Primaries : the costal half grey, the inner half fawn- 
colour ; a fine black curved line extends from the inner 
margin near the base to the end of the cell ; the wing near 
the apex dark grey ; the marginal line black ; the fringe 
pale brownish grey : secondaries grey, palest at the base ; a 
dark streak at the end of the cell; the fringe brownish white. 
Underside : primaries black, with a spot in the cell and the 
costal and outer margins all grey : secondaries yellowish white, 
a black spot at the end of the cell, beyond which a row of 
small black dots crosses the wing from the costal to the inner 
margin ; the fringe yellowish white ; the outer margin of 
both wings spotted with black. 

Expanse 1^ inch. 

Hab. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet {Ockenden, 
Mus. Druce). 

new Species 0/ Noctuidj« //y>hj Peru. 299 

Monocles kemipolm, sp. n, 

Male. — Head, palpi, collar, tegulas, and thorax pale 
brownish grey ; antennae black; abdomen above black, the 
underside and legs grey, the anal tuft yellowish brown. 
Primaries : the basal half grey, irrcrated with reddish-brown 
scales ; a black spot at the end of the cell ; a reddish-brown 
band from the end of the cell to the inner margin ; the apex 
and outer margin dark grey; the fringe brown: secondaries 
uniformly dark brown; the underside of both wings greyish 
brown, indistinctly marked with black lines. 

Expanse I inch. 

IJab. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, GOOO feet {Ockenden, 
Mus. Druce). 

Afonodes leucostigma, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, antennae, collar, tegulae, thorax, and abdomen 
brown, tegulaj tipped witli white. Primaries dark brown; a 
large black spot close to the base ; a white dot at the end of 
the cell ; a greyish-white line crosses the wing from tlie apex 
to the inner margin ; the outer margin and fringe reddisli 
brown: secondaries dull greyish brown; a dark line at the 
end of the cell. The underside of both wings pale brown. 

Expanse 4 inch. 

Hah. Peru, Oconeque, Carabaya, 7000 feet {Ockenderij 
Mus. Druce). 

Alonodes semirufa, sp. n. 

Male. — Head and antennse black ; collar, tegulfe, thorax, 
and legs brown ; abdomen black. Primaries: the basal half 
of the wing reddish brown ; beyond the cell a white line 
crosses the wing from the costal to the inner margin; beyond 
the white line the wing is dark brown, thickly irrorated with 
greyish-white scales ; a marginal row of very small reddish- 
brown spots extends from the apex to the anal angle ; the 
fringe dark brown : secondaries greyish brown. Underside 
of both wings pale brown. 

Expanse 1 inch. 

Hah. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet (Ockendcn, 
Mus. Druce). 

Monodes chionopis, sp. n. 

Blale. — Head, collar, tegulrc, and thorax pale fawn-colour, 
thickly irrorated with black scales ; antenme and abdomen 
black, the anal tuft ))ale brown ; legs blackish. Primaries 
pale fawn-colour, irrorated with black scales ; the base of the 

300 Mr, II. Druce on 

winp: black ; a large black spot close to the apex and some 
black lines on the costal margin ; a round white dot in the 
middle of the cell ; the marginal line black ; the fringe 
brown : secondaries greyish white, darkest at the apex and 
round the outer margin. Underside : primaries black, the 
outer margin from the apex to the anal angle brown : second- 
aries white, the apex black j a faint brown line crosses the 
wing below the middle. 

Expanse 1 inch. 

IJab. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet {Ockenden, 
Mus. Druce). 

Calymniodes obconica, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, antennae, palpi, collar, tegulse, thorax, and 
legs reddish brown ; abdomen black. Primaries dark reddish 
brown, marked very similar to Calymniodes leucographaj 
PInipsn., but instead of being white round the large central 
reddish-brown patcli it is greyish blue; a submarginal row of 
black spots crosses the wing from the costal to the inner margin 
near the anal angle ; the fringe reddish brown : secondaries 
white, broadly black at the apex and partly round the outer 
margin ; the fringe partly black and white. Underside : 
primaries black, the costal and outer margins reddish brown : 
secondaries wliite, wMth black spot at the end of the cell ; the 
costal margin and apex irrorated with reddish-brown scales. 

Expanse 1^ inch. 

Hah. S.E. Peru, Oconeque, Carabaya, 7000 feet ( Ocken- 
den, Mus. Druce). 

This species is allied to Calymniodes leucographa, Hmpsn., 
and Calymniodes promentona, Dogn. 

Calymniodes rhodopis, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, antenna?, palpi, collar, tegulae, and thorax 
dark brown, the base of the collar wliite ; abdomen black 
above, the underside and legs blackish brown. Primaries 
brown, irrorated with black scales ; three white zigzag lines 
cross the wing from the costal to the inner margin, the first 
close to the base, the second about the middle of the cell, and 
the third considerably beyond the cell; a round reddish- 
brown spot edged with black at the end of the cell ; an 
indistinct submarginal pale brown line extends from the apex 
to the inner margin ; a marginal row of white dots ; the 
fringe brown : secondaries white, ti)e costal margin, apex, 
and outer margin clouded with brown ; a black spot at the 

nein Species of ^oci\x\(\ai from Peru. oOl 

end of the cell. The underside greyish brown, irrorated with 
dark brown. 

Expanse 1^ inch. 

Ilah. S.E. Peru, Aqualani, 10,000 feet [Ockenden, Mus. 
Druce) . 

Cahjmniodes turcica^ sp. n. 

Male. — Head, antonnse, palpi, collar, thorax, and abdomen 
reddish brown, collar ed^^ed with light brown. Primaries 
brown, streaked with black at the base and along the costal 
margin ; the cell and a rather large square-shaped spot 
beyond dark brown; a white dot with a white line under it 
in the cell; five small white dots at the end of the cell ; the 
outer margin paler brown, with a greyish-brown, spot above 
the anal angle; the marginal line black; the fringe dark 
brown : secondaries dark brown, with a darker brown spot at 
the end of the cell ; the fringe dark brown. The underside 
pale brown, the costal margin of the primaries reddish. 

Expanse 1^ inch. 

Hab. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet [Ockenden, 
Mus. Druce). 

Calymnwdes albiorhis, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, antenna?, palpi, collar-, tegulse, tliorax, and 
abdomen dark brown ; legs black and brown. Primaries 
dark brown, crossed about the middle by a wide pale brown 
band edged on each side with a waved black line ; a white 
sijot in the cell and two white lines at i\\Q end of the cell ; 
the costal margin streaked with greyish-brown lines; a sub- 
marginal pale brown line extends from the apex to the anal 
angle ; the fringe dark brown : secondaries greyish white, 
clouded with brown at the apex and round the outer margin. 

Expanse 1 inch. 

Ilab. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet (Ockenden, 
Mus. JDruce). 

Chytonix chLrophila, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, palpi, coHar, tegulw, thorax, and abdomen 
pale green ; antennae, underside of thorax, and abdomen 
brown ; legs brown, banded with black. Primaries pale 
green, the costal margin spotted with brown and white ; a 
large V-shaped brown mark about the middle of the costal 
margin ; a brown spot about the middle of the outer margin 
and one at the anal angle ; a waved white line crosses the 
wing from the costal margin to the anal angle; the outer 

302 071 ne7o Species of Noctuidsi from Peru. 

margin spotted witli black; tlie fringe brown: secondaries 
blackish brown, the fringe green. Underside pale brown. 

p]xpanse I5 inch. 

IJab. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet (Ockenden, 
Alus. Druce). 

Leiicosicjma uncifera, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, collar, tegulee, and thorax pinkish brown ; 
abdomen and legs brown, the anal tuft reddish ; antenna) 
dark brown. Primaries reddish brown, irrorated with white 
scales; a large white mark at the end of the cell and two 
white waved lines cross the wing from the costal to the 
irmer margin, the first line at the end of the cell, the second 
beyond, edged with black on the inner side ; the outer 
margin spotted with white; the fringe brown: secondaries 
greyish white, clouded with brown at the apex. Underside 
pinkish white. 

Expanse 1 inch. 

Bab. Peru, La Oroya, Carabaya, 3000 feet {Ockenden, 
Mus. Druce) . 

Neocalymnia obconica, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, antennje, palpi, collar, tegulse, thorax, 
abdomen, and legs brown. Primaries brown, crossed by two 
faint brown lines, the first near the base, the second beyond 
the cell ; a large reddish-brown patch on the costal margin 
near the apex ; the fringe dark brown : secondaries blackish 
brown. Underside : primaries and secondaries dark blackish 
brown, the costal margin of primaries pale browm. 

Expanse 1| inch. 

JJab. S.E. 'Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet [Ockenden^ 
Mus. Druce). 

Delta albiclava, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, antennae, palpi, collar, tegulte, thorax, and 
abdomen fawn-colour. Primaries tawn-colour, streaktd with 
darker brown ; a dark brown mark at the end of the cell ; a 
black line below the cell extending from the base almost to 
the outer margin ; a silvery-white streak below the black 
line ; the veins black : secondaries fawn-colour, palest at the 
base ; the fringe brown. Underside : both wings pale brown. 

Expanse l.\ inch. 

J lab. N. Peru, Huancabamba, 6000-10,000 feet {Mas. 

On Mammals from Northern GozaJand dr. ;»03 

Acror'iodes diplolopha, sp. n. 

Mah. — Head, palpi, and antenna dark reddish brown ; 
collar and tegulse greyish brown ; thorax, abdomen, and legs 
greyish. Primaries dark brown, shading to light reddish 
brown on the inner half of the wing; a large brown spot 
edged with white at the end of the cell ; the costal margin 
streaked with black ; a pale greyish band extends from the 
apex to the anal angle ; the marginal line black ; the fringe 
alternately light and dark brown : secondaries cream-colour, 
broadly bordered with black ; the fringe pale brown. Under- 
side : primaries blackish brown; secondaries similar to the 

Ex):»anse 1|- inch. 

J lab. Peru, Oconeque, Carabaya, 7000 feet {Ockenden, 
Miis. Druce). 

Eriopus leucotoma, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, antennae, palpi, collar, tegulse, and thorax 
dark reddish brown ; abdomen blackish brown; legs reddish 
brown. Primaries reddish brown ; a darker brown line 
crosses the wing about the middle from the costal to the inner 
margin ; a large dark brown spot at the end of the cell ; 
three fine white lines cross the wing from the costal to the 
inner margin ; the marginal line black, edged with white on 
the inner side ; the fringe reddish brown : secondaries 
blackish brown; the fringe reddish brown. Underside: 
primaries brown, reddish along the costal margin : second- 
aries reddish brown ; a submarginal line of small black dots 
extending from the apex to the anal angle. 

Expanse 1^ inch. 

J Jab. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet {Ockenden, 
Mti.^. Druce). 

Allied to Eriopus Jloridensis, Guen. 

XLVII. — A List of Mammals collected by Mr. C. F. M. Swi/n- 
nerton in Northern Oazaland (Portu(fuese East Afric.i) 
and the Melsetter District of Rhodesia. By K. C 

The Chirinda Forest, in or near which ^Ir. Swynnerton 
largely made his collection, is an isolated patch of forest of 
quite small extent situated in the Melsetter District of 

304 Mr. 11. C. Wroughton on 

Rhodesia, on the border of Portuguese East Africa, and about 
150 miles south of Umtali on the Salisburj-Beira Railway, 

Althougli for the most part the specimens composing this 
collection belong to known forms, yet they seem to be of 
considerable interest from the point of view of distribution. 
Thus the Oalago, Petrodrormcs, and Mungoose are the same 
as those of the Zambesi Valley, and the local form of 
A. pumilio is the same as that of Rhodesia, while the Vley 
rat is identical with that of the Zoutpansberg district of the 
Transvaal. Again, the Chirinda monkey is Cercopithecus 
albogularis beirensis, while the Cricetomys differs from the 
Beira form and agrees with that from Inhambane ; but 
the new form of Funisciurus ■palliatus described, though 
distinct, is, in colour-pattern at least, closely allied to the 
Zululand and Nyasa forms and quite different from F. sponsus, 
the form of the coast country from Inhambane to Beira and 

1. Cercopithecus albogularis beirensis, Poc. 

The present specimen approaches perhaps nearest to C. alb. 
beirensis than to typical C. albogularis from Nyasa, but the 
distinguishing characteristics are much less marked than in 
the series from Beira in the Rudd Collection on which the 
local race was based. 

2. Papio cynocephalus, Geoff. 

Sclater, in his ' Mammals of South Africa,' seems to fi.K 
the Zambesi as the southern limit of the long-legged yellow 
baboon, but the present specimen and those in the Rudd 
Collection from Inhambane show that this is not so. 
Mr. Grant tells me in his experience the Limpopo River is 
approximately the frontier-line between P. porcarius and 
P. cgnocephalus. 

3. Galago crassicaudatus, Geoff. 

The specimens are quite like those in the Rudd Collection 
from the Gorongoza District, Portuguese E. Africa. 

4. Epomopihorus crypturus, Pet. 

5. TlJiinoloplius augur, K, Anders. 

This is most probably Andersen's subspecies zambesiensis. 

6. Pefrodromiis tetradactylus, Pet. 

Indistinguishable from specimens from Beira in the Rudd 

Mammals from Northern Gazaland (&c. 305 

7. Grocidura flavescens, I. Geoff. 

8. Crocidura martensi, Dobs. 

9. Myosorex tenuis^ Thos. & Scliw. 

The type locality of this species is Zimrbron. 

10. Pmcilogale sp. (juv.). 

11. Mungos cauui, Sm. 

Quite like specimens fi-om Mashonalaud. 

12. Viveri'a civetta^ Sclireb. 

13. Genetta ruhiginosa, Puch. 

H. Funisciurus mutabilts, Pet. 

The typical habitat of this species is the southern part of 
the Portuguese province of Mozambique ; in the iludd 
Collection it is represented by specimens from Beira and 
Gorongoza, and has been received from N.E. lihodesia and 

15. Funisciurus palliatus sioynnertoni, subsp. n. 

A dark-coloured race of F. palliatus. 

Size about as in typical F. palliatus. 

Fur fairly long (16 mm. on back) and soft. 

General colour above grizzled black and buff, below 
cinnamon-rufous ; individual hairs of underfur on the back 
basally black for "^ their length, then bright buff with minute 
black tips ; longer hairs black, with one or more buff" rings ; 
individual hairs of belly with very sliort black bases, then 
bright orange-rufous. Face coloured like back, cheeks 
cinnamon-rufous. Tail almost black, suffused witli rufous, 
the individual hairs basally whitish, then black with a buff 
ring, terminal half ferruginous. Feet and hands chestnut- 

Skull slightly shorter and markedly narrower than in 
F. sponsiiSf and markedly smaller in all ways than either 
typical /''. palliatus or its Zululand race ornatus. 

Dimensions : — 

Head and body 200 mm. (circ.) ; tail 200 (circ.) ; liind 
foot 49 ; ear 10. 

Ann. cfc Mac/. iV. IJist. Ser. 8. Vol. i. 20 

306 On Mammals from Northern Gazaland d:c. 

Skull : greatest length 46 ; greatest breadth 26 ; inter- 
orbital breadth 12 ; basilar length 37 ; diastema 11 ; upper 
molar series (exclusive of supplementary anterior molar) 8 ; 
bulliB 9-5. 

Hah. Chirinda Forest, N.E. Transvaal. 

Type. Adult male. B.M. no. 6. 10. 6. 7. 

The long series obtained by Mr. Swynnerton are remarkably 
even in their general colouring. The colour-pattern is that 
of F. paUiatas and F. p. ornatus, but the complete absence 
of ferruginous colourino^ on the face, the dark chestnut feet 
and hands, and its smaller size distinguish it from these at a 
glance, while the totally different colouring separates it from 
F. sponsus, which it closely approaches in size. 

16. Mus microdo7i, Pet. 

17. Arvicanthis pumilio dilectus, de Wint. 

Mr. de Winton based A. dilectus on specimens collected by- 
Mr. Darling at Mazoe in Mashonaland, and externally these 
specimens are identical ; but I place them with some hesitation 
in this subspecies, for the skulls are too damaged to be any 

18. Arvicanthis dorsalis, Sm. 

19. Pelomys fallaa:. Pet. 

First obtained by Peters in S. Mozambique. 

20. Otomys irroratus cupreus^ Wrought. 

The solitary individual is indistinguishable from the Rudd 
Collection specimens from the Zoutpansberg District of the 

21. Acomys selousi, de Wint. 

The specimen is in bad condition and Its skull is missing. 

22. Leggada minutoides, Sm. 

23. Dendromus j)U7nilio, Wagn. 

24. Thamnojnys arborariiis, Pet. 
Unfortunately the skulls are damaged or missing. 

25. Cricetomys gamhianus adventor, Thos. & Wrought. 

Mr. Swynnerton's specimens are distinctly more closely 
allied to the Inhambane race (adventor) than to the one from 
Gorongoza {cunctat07-) . 

II \v. 

On some Species 0/ Leptocheirus. 307 

26. Georychus darlingi, de Wint. 

The specimen is young, but I tliink I have correctly 
allotted it to the Rhodesian species rather than to the much 
larger G, beirce. 

27. Lepus saxatilis zuluensis, Thos. & Sch 

28. Cephalophus monticola, Thunb. 

XLVIir. — Some Species of Leptocheinis, a Genufi of 
Amphipoda. By Canon A. M. NoRMAX, M.A., D.O.L., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 

[Plates Xir. & XIII.] 

In a work published in 1906 on the Crustacea of Devon and 
Cornwall * the four species then known as denizens of the 
eastern side of the North Atlantic were described, and three 
of them were figured. Since that time two other undescribed 
species have come into my iiands, one of which has been 
found in brackish water in Norfolk by Mr. Robert Gurney, 
who has placed it in my hands for description, and a single 
specimen of the other has been found by me among material 
which 1 dredged in 1880 in the Fosse de Cap Breton, in the 
Bay of Biscay. These two species I now describe, and 
notice the seventh species known on the western side of the 
Atlantic, namely Leptockeirus pinguis of Stirapson. 

Leptocheinis suhsalsus, sp. n. (PI. XII. figs. 1-6.) 

The first segment of the urosome has its hinder margin 
smooth. The secondary appendage of the antennule (fig, 1) 
consists of only a single joint, winch is not longer tiian the 
first joint of tiie filament, which latter is 13-jointed. The 
first gnathopod (fig. 2) has the coxa (epimera) of nearly 
oblong shape, the extremity broad and very obtusely rounded ; 
the propodos is much shorter than the carpus ; widening from 
its base to its wide transverse extremity. The finger of 
equal length with the palm. Second gnathopod (fig. 3) has 
the basal joint very long, equalling in length the whole of 
the rest of the limb; the setaj on the hinder margin of the 

♦ ' The Crustacea of Devon aud Cornwall,' by Canon A. M. Norman, 
F.R.S. &c., and Thomas Scott, LL.D., F.L.S. 190(3. William Weslev 


308 Canon A. M. Norman on 

wrist and band are short and stiff, the finger in form of a 
nail, about one third as long as the hand. The first pergeopod 
(fig. 4) has the nieros unusually expanded for the genus, the 
carpus short, not exceeding half the length of the preceding 
joint, itself nearly as broad as long, the propodos is somewhat 
longer, the nail rather more than half as long as the propodos. 
The propodos of the last perseopods (fig. 5) is much narrower 
than the preceding joint and has a few short seta3 both on 
the front and hinder margins. The uropods (fig. 6) are 
I'urnished with only a few spines, and those of small size. 

Length 5 mm. 

This species has been found by l\Ir. Robert Gurney in 
brackish water in some of the rivers connected with the 

Leptocheirus lispinofius, sp. n. 
(PI. XII. figs. 7-9 ; PI. XIII. Hgs. 1-3.) 

The first segment of the urosome has a strong and acute 
angular backward projection on each side (PI. Xlll. fig. 3), but 
no central spine-process. The antennules have their secondary 
appendage (PI. XII. fig. 7) five-jointed and equal in length to 
three joints of the flagellum. The first gnathopod (PI. XIII. 
fig. 1) has the coxa widening from the base and distally very 
widely rounded ; the basal joint is stout, the carpal and pro- 
])odal joints subequal in length, the former being only very 
slightly longer than the latter, which is subovate, widest in 
the middle; the palm rounded off and not distinctly defined; 
the finger is longer than the extremity of the propodos, it has 
its inner face serrulated and minutely ciliated. The second 
gnathopod (PI. XIII. fig. 2) has the coxa unusually small for 
the genus, not reaching to as much as half the length of the 
basos ; this last joint is very long, nearly equalling the whole 
of the rest of the limb; the propodos is not quite as long as 
the carpus ; the finger is nail-formed and scarcely curved, 
in length it is about equal to one third of the propodos. The 
first per£eopod (PI. XII. fig. 8) has the meros of equal breadth 
throughout, and it is as long as tlie basal joint ; tiie carpus is 
rather more than half tiie length of the meros ; the propodos 
and finger gradually attenuate from the base of the former to 
the acute extremity of the latter. The last peraeopod (PI. XII. 
fig. 9) has the propodos produced^ half as long again as the 
carpus; remarkably parallel-sided, with scarcely any spines 
or setse except at the base of the nail. Uropods (PI. XIII. 
fig, 3) with numerous spines of considerable size, those of 
second pair stronger than in any other species known to me 
except J-j. jn'losiis (Zaddach)=Z. hirmtimanus^ Bate. 

fiome Species of Lej)toclieirus. 309 

Length 10 mm. 

A single specimen was procured by me in 1880 (July 9), 
wlien dredging with my late friends Dr. Jeffreys and the 
Marquis dc Folin in the Fosse de Cap Breton, Bay of Biscay, 
in 35-60 fathoms. 

Tiie chief characteristics of tliis species are the long 
secondary appendage of the antennules, the form and size of 
the coxa of the first and second gnathopods, the spine-formed 
process on the side of the first segment of the urosome, and 
the strongly formed spines of the second uropods. 

Leptocheirua pinguin (Stimpson). 
(PI. XIII. rigs. 4-8.) 

18o3. Ptilocheirus pinffuis, Stimpson, Invert. Grand Manan, p. .'iB. 
1862. Protomedeia pinguis, Bate, Cat. Aniphip, Crust, p. 170 pi. xxxi. 

fig. 2. 
18(52. Protomedeia Jimhriata, Bate, /. c. p. 169, pi. xxxi. fij^. 1. 
1873. Ptilocheirui pinyuis, Vervill, U.S. Comiu. Fish and Fisheries, 

p. 561. 
1893. Leptocheirus pinguis, Delia Valle. Gamraarini del Golfo di 

Napoli, p. 432, pi. Ivi'i. figs. 1-3. 
1906. Leptocheirus pim/uis, Stebbing, Das Tierreich, Amphipoda, 

I, Garaniaridea, p. 627. 

The cephalon is about equal in length to the first two 
segments of the mesosome; the first and second segments of 
the urosome have each a spine-point situated on both sides of 
the centre of the dorsum, and those of the second scguient are 
accompanied by a cluster of short stiff setae. The telsoa is 
subtriangular, the apex forming a very obtuse angle, the 
breadth greatly exceeding the length ; near the lateral 
margins are groups of short stiff setae similar in character to 
those of the second segment of the urosome ; all the segments 
of the urosome are short and closely crowded together. The 
accessory appendage of the antennules (PI. XIII. fig. •!) con- 
sists of six to eight joints, and equals in length the first three 
joints of the fiagellum. The coxa (or epimera) of thegnatho- 
pods and following pera^opods have their hinder margin beset 
with wcll-develo|)ed spines (see figures) : that of the first 
gnathopod is small, linguiform, narrowed, rounded at the extre- 
mity ; that of the second gnathopod is very large, its length 
not much exceeding its breadth. The first gnathopod (fig. 5) 
has tiic propodos subequal in length to the carpus and slightly 
widening from tiie base to the extremity, where the ])alin is 
directly transverse; the finger is finely denticulated and 
exactly fits the slightly convex shape and the length of the 
palm, in the second gnathopods ((ig. 6) the basal joint has 
a length equal to the following joints to the middle of the 

310 On some Species of Leptocheirus. 

propodos ; tlie propodos is one third shorter than tlie carpus ; 
the nail only sliglitly bent, equal in length to one third of 
the propodos. Tlie first perseopods (fig. 7) have the meros 
about one third longer than the carpus and equal in length to 
the gradually tapering propodos ; the nail is long and slender 
and is as long as two thirds of the propodos. The last 
perffiopods (fig. 8) have the propodos strong, with setae on both 
sides, and only slightly longer than the preceding joint. The 
uropods are furnished with spines of moderate size. 

The male differs considerably from the female in the 
anterior part of the body. The first segment of the meso- 
some is as long as the head and about twice as long as the 
following segment. The first gnathopods have the coxa of 
much larger size and quite different shape, it being rhom- 
boidal in outline ; the gnathopod itself is much more deve- 
loped than in the female, larger and longer ; and the palm of 
the propodos is slightly concave instead of very slightly 
convex, and is furnished with a short, stumpy, strong spine 
at its commencement. The coxa of the second gnatiiopods 
is largely developed and extends downwards beyond those of 
adjoining limbs. 

Length 15 mm. 

1 am indebted to Prof. S. I. Smith for specimens of this 
species from Long Island and also from Vineyard Sound. As 
regards distribution he writes {I. c.) : — " Common on the 
whole coast of New England upon muddy bottoms, and 
north to Labrador. In depths it extends down to 150 fathoms, 
and probably much farther." 

The following diagnostic characters of the North-Atlantic 
species of Leptocheirus may be useful : — 

Coxae (epimera) of gnathopods and following segments 

having their hinder margin furnished with spines. . pinguis. 
Coxae without such spines 2. 

2. Finger of second gnathopods unguiform 3. 

Finger of second gnathopods stiliform, tipped with 

setae 6. 

3. First segment of urosome with spine-processes on 

hinder margin 4. 

First segment of urosome without spine-processes .... 5. 

4. A central and two lateral spine-processes guttatus. 

No central, but two lateral spine-processes bispinosus. 

5. Nail of posterior gnathopods cleft pilosus. 

Nail of posterior gnathopods simple, not cleft subsalsus. 

6. Coxa of first gnathopods very small, terminating in a 

fine point della vnllei *. 

Coxa of tirst gnathopods quadrate, front corner scarcely 

produced pecthiatus. 

* della rallei, Ste\)hing, = Proto7nedeia fasciata, Costa (nee Kroyer). 

On new Species o/Tabani. 311 


Plate XIL 

Fiff. 1. Leptocheirus subsalsus, sp. n. Antenuules and antennea. 

Fig. 2. „ ,, First ^'nathopod. 

Fig. 3. „ ., Second gnathopod. 

Fig. 4. „ „ First peiieopod. 

Fig.b. „ ,, Last peraeopod, terminal joints. 

Fig. 6. ,, „ Urosonie. 

Fig. 7. Leptocheirus bispinoius, sp. n. Secondary appendage ofantennula. 

Fig. 8. „ „ Plrst peneopod. 

Fig. 9. „ „ Last perseopod, terminal joints. 

Plate XIIL 

Fig. I. Leptocheirus bisj)inosus,H-p.n. First <rnathopod. 

Fig. 2. „ „ Second gnathopod. 

Fig. 3. „ „ Urosonie. 

Fig. 4. Leptocheirtis pinguis,Siim]^aon. Secondary appendage of antennule. 

Fig. 5. „ „ First gnathopod. 

Fig. 6. „ „ Second gnatnopod. 

Fig. 7. „ „ First periBopod. 

Fig. 8. ,, „ I^ast perajopod, terminal joints. 

XLIX. — Deacriptions of Thirty new Sperus o/Tabani /re?//* 
Africa and Madagascar. By Gertkude Ricardo. 

[Concluded from p. 278.] 

Tahanus tritceniatus, ? , sp. ii. 

One female (type) from Bailundo, Angola, Dec. 1904- 
Ja.i. 1905 {Dr. F. C. WeUmai^), 1906. 139; one female 
from l^ilie, Angola, Dec. 1904 (/);•. F. C. JVellman), 
1906. 139. 

A very small black species nearly allied to T. gratus^ 
Loew, from which it is further distinguished by the shape 
of the middle callus, which is larger, occupying nearly 
the whole width of the forehead, and almost square, with its 
anterior and posterior borders often irregular, blackish brown; 
in T. grains it is much smaller and narrower oblong in shape. 
Its .«mall size will distinguish it at first sight, the type 
measuring 8 mm., the other female oidy 6^ mm. 

Abdomen with three grey stripes, the middle one attaining 
the sixth segment, tlie side ones the fourth segment, but 
sometimes ending before this. Antennie reddish ; the first 
joint greyish with black-haired upper angle, the third blackish 

312 Miss G. Elcardo on 

or brown at tip. Eyes witli two stripes at least. Thorax 
witli s^'ey stripes. Frontal callus brown, sinning, slightly 
]irotiiberant, occupying whole width of head and connected 
by a short line with middle callus. Forehead grey, with 
black pubescence towards vertex. Legs reddish. Wings 
quite clear. 

Tahanus unitceniatus, $ , sp. n. 

Type (female) and another female from Pungwe Valley, 
S.E. Africa, 1896 (G. A. K. Marshall), 96. 84, at the 
fortieth mile-peg from commencement of Beira Railway ; 
one female from Wau, Bahr-el-Ghazal, Egyptian Soudan, 
25. vii. 1905 {per Dr. A. Balfour), "at light!" 

A species probably nearly related to T. unilineatus, Loew, 
from Mozambique, but distinguished from it by the redder 
abdomen, lighter fore tibiae, the more slender palpi, the tri- 
angular frontal callus, and the larger size (13 mm.). It is a 
narrow-bodied reddish species, witli a median white stripe on 
the abdomen and wings almost clear. 

Head small, broader than the thorax. Face reddish, 
covered with grey tomentum and with short scanty white 
pubescence; beard white. Palpi yellow, thickly covered 
with black hairs, long and narrow, only slightly broader at 
the base, ending in an obtuse point. Antennse bright red, 
the extreme apex black; the first joint short, broad, with a 
few black hairs ; the second small, cap-shaped, with black 
hairs on its upper angle ; the third with an obtuse tooth. 
Forehead about four times as long as it is broad and the 
same width throughout, reddish with some little grey tomen- 
tum ; the callus shining red-brown, convex, oval, becoming 
narrower at its lower end, whence proceeds a narrow short 
raised line, which widens to a spindle-shaped callus ; from the 
vertex a narrow black line proceeds in two branches sur- 
rounding this last. Eyes with no markings. Thorax reddish 
brown, with traces of grey tomentum and of three stripes, 
the sides reddish with grey tomentum. Abdomen narrow, 
reddish brown, with a greyish-white median stripe reaching 
the fifth segment, the apex black, the segmentations very nar- 
rowly white, the pubescence on dorsum mostly black ; under- 
side testaceous with a black apex, in the other female it is 
very largely black. Legs reddish, the femora (especially the 
fore femora) blackish, the fore tibiae blackest at their a})ex, 
and fore tarsi black. Wings hyaline, the stigma yellowish, 
the veins yellowish brown (in the other female the fore 
border has a very slight tinge of yellow) ; the first posterior 
cell not narrowed. 

new Species o/Tabani. 313 

Talanus conspicuus, ? , sp. n. 

Tj'pe and two otlier females from Yoiuti, Juba River, 
about 20 miles from moutli, E. African Protectorate, Feb. 
1905 (Major L. 11. R.Pope Hennessey). " Flew into cabin 
of steam launch." 

A handsome medium-sized species, easily distinguished 
by its large size, yellow legs and antennse, and by the light 
yellow abdomen with only one grey median stripe hardly 
bordered by any darker colour, and lastly by its striped thorax. 

Length 19 mm. One specimen measures only 16 mm. 

Head large, wider than the thorax. Face reddish, covered 
with dense white tomentum, so that it appears whitish, with 
long white hairs below the antennEe; beard white. Palpi 
large, white, with no black pubescence, stout at base, pro- 
longed to a point. Antennae reddish, at apex black ; the first 
joint with grey tomentum and black pubescence, cap-shaped ; 
the second smaller, cup-shaped, with black pubescence; the 
third long -with a moderate tooth. Forehead fairly broad, 
about five times as long as it is broad, and the same width 
throughout, the same colour as the face, but posteriorly more 
yellow, or altogether yellower : the callus reddish brown, 
shining, large, oblong, not reaching the eyes, prolonged as a 
stripe which is not always united to it and is often divided 
into two lengths, the last half being shorter, not reaching the 
vertex. Eyes with no stripes or markings. Thorax brown, 
with greyish-yellow tomentum forming three stripes, the 
median one narrower; sides greyer; pubescence short, scanty, 
and yellow, with some longer yellow hairs at the sides, 
bordered by black hairs above; breast grey, with whitish 
pubescence ; scutellum the same colour as thorax. Abdomen 
large, yellow, with a central stripe of white tomentum com- 
])Osed of triangular-shaped sj)ots with long aj)ices each united 
to the preceding one; spot on the first segment is not always 
discernible ; on the second segment the triangular shape is 
nearly obsolete ; the stripe has a faint reddish border on each 
side, which after the fourth segment becomes black; the 
pubescence on the dorsum is short and black, intermixed with 
yellow pubescence, which is thicker at the sides; the sides 
of the first two segments have some grey tomentum ; under- 
side yellow, with \cry narrow white segmentations, becoming 
darker at the apex. Legs reddish yellow; tibia? yellower; 
the coxie covered with grey tomentum ; the fore tarsi and 
extreme apex of tibitu l)lack, the otlier tarsi brownish ; the 
pubescence on the fore coxie and femora silvery white, on 
the others shorter and yellow ; on the tibiae it is the same, but 

314 Miss Ct. Ricardo on 

on the tarsi blackish ; the last four joints of the fore tarsi 
rather broad. Wings longer than the abdomen, hyaline ; the 
veins brownish, all vvitli yellow-brown shading; the stigma 
yellowish ; the first posterior cell sligiitly narrowed. 

Tahanus suhangastus, ? , sp. n. 

The following specimens are in the British Museum 
collection : — 

Type (female) from Abutshi, River Niger, W. Africa 
{A. Brakam), 1903. 146 ; three females from N. Nigeria, 
7. vii. 1905, &c., received from Dr. J. H. Ash worth, 
Edinburgh University {coll. hy Dr. Dalziel) ; one female 
from Odut, S. Nigeria {Dr. Dudgeoti). 

This species is related to T. nigrofiirtus, Ric, but dis- 
tinguished at once by the broader forehead and frontal callus, 
and by the longer narrower abdomen, and the grey stripe is 
wider, about 1 mm. in width, and more distinct ; the posterior 
cell narrowed in T. nigrohirtus is not so in this species ; both 
are West African species. 

Length 17 mm. 

There are specimens in the Paris Museum, from Sene- 

A reddish-brown species, with one grey median stripe and 
wings tinged with brown. 

Head hardly wider than the thorax. Face reddish, covered 
with grey tomentum, on the sides of the cheeks it is yellower, 
some white hairs are visible on these last ; beard yellowish 
white. Palpi yellow, covered with black pubescence ; only 
slightly enlarged at the base, gradually tapering to a point. 
Anteniiffi bright red, long and slender ; the first joint oblong, 
short, the second small with its upper corner prolonged, 
both with black pubescence ; the third very long and slender, 
the tooth small near the base, the extreme apex black ; the 
subcallus the same as face. The forehead brown, rather broad, 
short, about three times as long as broad and the same width 
throughout ; the frontal callus brown and shining, large, 
nearly square, almost reaching the eyes, on the posterior 
bolder irregular, prolonged in a line which enlarges, becoming 
spindle-shaped, and nearly reaches the vertex, which is brown ; 
the sides boidering the callus are covered with yellow tomen- 
tum. Eyes with no markings. Thorax reddish brown with 
grey tomentum, through which blackish stripes appear; the 
sides and breast reddish, covered with grey tomentum and 
yellow hairs ; the pubescence on sides of thorax black ; the 
scutellum brownish. Abdomen dull reddish brown, with one 

neio Sjm-ies of Ti\\rdu\. 315 

continuous distinct stripe of" grey tomentum, tlie sides of 
which are straigiit ; the pubescence on the dorsum black, 
except on the stripe which has white hairs and at the sides 
are yellow hairs; underside reddish, darker at the apex. 
Legs brown; the tibiae yellowish red, darker on apex in the 
fore tibiae ; the fore tarsi and the apical joints of the other 
tarsi brown ; the apex of the femora yellowish ; the pubescence 
on the coxae whitish, elsewhere black and short. Wings 
longer than the body, hyaline, tinged with yellowish brown; 
veins yellow; stigma yellowish brown ; all posterior cells 
widely open. 

Tabanus alltostriatus, ? , sp. n. 

The following specimens are in the British Museum 
collection : — 

Type and another female from the Transvaal (Ross), 
97. 99. 

A black species with a white median stripe on the abdomen 
and grey side-spots. Antennas blackish ; the palpi very 
slender, pale yellow. Legs yellow, with darker femora. 
Eyes very slightly pubescent. Wings with an appendix, 
tinged with brown. 

Length 13 mm. 

Head broader than thorax. Face grey, with scanty white 
pubescence ; some black hairs below the antennge ; beard 
white. Palpi pale transparent yellow, curved, very slender, 
ending in a long point, slightly stouter at base, with some 
short black hairs. Antenna* slender; tooth very obtuse, only 
an angle; the first joint yellowish, covered with grey 
tomentum and black hairs, not very cap-shaped ; the second 
small, yellowish, with black pubescence ; the third black, red 
at its extreme base only. Forehead short, about four times 
as long as it is broad and same width throughout, grey, with 
small brown triangular frontal callus, not reaching the eyes, 
continued in a narrow thick line almost to the vertex, which 
is covered with grey tomentum ; the pubescence on the fore- 
liead black. Eyes with no band, the pubescence very slight 
and easily overlooked, the back of the head with white 
pubescence. Thorax blackish brown, covered with fairly 
dense short greyish pubescence, through which three grey 
stripes a[)pear; the sides grey, with longer black hairs; the 
breast-bone covered with black hairs ; a tutt of white hairs 
below near root of wings. Scutellum same colour as thorax, 
with the same pubescence. Abdomen blackish brown ; the 
median white stripe continuous, its average width less than 

316 Miss G. Ricarclo on 

1 mm., with almost straight borders, it widens slightly on 
tiie second segment at the base ; on the sides of the second, 
third, and fourth segments ill-defined but distinct grey spots 
appear, not reaching the sides, but taking up the whole width 
of the segment as a rule; the pubescence on the dorsum is 
short, thick, black, with three stripes of whitish-grey pubes- 
cence, covering the median stripe and the side-spots; these 
can best be seen by viewing the abdomen from the front; 
the lateral margins of the abdomen yellow, transparent, with 
whitish-grey pubescence ; the underside brownish, the 
segmentations and the sides yellowish, the pubescence black, 
with two side stripes of the whitish-grey pubescence. Coxae 
black, covered with grey tomentum and black and white 
pubescence; the fore femora blackish, the middle and poste- 
rior ones dull reddish with grey tomentum and whitish 
])ubescence; the tibiae yellow, the fore tibiae reddish at the 
apex, at the base yellow with white pubescence, therefore 
with the appearance of fore tibias pale at base ; the middle 
tibiaj with white pubescence at the base and black at the 
apex; the posterior tibite with black pubescence; the fore 
and middle tarsi brownish, the posterior ones yellow, all with 
black pubescence. Wings hyaline, slightly tinged with 
brown on the longitudinal veins, on the fore border and 
round the apices of the basal cells, and on the anal vein ; the 
appendix distinct, the veins brown, the stigma small 
and yellowish brown. 

This species is distinguislied from Tahanus alhilinea, Wlk., 
by its slightly pubescent eyes, blacker, more pubescent, and 
narrower abdomen, smaller size, darker antennae, blackish 
frontal callus and stripe (not reddish brown as iti the Walker 
species), darker femora, and more slender palpi. 

Tahanus obscurestriatiis, $ , sp. n. 

Type (female) from Congo, Nov. 18, 1904; 1904. 267 in 
the British Museum collection. 

A small reddish species with a black median stripe and 
clear wings with a short appendix. 

Length 12 mm. 

Head not large, but wider than the thorax. Face covered 
with grey tomentum, the pubescence silvery white; palpi 
reddish, with some wliite pubescence, stout at base, gradually 
tapering to a point; beard white. Between the antennte 
and across the face is an indistinct reddish-brown band ; the 
antennae are reddish, slender, the tooth very slight, the first 
and second joints with black pubescence. Forehead about 

neio Species o/Tabani. 317 

jfive times as long as broad and the same width throughout, 
above the antennaj shining reddish yellow, convex, with a 
median furrow ; the frontal callus the same colour, nearly 
square, reaching the eyes and continued as a broad stripe 
nearly reaching the vertex; the forehead covered with 
yellowish tomentum, darker on the vertex. Eyes with no 
bands. Thorax brownish, with two fulvous lateral stripes 
bordered by a black one, all indistinct; the dorsum with grey 
tomentum and short fulvous pubescence, the sides with 
yellowish tomentum and black hairs, the breast with white 
pubescence; the scutellum the same colour as the thorax. 
Abdomen reddish ; the black stripe begins from the first 
segment and is continuous to the apex, its borders not very 
clearly defined ; the pubescence on the dorsum is black ; the 
fourth, fifth, and sixth segments are yellowish and have 
yellow hairs at the sides, the seventh is wholly black, all the 
segments on the lateral margins are black ; the underside 
wholly reddish, with yellowish pubescence. Legs reddish 
yellow ; the anterior femora brown, the tibise pale yellow, with 
white pubescence ; on the anterior tibise the apex is brown, 
the fore tarsi brown, the pubescence on the femora black. 
Wings clear, pale yellow on their extreme outer border, the 
veins and stigma yellowish, the appendix short but stout. 

Tahanus nigrostriatus, ? , sp. n. 

Type (female) from Plateau of Zomba, Nyasaland {B. 
Sharpe), 97. 46, and a series of females from the same place. 

A species quite distinct from any other African described 
species, with a long, narrow, bright chestnut-brown abdomen, 
which has a distinct black median stripe. Wings hyaline, 
tinged with brown, usually with an appendix, but this seems 
a variable character in this species. 

Length 17. \ mm. 

Head broader than thorax. Face reddish, covered with 
greyish-white tomentum and some white hairs ; on the cheeks 
the ground-colour is more apparent; beard whitish yellow. 
Palpi yellow, with some black pubescence, long, only slightly 
broader at base, ending in an obtuse point. Antennte red, 
sometimes darker at the apex (in one specimen only the base 
of the third joint is red) ; tooth fairly prominent; the first joint 
oblong, the second small, both with black pubescence. Fore- 
head brownish, about four times as long as broad and slightly 
narrower anteriorly; the subcallus reddish, with yellow-grey 
tomentum round the base of the antennaj; the frontal callus 
dark brown, shining, convex, hardly reaching the eyes, 

318 Miss G. Ricardo on 

prolonged in a narrow line, which enlarges spindle-shaped, 
almost reaching the vertex ; the tomentura bordering it is 
yellowish. Eyes bare, with no markings. Thorax reddish 
brown, with traces of black stripes, one broad and two lateral 
stripes, the red ground-colour appearing between as narrow 
lines, the dorsum with grey tomentum ; the sides and breast 
reddish brown, with grey tomentum ; the scutellum blackish. 
Abdomen light reddish brown, the segmentations very faintly 
yellow ; tiie black stripe composed of oblong black spots on 
each segment, begiiniing from the second, almost joining, 
and giving the appearance of a continuous narrow black 
stripe on which no grey tomentum or spots appear ; on the 
first segment there is an indistinct median black spot, on the 
fifth and sixth segments the stripe is broader, and the seventh 
segment is almost entirely black ; the lateral margins of the 
fifth and sixth are yellow, transparent; the pubescence on the 
dorsum is black and short, thickest on the sides, sometimes 
there are traces of yellow pubescence on the segmentations ; 
on the seventh segment the black hairs are long ; underside 
same colour, with no black stripe visible, but the apex black. 
Legs blackish brown, the tibiie the same colour as the abdo- 
men, the fore tibiae brown at the apex, the tarsi brown on 
their apical joints ; the pubescence on the coxae and femora 
whitish and the femora with whitish tomentum, some few 
yellow hairs on the fore tibi« ; otherwise the pubescence is 
black, short, not very noticeable. Wings hyaline, tinged 
with brown, darkest on the fore border ; tlie appendix, when 
present, is short, thick, and indistinct (ontwoot the specimens 
it is entirely absent), the stigma brown, veins brown, all cells 
widely open. 

Tabanus kingsleyi, ? , sp. n. 

The following specimens are in the British Museum 
collection : — 

Type (female) from Port Lokkoh, Sierra Leone, April 
1904 {Major F. Smith), 1904. 143; and four other females, 
on one of which is attached the following note : — " Nume- 
rous, no other species about ; bit donor severely in the house, 
several hundred yards from the water. Dry season, April." 
One female from near Baiwalla, Sierra Leone, June 1903 
{Dr. H. J. Conyngham), 1903. 292. 

A species belonging to the group of Tabanus tcemola, Macq., 
with the typical light abdominal stripes bordered by darker 
ones, but bearing some resemblance to Tabanus gabonensis, 
Macq., and Tabanus secedens, Wlk. ; distinguished from them. 

new Species of 'Tah&ni. 319 

however, by the side stripes composed of spots contiguous to 
each other, and tlms forming a distinct stripe, whereas in 
Tahanus secedens the side s]iots are isolated and the whole 
abdomen is of a reddish-brown shade, any gradations in 
colour merging in each other, not forming well-marked dark 
stripes as in the T. tceniola group. It is distinguished from 
T. tceniola by the heavily striped thorax, similar to that of 
T. gahonensis &c., and by the wings tinged with brown, 
shaded on most of the veins. 

Length 1.3-16 mm. 

Face covered with greyish tomentum, which becomes 
yellowish brown above the antenns, and with short white 
pubescence ; beard whitish. Palpi pale yellow, with white 
pubescence at base and short black pubescence elsewhere, not 
very stout at base, ending in a broad point. Antennae 
reddish ; the first joint rather smaller than is usual, with 
black pubescence; the second small, with black pubescence ; 
the third long, with small tooth near the base, becoming 
brownish red after the base ; and the last four divisions wholly 
blackish. Forehead covered with yellowish-brown tomentum, 
nearly six times as long as it is broad, narrowing slightly 
anteriorly ; the frontal callus dark brown, oblong, furrowed 
in the middle, almost or entirely reaching the eyes, with a 
long thick line proceeding from it. Thorax blackish, the 
two broad stripes composed of grey tomentum, covered with 
yellow pubescence ; sides greyish, with some yellow pubes- 
cence, which is continued round base of thorax, elsewhere it 
is black ; breast and sides covered with grey tomentum and 
some white pubescence. Scutellum blackish, covered with 
greyish tomentum except in the centre. Abdomen reddish 
brown, blackish on the last three segments, with a distinct 
grey, tomentose, median, continuous stripe, continued to the 
sixth segment, bordered by dark brown or blackish stripes, 
to which are contiguous the yellowish side spots, forming 
a fairly distinct stripe as far as the fourth segment ; the 
pubescence on median stripe and on the side spots is chiefly 
yellowish, elsewhere black ; underside yellowish, with broad 
black median stripe, covered with white pubescence. Legs 
blackish; tibiiu yellowish, black at apex; middle and poste- 
rior femora often largely yellowish red, femora with grey 
tomentum and white pubescence; the tibia; with whitish 
pubescence, elsewhere it is black. AVings hyaline, tinged 
with brown, most intense on the fore border ; stigma reddish 
brown, veins brown. 

320 Miss G. Ricaido on 

labanus quadrmgnatus, ? , sp. n. 

The following specimens are in the British Museum 
collection : — 

Type (female) and another female from Ruwe, Lualaba 
Elver, Congo Free State, circa 11° S., 26° E., Feb. 1906 
{Dr. A. Yale Masseij), 1906. 98. 

A well-marked species nearly related to Tahanus fratemus, 
Macq., better known as Tahanus trisignatus, Loew (which is 
a synonym of the ]\lacquart species), but easily distinguished 
from it by the four distinct triangular median spots, the older 
species having only three, and by the heavily striped thorax 
and bright red-yellow antennae. In the thoracic stripes it 
resembles Tahanus kingsleyi, from which it is distinguished 
by the markings of the abdomen. 

It is a medium-sized species with black thorax, marked 
with two distinct broad greyish stripes, a reddish-brown 
abdomen with yellowish-grey side spots besides the median 
ones, blackish legs with red-yellow tibise, and clear wings 
very slightly tinged brown. 

Length 13^-15 mm. 

Head wider than thorax. Face reddish (denuded) , in the 
other specimen it is covered with greyish-yellow tomentum 
and with white pubescence ; beard white. Palpi very pale 
yellow, with white pubescence, slightly broader at base, 
ending in a moderate point. Antennse bright red-yellow ; the 
first joint cylindrical, hardly at all cap-shaped, with greyish 
tomentum and black pubescence and a few white hairs ; the 
second very small, with black pubescence ; the third long, 
darker at its apex, with a moderate tooth. Forehead reddish 
(denuded), with yellowish-grey tomentum, nearly five times 
as long as it is broad, narrowing anteriorly ; the frontal 
callus red-brown, oblong, not reaching the eyes, the line 
proceeding from it is short and thick, some black hairs on 
the vertex. Ihorax blackish brown, the two broad stripes 
continued to base, composed of grey tomentum, with 
yellowish pubescence ; sides with grey tomentum, the 
pubescence on dorsum black, with whitish hairs round the 
base of wings and continued from the base of the stripes 
round thorax to the sides. Breast and sides reddish, covered 
with grey tomentum and with white pubescence ; black hairs 
above. Scutellum reddish yellow at base, black in the centre, 
with black pubescence and yellowish hairs elsewhere. Abdo- 
men reddish brown ; some grey tomentum on the first 
segment, on the four following segments a grey, toraentose, 
median, triangular spot, all with broad bases, the first one 

new Species of Tabani. 321 

lonp^est, all with wliltisii pubescence; the side spots in the 
type are large on the second segment, smaller on the third 
and fouitli segments, all yellowish in colour, with ^vity 
tomentum and some white hairs, irregular in shape; tlie Hfth 
segment is black at the sides and the sixth wholly black, 
both, however, with yellow transparent side margins ; in the 
other female there are traces of" side spots on the fifth segment ; 
pubescence on dorsum black, yellowish on the lighter spots, 
sides with white pubescence, black at the extreme apex ; 
underside pale reddish yellow, blackish at the apex, with 
chiefly white pubescence. Halteres brown, with whitish 
knob. Legs blackish brown, with red-yellow tibiae ; they 
are similar to those of Tabanus cornformis, Ricardo. Wings 
clear, very slightly tinged round veins with pale yellowish 
brown ; the first posterior cell slightly narrowed at opening; 
veins brown, stigma yellowish. 

Tabanus coniformis, ? , sp. n. 

The following specimens are in the British Museum 
collection : — 

Type (female) and another from Ruwe, Lnalaba River, 
Congo Free State, circa 11° S., 26° E., Feb. 1906 {Dr. A. 
Yale Massei/)^ 190G. 98 ; two females from Benguella, 
Angola, l'JO'5 {Jh\ F. C. Wellman), 1906. 139. " Entangled 
in an old si)ider's web near my bungalow." 

A species not belonging to any very distinct group, but 
nearest to that one represented by Tabatius tcenioUt, Macq. 
It is a slender reddish-brown species, with the abdomen very 
jiointed at the apex, with indistinct median and side spots 
and a black apex; the legs are blackish, with red-yellow 
tibiae; the wings quite clear, with no appendix. Antennae 

Length 14 mm. 

Head wider than thorax. Face covered with greyish 
tomentum, which becomes yellowish brown on the subcailus 
and extreme borders of cheeks, pubescence white; beard 
white. Palpi yellowish red, with thick short white pubes- 
cence, moderately stout, with short apex. Antennoj reddish; 
the first joint cap-shaped, with white pubescence and black 
hairs on the upper angle; second small, with whitish pubes- 
cence ; the third long, with moderate tooth ; the last four 
divisions nearly as long as the first division ; the extreme apex 
black. Forehead red, covered with same coloured tomentum 
as the subcallus ; the frontal callus reddish brown, hardly 
reaching the eyes, oval, with a thick line proceeding troiu it 

Ann. 1- Maj. S. lllst. Scr. 8. Vcl. i. '11 

322 Miss G. Elcardo on 

which is furrowed in the middle and nearly reaches the vertex ; 
tlie forehead is about four times as long as it is broad, only 
slightly narrower anteriorly. Eyes with no markinjrs. 
Thorax reddish brown, with darker indistinct stripes and with 
indistinct grey stripes ; tlie dorsum with greyish toraentum 
and some black pubescence, traces of whitish pubescence round 
the roots of wings and base of thorax; sides and breast covered 
with greyish tomentum and white hairs. Scutelkim reddish, 
bhuk at base, with grey tomentum and a few white and black 
hairs. Abdomen reddish brown, wath triangular, narrow, grey, 
median, tomentose spots, only distinct when viewed from 
behind and only on the second, third, and fourth segments; 
the sides with irregular, reddish-yellow, oblong spots covered 
wath greyish tomentum on the first four segments; the last 
tinee segments are wholly black, the tifth and sixth with 
lighter segmentations ; tiie pubescence on the dorsum black ; 
on the posterior borders of the fifth and sixth segments with 
white and black hairs, the sides with white pubescence, black 
at the apex ; underside reddish yellow, black at apex, the 
segmentations very narrowly white ; pubescence wdiite, black 
at apex. Legs blackish browm, the fore tibiae red-yellow on 
basal half, the other tibise wholly red-yellow; the middle and 
posterior tarsi the same colour, but blacker at ajiex; the 
pubescence on coxre and femora is white, with some grey 
tomentum ; on the fore tibise white on basal half, elsewhere 
black, with some white pubescence on the middle and poste- 
rior tibia?. Plalteres with dark stem and a yellowish knob. 

Talanus hrunnescejis, $ , sp. n. 

The following specimens are in the British Museum 
collection : — 

Type (femalej and another female from the Gold Coast, 
Sept. 1905 {J Jr. McConeU) ; tw^o females from Obuasi, 
S. Ashanti, 6. iii. 06 {J)r. W. M. Graham), 1906. 150. 
"Caught in house on window." 

A smaller darker species than T. gahonensis and T. secedens, 
with a short abdomen, distinguished from them by the thoracic 
stripes, which are broad and two in number, wholly covered 
with yellow pubescence, the same width throughout, not 
showing the suture of thorax as is usual in the above species, 
and continued to the scutellum, leaving only the middle of it 
black, with black pubescence. The abdomen is darker in 
colour, not marked with darker segmentations, but more 
uniformly dark brown; the median stripe continuous, yellowish 
yellow and black pubescence, and the side 

new Species o/Tabani. 323 

spots indistinct yellowish. The legs are rather darker thaa 
tliose of T. gabonensis. 
Length 16 rum. 

One of the specimens from Ashanti has the pubescence 
on the tiioracic stripes and median abdominal stripe more 
grey than yellow. 

Head large, wider than the thorax. Face covered with 
wiiiti^li tonientum, which is yellowish brown above the 
antenna?, the pubescence white, short, scantv ; beard white. 
Palpi yellowish, the same shape as those of Tahanus claripes, 
sp. 11., with black pubescence. The antennae are also similar 
in shape, red, wiih black pubescence ; the third joint ia 
wanting. Forehead yellowish brown; callus dark brown, 
long, almost reaching the eyes, with a thick line proceeding 
from it ; forehead on posterior half and at sides dark brown, 
with black pubescence, the yellowish-brown colour only 
apj)earing around the line proceeding from callus and at the 
sides; the hind margin of head narrow, yellowish. Thorax 
dark brown, with two broad median and two narrower sidii 
stripes com])osed of greyish-yellow tonientum with yellow 
pubescence, the pubescence on the dark part of the thorax 
black. Scutellum brown, the yellow thoracic stripes reaching 
its apex and continued round it. Abdomen rather short, 
stout, dark reddish brown, the median continuous stripe 
fidvous, reaching from the second to the fifth segment ; on 
the sides of the second and third segments appear reddish- 
yellow indistinct spots ; the pubescence of dorsum is yellowish 
on the stri|)e, otherwise black, shoit, and thick ; underside 
pale yellowish, with a dark brown broad median stripe; the 
pubescence short, white on the jjale colour and black on the 
dark stripe. L"gs blackish ; fore tibiie at base pale yellowish 
red ; the middle and posterior tibite dull red on the basal 
hali ; the pubescence on the coxaj white, on the femora black, 
on the foie tibiae whitish on the pale colour, black at the 
apex, on the other tibiaj it is black with some fulvous hairs ; 
tarsi with black pubescence. Wings tinged pale brownish, 
lighter in centre of cells ; no appendix. 

Tahanus clatipts, ? , sp, n. 

The following specimens are in the British .Miistum 
collection : — 

The type (female) from Lcopoldville, Congo, Jan. 18, 1904 
[coll. If IS. JJiiUvn, Toddj and Christy), presented by the 
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, It'04. 267, is in the 
Britisli Muscuuj collection. 


324 Miss G. Ricardo on 

A large veddisli-brown species with striped tliorax and 
brownish wings, easily distinguished by its bright reddish- 
yellow coxge from Tahanus secedens, Wlk., and Tahanus 
gahonensis, Macq., and by its larger size and redder legs, the 
tore femora being red, not blackish, and by the markings of 
the abdomen, which consist of distinct, grey, median, triangular 
spots, not continuous, and of indistinct reddish-yellow side 

Length 24 mm. 

Head large, wider than thorax. Face covered with greyish 
tomentum, yellowish at sides of cheeks and above anteimse on 
subcallus, pubescence whitish, short, longer on lower part of 
face; beard whitish. Antennae dark reddish brovvn, blackish 
at aj)ex; the tirst joint large, cap-shaped, with black pubes- 
cence, thickest on the upper angle ; tlie second small, with 
black pubescence ; the third large, with small, rather acute 
tooth, with brownish tomentum on the first division. Fore- 
head long, narrow, about seven times as long as broad, 
narrowed anteriorly, yellow like the subcallus; frontal callus 
bright reddish brown, long, almost reaching the eyes, furrowed 
in the middle and continued as a thick line beyond the middle 
of the forehead ; the pubescence of th« forehead consists of a 
few black short hairs and of yellowish hairs beyond. Palpi 
long, curved, not very stout at base, ending in a long point, 
yellow, covered with short black pubescence. Thorax 
brown, with two broad median stripes and two narrower side 
stripes composed of pale yellowish tomentum ; pubescence on 
dorsum short, black, on the stripes yellowish, with tufts of 
longer white hairs at base of wings ; sides and breast covered 
with greyish tomentum and white liairs. Scutellum brown, 
with yellowish tomentum, redder at apex ; the pubescence 
black, short. Abdomen long, stout, browu, with reddish 
colour appearing on the first and second segments and at 
sides ; on the first segment there is a trace of a grey spot, on 
the second segment it is almost oblong, barely wider at the 
base ; on the third segment it is a long triangular spot 
reaching the fore border ; on the fourth segment it is a 
broader triangular spot not reaching the fore border; on the 
sixth segment it is a very short triangular spot ; all these 
spots are greyish yellow, covered with greyish-yellow hairs; 
the reddish colour of abdomen appears as indistinct irregular- 
shaped markings on the sides ; the pubescence of the dorsum 
is short, black, rather thick, on the sides it is white ; the 
side-borders of the last segments are yellow, transparent ; the 
underside pale reddish, with a darker median broad stripe 
covered with short white pubescence, Legs bright red; the 

neiv Sjjeries (if Vdban'i, 325 

coxas at their extreme apex and tlie niidJle coxae wliollj 
Mack ; the knees, apex of fore tibiaj, and the fore tarsi 
bhickish ; the fore tibiae are pale yellowish on their upper 
surface ; the pubescence on the fore coxse is long, white, on 
the other coxa; scanty and short; on the femora it is wliite, 
longest and thickest on the fore pair, with some black pubes- 
cence; on the fore tibia; it is white on the pale colour, black 
at the apex, and black on the other tibia3; the tarsi with thick 
bhick pubescence. Wings pale brownish, yellowish brown 
on the fore border, wiih some clear spaces in the mi'ldle of 
the cells; veins and stigma l)rown ; the first posterior cell a 
little narrowed at its opening; no appendix. 

Tuhanus di'sjunctus, ? , sp. n. 

The following specimens are in the British Museum 
collection : — 

Type (female) and another from Lutete, Congo, Nov. 19, 
190;5, presented by the Liverpool School of Tropical 
Medicine, 1904. 267. 

A species with three series of grey spots on the abdomen 
similar to those of Tabanus distinctus, Ricardo, to which it is 
closely related, but the median spots in this species are not 
connected and the legs are more wholly reddish, the fore 
femora not being brownish ; it is also larger in size and 
browner in colour. It is distinguished from Tabanus per^ 
rasas, Wlk. (probably the same as the South-African form of 
Tabanus bovinus), by the clear wings and the more distinct 
triangular side spots with their bases resting on the posteriar 
borders of the segments. It is distinguished from Tabanus 
sdcficalis, Surcouf, from Font el Julon, N. of Sierra Leone, 
by its larger size and more distinctly defined side spots. 

Length 20 mm. 

It differs from Tnbamis distinctus in the following parti- 
culars : — Face covered with yellowish-brown tomentuin aiul 
with short thick white hairs. Palpi light yellow, larger and 
lather stouter. Antenme rather darker; the thirti j )int 
blackish only, red at the base. Forehead covered with 
yellowish tomentum ; vertex not reddish, but with the same 
tomentum ; the few hairs on the forehead seem chiefly 
yellowish ; it is about six times as long as it is broad, 
narrowing slightly anteriorly. Thorax brownish, with five 
indistinct grey stripes, and the scutellum the same colour. 
Abdomen brown ; the median spot on the second segment 
with long apex, which, however, does not reach the posterior 
border of the fir&t segment ; the second «pot on the third 

326 Miss G. Ricavdo on 

segment tiian<.ular, witli a very sliort apex barely reacliiii;^ 
Jialf tlie width of the- segment ; the third spot with a slightly 
longer apex ; the fourth spot on the fifth segment sub- 
triangular, nearly reaching the posterior border of the next 
segment ; on the sixth and seventh segments there are no 
spots ; the side spots are four in number on each side, almost 
similar in shape to those of Tabanus distinctus^ but not so 
well defined, more irregular in shape; underside reddish, with 
white-haired segmentations. Legs reddish, the extreme apex 
of the fore coxse and extreme apex of fore femora^ the apices of 
the fore tibiae, and the tarsi blackish ; the coxse with long 
white pubescence ; the fore femora with short black pubes- 
cence above and long white below ; on the outer border of the 
other femora it is also white but not so long ; the fore tibiae 
with thick white pubescence on their basal half, giving them 
a whitish appearance; the other tibige with chiefly white 
pubescence, on the tarsi it is black. Wings clear, yellowish 
on fore border ; stigma yellowish ; veins brown ; the first 
posterior cell slightly narrowed at opening. 

Tabanus distinctus, ? , sp. n. 

The following specimens are in the British Museum 
collection : — 

Type (female) from Benguella, Angola {A. T. Massey, 
per Ool. Giles), and another female from Lake Tanganyika 
(W. A. Cunnington), 1906. 76. 

A medium-sized species with light reddish-brown abdomen 
very distinctly marked with three series of grey triangular 
spots and thorax with fairly distinct grey stripes. It is 
distinguished from Tabanus congoiensis, sp. n., by the quite 
clear wings and shape of side spots of abdomen, which are 
isosceles triangles with their bases resting on the posterior 
borders of segments. 

Length 15| mm. 

Head wider than the thorax. Face reddish yellow, covered 
with greyish-white tomentum and with short thick white 
pubescence on the cheeks and lower part of face ; beard 
white, long. Palpi pale yellow, with yellowish-white 
pubescence and tiaces of a few black hairs, stout at base, 
slightly curvec', ending in a long point. Antennju red ; the 
first joint very slightly cap-shaped, with black hairs on the 
upper angle and some white hairs on its outer border ; the 
second very small, with black pubescence; the third dull 
red, with obtuse tooth, black at the extreme apex. Forehead 
covered with grey tumentum ; the frontal callus reddish 

newSjjecieso/T-iihsim. 327 

brown, shiiiiug, barely reaching the eyes, long, with a short 
stout line proceeding from it; the vertex (? denuded) reddish 
brown, a few black liairs on the sides ; the forehead narrows 
anteriorly a little and is about five times as long as it is 
broad ; back of head whitish, witli white hairs. Thorax 
reddish, with five grey indistinct and four black stripes ; the 
grey stripes are com] osed of grey tomenluin, the median one 
is narrow, witli a broader one on each side and side-stripes; 
the two middle black stripes only reacli the suture; these 
black stripes only appear as stripes contrasted with the 
reddish ground-colour of the thorax, which is not apparent 
in the specimen from Lake Tanganyika, the thorax being 
blackisl), with the five grey stripes apparent, which may 
probably prove a more correct description of this species when 
a long series is available for comparison ; pubescence on 
dorsum black, on the grey stripes whitish yellow, sides with 
black hairs, and with white hairs near the root of wings ; 
breast and sides reddish, with grey tomentum and white 
liairs. Scutellum reddish, with black pubescence and 
yellowish hairs round the margin. Abdomen reddish, darker 
at apex, with three distinct, grey, tomentose triangular spots 
on tlie second, third, fourth, and fifth segments ; tliere are 
traces of them on the sixth; the seventh is wholly black; 
the median spots are roughly equilateral triangles with broad 
bases resting on the posterior border of each segment and 
each apex reaching the base of the succeeding spot, all almost 
equal in size, except the one en the sixth segment, which is 
smaller; the side spots are isosceles right-angled triangles 
with the side nearest the median spots and the base, wiiich 
rests on the posterior border of segment, straight, both 
together forming a right angle ; the pubescence of dorsum 
black, on the grey sjiots yellowish or white; sides of abdo- 
men with white hairs, at the apex some black hairs ; underside 
pale yellowish red, with grey tomentum and jaibescence. 
Legs yellowish red, the apices of fore coxoj and the fore 
femora reddish brown, the fore tarsi and the npiees of fore 
tibijie blackish, the other tarsi brownish ; the coxa^ with long- 
while pubescence, the fore and middle femora with black 
pubescence above and some white below ; the posterior femora 
with wholly white pubescence, the fore tibia3 with whitish 
Jiairs on the yellowish base, the other tibia3 with chiefly 
whitish pubescence, elsewhere it is black. Wings clear; 
veiiis brown ; stigma yelh/wish brown, the first posterior cell 
distinctly narrower at opening ; no appendix. 

The specimen from Lake Tangat)yika is browner in colour. 

•'^28 Miss G. Kicardo on 

Tahanus congoiensis, ? , sp. n. 

The following specimens are in the British IMuseum 
collection : — 

Type (female) and two other females from Wathen, Conoo 
Free State [Rev. TV. H. Bentley), 1904. 207, and one female 
from Tumbo, Congo, Nov. 5, 1903 (presented by the Liverpool 
School of Tropical Medicine). 

A dark brown species with well-marked grey triangular 
median spots and side spots ; greyish stripes on the brown 
fliorax, reddish legs, and wings greyish, tinged yellowisii 
brown round the veins and on the fore border. 

Length 16 mm. 

The specimen from Tumbo measures 18i mm. Tt is 
distinguislied from Tahanus temperatus, Wlk. (which is 
]->robably the same as the South African variety of Tahanus 
hovmus), by its smaller size and narrower abdomen, the 
median triangular spot on the second segment is narrower 
at its base and more oblong in shape, the colour of the 
abdomen is more largely a uniform dark brown with the side 
spots small, but fairly distinct. 

Head wider than thorax. Face reddish, densely covered 
with greyish tomentum, the ground-colour perceptible on the 
upper part of face and on the subcallus, where the tomentum 
is also more yellow in colour; the pubescence white, con- 
sisting of rather longer white hairs in middle of face below 
the antennae and of shorter ones on the cheeks ; beard white, 
scanty. Palpi yellow with thick black pubescence, long, 
wide at the base, tapering to an obtuse point. Antennse dull 
reddish, black at apex; the first joint large with black 
])ubescence; the second small, with black hairs on the upper 
])rolongation and outer border ; the third long, wide at the 
base, with an obtuse tooth. Forehead about six times as long 
as it is broad, narrower anteriorly, red with brown and yellow 
tonienlum ; the frontal callus reddish brown, oblong, convex, 
almost reaching the eyes, continued in a thick line halfway 
along the forehead. Eyes with no markings. Thorax 
brownish with two stripes of grey tomentum continued to the 
base of the thorax, grey at sides and on the anterior border, 
the pubescence of black rather long hairs, with traces of 
some yellow pubescence ; the sides of thorax more red, with 
black pubescence ; breast red, witli grey tomentum and black 
])ubescence and some white hairs ; tiie scutellum reddish, with 
l)lack and yellowish pubescence and traces of grey tomentum. 
Abdomen brownish, appearing reddish brown on the second 
segment; the first segment covered with grey tomentum on 

new Species oj Tabani*. 329 

tlie anterior border, on tlie po-terior border a small, median, 
yellowish spot with yellow hair divided in half by a line or 
furrow ; on the second segment the grey triangular spot is 
long, reaching the anterior border, narrow at its base; on the 
three following segments the spots are wider and shorter, not 
reacliing the anterior border; on the sides of the second, 
third, and fourth segments an isolated, roundish, grey spot is 
visible ; in one of the other females from Waihen the spots 
are more distinct and oblong, and a small one is perceptible 
on the iif'th segment, the segmentations from the third segment 
are narrowly whitish ; the dorsum rather thickly covered 
with short black hairs, a few yellow hairs are visible on the 
bases of the grey triangles ; underside reddish, transparent, 
with white segmentations and pubescence; the margins of 
abdomen on the fourth, fifth, and sixth segments are yellow, 
transparent, with some white pubescence. In one of the 
specimens the side spots are rather indistinct, the triangle on 
tlie second segment does not reach the fore border, and the 
alidomen is darker, showing no light segmentations. Legs 
reddish, the fore coxai blackish with long white hairs ; the 
])ubesceiice on the femora black, on the fore tibias white, on 
the middle and posterior tibite black ; the apex of the fore 
tibise and all tarsi blackisii ; some grey tomentura on the 
femora. Wings greyish, tinged with yellowish brown on all 
the veins and on fore border ; stigma the same colour ; 
veins brown. In a third specimen from the same place the 
side spots are rather indistinct, the triangle on the second 
segment does not reach fore border, and the abdomen is larger, 
showing no light segmentations. 

Tahanus silvanus, $ , sp. n. 

The following specimens are in the British Museum 
collection : — 

Type'(female) and another from Amboihimitombo Forest, 
Madagascar (Forsyth Major Coll.), 98. i6. 

A dark brown species with almost clear wings ; the abdo- 
men obscurely brown, with distinct, grey, median, triangular 
spots and narrow grey segmentations ; the antenna3 blackish. 
Legs dull reddish. 

Length 15 mm. 

This species is probably relatetl to Tahanus atrimauus, 
Loew, but distinguished from it by the absence of the huge, 
tomentose, white side spots on the second segment, and by 
the legs being redder. 

Head broader than thorax. Face greyish white with white 

330 Miss G. Rieardo on 

liairs; beard white. Palpi yellow; fairly stout at base, 
tapering to a point; some black hairs visible. Forehead the 
same colour as the lace j the subcallus with wrinkles and a 
fine median black line. Frontal callus reddish brown, oblong, 
not reaching the eyes, prolonged as a fine line ; on the vertex 
a short reddish stripe, grey in the centre, is apparent; 
tomentum on posterior half of the forehead yellowish. 
Antermai blackish ; the first and second joints and base of 
the third dark reddish brown. Thorax brown, shining, with 
four grey stripes and a median lineal yellowish stripe ; the 
sides greyish with grey hairs, with black hairs above, 
reaching to the wings. Scutellum brown with some grey 
tomentum. Abdomen dark reddish brown, short, with grey 
tomentum; on the first segment is an imperfect triangular 
grey spot in the centre ; on the second a median triangular 
grey spot hardly reaching beyond half the width of the 
segment ; on the third segment a similar spot with shorter 
apex ; the three following segments with similar spots which 
become smaller and more oblong in shape ; all the segmen- 
tations after the third segment are whitish, becoming broader 
at the sides ; the brown colour becomes darker round the 
grey triangular spots ; the dorsum is devoid of pubescence ; 
the sides are bordered with fine short white hairs ; the undn- 
side brownish, with white segmentations and short white 
pubescence. Legs reddish brown ; the fore legs darker with 
the exception of the base of the tibiae, the pubescence greyish, 
short. Wings hyaline; the veins and stigma dark brown, 
the cross-veins at the apices of the basal cells have a slight 
shading which is hardly perceptible in the upper cross-veins; 
no posterior cells narrowed at their apices. 

Tahanus diversus, ? , sp. n. 

The following specimens are in the British Museum 
collection : — 

Type (female) and another from Ruwe, Lualaba River, 
Congo Free State, circa 11° S., 26° E., Feb. 1906 {Dr. A. 
Yale Massei/), 1906. 98. 

This small black species, with the abdomen marked with 
very distinct grey spots and thorax with grey stripes and 
spots, clear wings, short antennse, and brown legs with 
yellowit^h tibiae, is very nearly allied, to Tabanus insu/nis, 
Loew, from E. Africa, but easily distinguished by its black, 
not brown colour, by the absence of the four white spots on 
the second segment of abdomen, by the different, more 
oblong shape of the large spots on the third and fourth seg- 

new Sjjecies o/Tabatii. 331 

merits, by tlie A\ nter antennae, thi frontal callii^, with a very 
{^hoit, thick line proceeding from it, and the thorax with two 
greyisli-haireil spots at the base and no wliite tomentose 
margin as in T. insignis. 
Length 1 \\ mm. 

Head wider than tliorax. Face covered with grey tomen- 
tiim and with while pnhescence ; beard white. Paip'i yellow, 
wiih fairly long, white pubescence, moderately stout at 
base, ending in a long acute ))oint. Antennae short, reddish ; 
the first joint yellowish, with black pubescence on the upper 
angle and whitish elsewhere, cylindrical, hardly at all cap- 
sliap(dj the second sniall, red, with black pubescence; the 
ihiid red, at apex black, with broad, short, first division, and 
tooth marked by an angle; the last four joints very small. 
Forehead fairly broad, very slightly narrower anteriorly, 
about four times as long as it is broad, brown, covered with 
grey totnentum and with some grey and black hairs; the 
frontal callus reddish brown, nearly square, almost reaching 
the eyes, the line proceeding from it is very short and thick ; 
in the second specimen it is broader still, nearly as broad as 
the callus itself, on each side of this line the brown ground- 
colour a])pears as an ill-defined long spot; the vertex is 
brownish. ]3ack of head whitish with white hairs. Thorax 
black, shining, with two median, grey, tomentose stripes, not 
reaching beyond the middle of thorax, at base of tliorax two 
grey hairy spots ; sides grey with white pubescence ; on the 
stripes the pubescence is whitisii, elsewhere black ; at the 
base of thorax near the root of the wings there is thick white 
pubescence. Sides and breast with grey tomentum and 
white pubescence. Scutellura dull reddish, with grey toinen- 
lum and white pubescence. Abdomen black ; on first 
segment trace of a small, grey, median spot and at sides 
broadly white, tomentose ; second segment with white 
tomentose spot on each side, its upper angle pointing inwards 
and reaching three quarters of the width of the segment, and 
continued up the whole outer side of segment; the side spots 
on the four tbllowing segments are very similar, decreasing 
in size, the upper angles especially so; on the third segment 
the large white median spot is almost square, extending the 
whole width of segment ; on the fourth it is rather smaller; 
all these spots are covered with grey tomentum and white 
])ubescence, the pubescence on the dorsum is otherwise black, 
on the sides white ; underside dull reddish yellow, blackish 
at sides and towards the apex, covered with short white 
]mbescence. Legs blackish brown ; the tibiae yellowish, the 
fore tibiaj blick on apical half; the femora with greyish 

332 On new Species o/Tabani. 

tomentum and white pubescence; the tibiae with yellowisli- 
wliite pubescence, black on dark apex of tore tibia and else- 
where. Wings clear, veins brown, stigma yellowish brown j 
the first posterior cell not narrowed ; no appendix. 

Tahanus fuscipes, t^ ? , sp. n. 

The following specimens are in the British Museum 
collection : — 

Type (female) from British Central Africa, 1906 {E. L. 
Ehoades) ; one female from Gadzima, Mashonaland, Dec. 
1895 {O. A. K. Marshall), 1903. 17; one female from 
Salisbury, Mashonaland, Dec. 1899 [G. A. K, Marshall) ; 
one male from Estcouit, Natal, Jan. 1897 [G. A. K. 
Marshall), 1903. 17. 

This species is very nearly related to Tahinus ditceniafus, 
Macq., and may be easily confused with it at first sight, but 
is a distinct species, recognized by the black coxas and 
almost wholly blackish femora and by the absence of any 
grey tomentum in the centre of the median black stripe of 

Length 12-14 mm. 

The antennae are slightly darker at the apex. The ey 

face, palpi, and forehead similar to those of 2\ difmniatus, 
with the two typical black spots on the forehead. There is 
no trace of grey triangles on the black stripe of abdomen in 
the females. The yellow legs are darker, the femora all 
being black for two thirds of their length, the apical third 
alone being yellow. The clear wings have a short appendix. 
Tlie male has yellowish eyes, brown below, the facettesall 
equal, except those on the lower third of eye which are 
smaller, no stripe apparent. Palpi club-shaped, yellow, 
transparent. The abdomen has the apex more widely black 
than in the females and a grey tomentose stripe is visible 
on the median black stripe ; the legs are similar to those of 
the females, but the femora are almost wholly black, only 
their extreme apex being yellow. 

Tahanus ruwenzorii, ? , sp. n. 

One female (type) from E. Ruwenzori, 5000-7000 feet, 
22. i. 1906 (coll. by Hon. G. Legge and A. F. R. Woollaston) , 
1906. 153; another female from E. Ruwenzori, 600- 
1300 feet, 7. ii. 1906 (by same collectors). 

A robust pubescent species with hairy eyes, black abdo- 
men with the second segment reddish at the side, thorax 
shining black. Anteniise, face, and palpi black. Legs 

On a new Elapine Snake from Australia. 333 

black, til)ige yellow. Wings clear, very slightly tinged 
yellowish brown. 

Length 16 mm. 

Face black, with dull brown tomf>ntum and yellowish-brown 
pubescence, some black hairs on the upper part of cheeks and 
under antennte ; beard yellowish brown. Palpi dull brownish 
black with black pubescence, stout, ending in a short point. 
Antcnnai black, with long and slender third joint and hardly 
any tooth ; the first two joints with long black pubescence ; 
the subcallus the same colour as the face. Forehead about 
three times as long as bioad, the same width throughout, 
dull blackish brown with yellowish-brown tomentum and 
long black pubescence ; the frontal callus small, reddish 
brown, oval, the line proceeding from it indistinct; the vertex 
black, with tubercle. Eyes covered with short yellowish- 
brown pubescence. Thorax black, shining, with no stripes ; 
the dorsum nearly bare ; shoulder-spots reddish with some 
yellowish-grey hairs, which are continued round the base of 
tlie thorax ; sides with black pubescence ; breast black, with 
greyish-yellow pubescence and some black hairs. Scutellum 
shining, black. Ab lomen l)lack, somewhat shining; the first 
segment narrowly red at the sides ; the second segment 
broadly red at the sides with narrow reddish segmentations ; 
the following segments with extremely narrow, grey-haired 
segmentations. Legs black; tibiae yellowish with apices 
black; the femora with greyish pubescence; the tibiae with 
dense whitish pubescence, on their black apices and on the 
tarsi it is black. Wings hyaline, the yellowish-browa 
colouring is chiefly round the longitudinal veins of the fore 
border and is very faint ; veins and stigma brown. 

L. — J^escn'ption of a new Elapine Snake from Australia. 

Two years ago I described in these * Annals ' * a new Elapine 
snake discovered by Mr. W. Stalker near Alexandria, in 
the Northern Territory of the colony of South Australia, 
and which formed part of a small collection presented to 
the British Museum by Sir W. Ligram, Bart., and the Hon. 
John Forrest. That snake was named iJenisonia forresti. 
Mr. Stalker has continued collecting in the same district, and 

* Sur. 7, vol. xviii. 190G, p. 140. 

334 Mr. A. G. Hanirnar on a 

I have now tlie pleasure of describing another snake of the 
same group, but of much larger size, and to connect with it 
the name of Sir W. Ingram. 

Diemenia ingravii. 

Eye rather small, its diameter equal to its distance from 
the oral border and one third the length of the snout. Snout 
rounded, strongly projecting beyond the lower jaw, with 
feeble canthus. Rostral broadtir than deep, the portion 
visible from above measuring about one half its distance 
from the frontal ; internasals a little shorter than tlie pras- 
frontals ; frontal bell-shaped, as broad as the supraocular, 
once and two thirds as long as broad, as long as its distance 
from the end of the snout, tiiree fourths the length of the 
parietals ; nasal divided, separated from the single, deeply 
grooved prasocular ; two postoculars ; temporals l-|-2; six 
upper labials, second in contact with the prsefrontal, tliird and 
fourth entering the eye, fifth narrowly separated from the 
parietal, sixth very large ; four lower labials in contact with 
the anterior chin-shields, which are larger tiian the posterior. 
Scales in 17 rows, on the body, in 21 on the neck. Ventrala 
205 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 65 pairs. Uniform dark 
brown above and on the outer ends of the ventral shields, 
some of tiie scales lighter in the centre, yellow beneath. 

Total length 1510 mm. ; tail 240. 

A single specimen from Alexandria. 

LI. — Note on tlie Type Specimen of a Blind Snake, 
Helminthophis vvilderi (Garman), from Brazil. By A. 
G, Hammar. 

In the course of studies of South-American snakes in the 
Museum of Cornell University, I had the opportunity to 
examine the type specimens of Tiiphlops wi/deri, Garm. 
Since this species is not recognized in the literature, and has 
been referred to in Boulenger's ' Catalogue of Snakes,' i. p. 7, 
in a footnote, as insufficiently characterized, I have made 
a careful study of the specimens and give below a new 
description, which will bring it into its proper systematic 

l)ue to the presence of two very large prefrontals, Typlilops 
wilderi, Garm., must be included under the genus lldinm- 
thophis, Peters, Boulenger, Cat. of Snakjs, i. p. 4. 

Blind Snulce from Brazil. 
I lei mint hop /lis wilJeri (Garman). 


Typhlops wilderi, Garman, Science Observer, iv. 1883, p. 48. 
Rostral large, exteruling to the level of the eyes, one 
third the \v id lb of the head: frontal twice as iaro-e as, or 

Helminthopliis tcilderi (Garm.). 

a, lateral view of the head ; b, ventral view of the head ; 
c, dorsal view of the head, 

larger than, scales on the back ; one preocular ; ejes under 
the sutures between the supra-ocular, preocular, and ocular ; 
prefrontal very large, triangular, generally reaching the 1st 
nasal ; labials 3, the 2nd and 3rd in contact with the ocular, 
the anterior largest, forming an acute angle between the 
nasal and the rostral; sublabials 3 (? 4) ; diameter of body 
35 times in the total length ; tail almost as wide as long, 
with 11 ventral scales; 20-22 scales round the body; anal 
plate slightly larger than ventrals. 

I'otal length 170-185 mm. 

Coloration according to Garman : " Back a rich lustrous 
brown ; belly and head lighter. The head is the lightest- 
coloured portion of the body. Tlie tail is daiker beneath 
than the remainder of the vential surface." 

From II. guentJieri, Boul., it can be distinguished by the 
])rcsence of 3 labials instead of 4, and 3 sublabials instead 
of 5; by the small scale following the very large frontal. 
From //. canel/ei, Mocquard, it ditlers by the presence of one 
preocular instead of two. 

The two specimens in the Museum of Cornell University 
have been determined by Garman, and are the types of the 
species. Three specimens were collected in iy78-9 by 
Prof. J. C. Branner in Cyriaco, near iSerra Providencia, 
Minas Geraes, Brazil. 

336 On Loligo media {L.). 

LIT. — A Note on Loligo media {L.). By Anne L. Massy, 
Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for 
Ireland, Fisheries Branch, Dublin. 

I HAVE carefully examined the tentacular suckers in examples 
of this species, of both sexes, from the east and west coasts of 
Ireland, and find them in all cases to be plentifully armed 
with teeth. In this respect they differ from the diagnosis 
given by Hoyle *, who agrees with Jatta in saying that the 
horny ring of the tentacular suckers is perfectly smooth f. 
Dr. Allen and Mr. Todd, of the Marine Biological Associa- 
tion, have kindly sent me specimens from Plymouth and 
from off the coast of Lincolnshire. These also have toothed 
tentacular suckers. Through the courtesy of the Director of 
the Zoological Station at Naples 1 have been enabled to 
examine one of the sj)ecimens used by the late Dr. Jatta in 
his description of the species. It agrees, in the presence of 
teeth on the tentacular suckers, with the English and Irish 
examples mentioned above. 

The specimens from off Trusthorpe, Lincolnshire, are the 
largest, and therefore offer the greatest facility for minute 
examination of the suckers. Each sucker appears to have 
about twenty-four large pointed teeth, with here and there a 
minute conical tooth between two large ones. The points of 
the large teeth are in many cases broken off. 

Several authors have suspected that L. marmorce % was the 
female of L. media. Having read Joubin's paper in support 
of this view, 1 separated all the individuals in our collection 
having fins more or less in the position typical of L. mar- 
morce, and found them to be female, with two exceptions. 
I'he latter were very young males, and obviously their youth 
accounted for the position of their fins. All those with 
lengthened extremity proved to be without exception male. 

* " Notes from the Maucliester Museum. — No. 9. Britisli Cephalopoda ; 
their Nomenclatme and Identification." P. 203: " Suckers of tentacular 
arms with a smooth ring — Loligo media.''^ 

t ' I Cephalopodi viventi nel Golfo di Napoli.' P. 186 : " L'annello 
corneo delle veutose tentacolari e in tutto il suo ambito egualmente 
sviluppato liscio perfettamente sopra il margine lihero." 

X Bull. Soc. scient. medic, de I'ouest, Rennes, xi. 1902 : " Quelques 
observations sur Loligo inedia," 

Descriptions and Records of Bees. 337 

T>Tir. — Descriptions and Records of Bees. — XIX. 
By T. D. A. OoCKERELL, University of Colorado. 

Dufourea (?) calidulay sp. n. 

$ . — Length about 7^ mm. ; anterior wing 5^ mm. 

Black, including legs (last tarsal joint dark reddisli) ; 
pubescence dull white, not abundant; abdomen wholly 
without hair-bands ; head subtriangular, the eyes long and 
converging below; malar space present, but very short; 
clypeus long, flattened, dullish, with very minute ])uacture3 
and an exceedingly short and fine silvery tomentum, only 
visible in lateral view ; sides of face with broad shining 
foveae, which narrow below and extend about halfway down 
the sides of the clypeus as narrow grooves ; antenna black, 
short, ordinary ; vertex dull; mesothorax very shiny poste- 
riorly, anteriorly with a more sericeous surface ; pleura with 
long hair ; area of metathorax broad, dullish, with a minutely 
striatulate surface, its margin evident but rounded ; tegulae 
piceous. Wings perfectly hyaline, beautifully iridescent, the 
large stigma and the nervures piceous; lower section of b. n. 
strongly bent about its middle and falling some distance 
apicad of t.-ni. ; t.-m. not or hardly oblique, slightly bowed 
outwards ; two submarginal cells, the first about or nearly 
twice as long as the large second, the latter receiving both 
the recurrent nervures, the second nearer to its apex than the 
first to its base; third t.-c. bent in the middle; second r. n. 
with an outward bend in its upper part. Hair of legs dull 
white, more or less reddish on tarsi; hind spurs yellowish 
white, long and perfectly sim|)le. Abdomen broad, with a 
dullisli sericeous lustre, first segment with a slight boss on 
each side ; apex with long hairs; venter sparsely hairy. 

JJab. Hinterland of Benguella, Jan. o, 1908 (F. C. 
Wei/ man). 

Tidcen with other bees {Coslioxys bengnellensi's &c.) at a 
small |)atch of flowering (yompositaj, Ollionna and Geigeria. 
No pollen had been collected. This is not a genuine Du' 
fourea^ nor is it a Uahctoides ; I believe it should be regarded 
as the tyj)e of a new genus, derived from the African Halic- 
tines, but I shouhl like to see more material, and especially 
the male sex, belore proposing a generic name. 1 have 
given the characters of the venation which separate it from 
the real Dufourea. 

Ann. if- Mag. X. Hist. 8er. 8. Vol. i. 22 

338 Mr. T. D. A. Coclcevell — Descrijytlom and 

Ileriades eJcuivensis, sp. n. 

? . — Length about 8| mm. ; anterior wing about 5| mm. 

Black, with white pubescence ; abdomen with the usual 
Avhite bands; ventral scopa silvery white; basin of first 
abdominal seoment with a sl)arp rim ; wings dusky. General 
appearance like //. truncorum, L., but differing- as follows: — 
Eyes much larger; cheeks less ample; clypeus with a 
median ridge on its upper half or more; mesothorax larger 
and broader ; tegular piceous ; scutellura large, broad, and 
flat, its straight hind edge projecting; no teeth at sides of 
scutelhim, and its sculpture entirely different from that of 
mesothorax, consisting of large deep pits close together, the 
whole surface being dull, contrasting with the shining meso- 
thorax ; hind tibiae more robust ; marginal cell a little more 
pointed at apex. 1"he jirincipal characters are those of the 
sentellum ; these and the cly])eal ridge suggest affinity with 
//. ch/peatiis, Friese, from the Transvaal. 

Hub. Ekuiva Valley, W. Africa, 1907 (F. C. WeUmnn). 

Among other bees taken by Dr. Wellman in the Ekuiva 
Valley are Serapista denticulata (Sm,), Mesotrichia Jiavorufa 
(De Gear), &c. 

Ileriades wellmam, sp. n. 

$ . — Length 5^ mm. or slightly more. 

Black, with white pubescence ; abdominal bands scarcely 
developed; ventral scopa creamy white ; basin of first abdo- 
minal segment with a sharp rim. A small slender species, 
superficially just like Chelof^toma cavipanularum (Kirby), but 
differing in the structure of the first abdominal segment and 
also as tollows : — flagellum ordinary ; punctures of face and 
fiont much larger; punctures of mesothorax very much 
larger ; scutellum (wiiich is ordinary, not projecting) with 
deep sparse punctures on a shining ground. Wings iiyaline, 
dusky apically ; second s.m. receiving second r. n. very near 
its apex, and the first about twice as far from its base ; punc- 
tures of abdomen large and deep. Somewhat related to 
//. eau'mi'us, Friese, apparently. 

Bab. Hinterland of Benguella, Jan. 3, 1908 {F. C. 

Taken with other bees {Ccelioxys hengueUensis &c.) at a 
small patch of flowering Composita:', Olhonna and Geigeria. 
No pollen had been collected. 

Xijhcopa valga, Gerst. 
I received from the Museum of Comparative Zoology two 

Records of Bees. 339 

specimens o^ Xyhcopa (c? ? ), colloctod many years ago by 
the Rev. M. ]\1. Carleton in the Koolloo Valley, near to the 
Himalayas, Northern India. The male was X. fenestrata, 
Fabr., but, to my surprise, the female proved to be X. valga^ 
Gerst., not hitherto reported from India. 

Chelynia pavonina, sp. n. 

c?. — Lono;th about 8 mm. 

Looking like a small dark blue Osmia; the colour through- 
out, including legs and teguU«, is a very fine dark purple- 
blue, shaded with green, the clypeus and mesothorax being 
nearly all green, while the u})per side of the abdomen is 
largely green, with some crimson tints, the hind margins of 
the segments being purple. Mandibles tridentate ; antennae 
only moderately long, rather thick, resembling those of 
? Osmia, but 13-jointed, the scape green ; head and thorax 
densely punctured and with long coarse hair, which is black 
except on the mesothorax, where it is white; tegula3 large, 
densely punctured. Wings dusky, second submarginal cell 
receiving both recurrent nervures. Hair of legs and abdomen 
black ; abdomen without light markings. 

Avery distinct and beautilul species, with peacock-colours ; 
it most resembles Stelis montana, Cresson, but is easily 
known from that by the venation and other characters. 
JIab. Boulder, Colorado, June (G. M. Ilite). 

Cyrtapis, gen. nov. 

Tlather small; body //a/<c^M5-like ; stigma large; three 
submarginal cells; first s.m. long, but not so long as tho 
other two combined ; second broaci, receiving the first r. n. 
before its middle ; third broader above than below, receiving 
the second r. n. a short distance from its base ; second r. n. 
with an even but strong double curve ; marginal cell large, 
pointed at apex ; lower section of basal nervure strongly 
curved and much long u- than upp^r ; b. n. meeting t.-m., the 
latter ol)lique, its lower end more aj)icad ; abdomen aj)pa- 
rently with a narrow elongated black py^-idial area, but this 
is a little uncertain. 

Cj/rtapis anomalus, sp. n. 

Length about 8 mm., with head thrust forward. 

Head about lr| mm. long, bluntly triangular, rather elon- 
gated; head and thorax apparently black; abdomen reddish, 
with broad entire bands, at least twice as broad as the pale 
intervals between them ; antennae cylindrical, not monili- 


340 Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell — Descriptions and 

form, rather long (at least ?) min.), width of flagellum about 
170 fi ; abdomen as in Ilulictua, sessile, about 2 mm. broad. 
Wings hyaline, nervures and stigma pale testaceous ; length 
of anterior wing about 4| mm. 

The following wing-measurements are in /x : — 

Depth of stigma 238 ; length of marginal cell 16L5 ; width 
(or depth) of marginal cell 425 ; length of first submarginal 
918; lower side of first s.m. 663; length of second s.ra. 
(from one lower corner to the other) 629; second s.m. on 
marginal 391 ; tiiird s.m. on marginal 663; third s.m. below 
493; length of first discoidal 1224; upper side of second 
discoidal 765; lower side of second discoidal 884; length of 
third discoidal (from angle formed bj first and second to 
lower apical corner) 1156; b n. on first s.m. 255; b. n. on 
first discoidal (not allowing for curve) about 561. 

Hah. Fossil in the Miocene shales o£ Florissant, Cjjlorado, 
at Station 14 {W. F. Cockerel!, 1907). 

Without any clue to the mouth-parts it is difficult to place 
this singular genus in its correct systematic position. The 
general appearance, and the large stigma, marginal cell, and 
bent basal nervure are all as in the Halictines. The form of 
the second submarginal cell, with the first r. n. joining it 
before the middle, as well as the second r. n. with a double 
curve, suggest affinity with the Colletines. The really 
anomalous character is found in the third transverso-cubital 
nervure, which has a strong double curve, and has its upper 
section more apicad than the lower, just reversing the normal 
condition. This is quite clearly visible in both wings, and 
evidently not an abnormality. 

Ceratina hinghami, sp. n. 

Ceratina viridissiina, Bingham, Faun. Brit. Iniia, Hymenoptei*a, vol. i, 
p. 501. — Not C. viridissima, Dalla Torre. 

This Indian species has long passed as Ceratina viridis, 
Guer., as it agrees sufiiciently with Guerin's short descrip- 
tion. Tiie name of the species was needlessly altered to 
viridissima by Dalla Torre on account of supposed preoccupa- 
tion. The original viridis was from Senegal, W. Africa, and 
has not been found in that region since 1845, unless an 
insect re|)orted by Meunier as a variety of his C. congoensis 
really belongs to it. I have just received from Dr. F. C. 
Weilman some specimens (2 ? , 1 cj) of a CVa^^'wa collected 
by him in the Ekuiva Valley, ICO miles east of B^nguella, 
and these 1 refer Avithout hesitation to C. viridis. One of 
the females was visiting the flowers of an orchid. Compared 
with the Indian insect these viridis are more robust and much 

Records of Bees. 341 

less brilliantly coloured, and somewhat more coarsely punc- 
tured ; there is no doubt that they represent a distinct 
species. My specimens of C. bingkami are from Mr. Sladen, 
and were collected at Calcutta and Siliguri in 1897. The 
specimen from Calcutta is more blue than green. 

PrOTOMELECTA, gen. no v. 
Form Andrena-Wka, with a rather long abdomen ; wings 
short, not reaching tip of abdomen ; tlagdhun thick, as in 
Melecta; eyes large and promirRnt; middle ocfdlus in a 
depression; scutellum aj)parently flat and Crocisa- like, the 
lateral posterior corners pioduced and angulate, but the 
interval between the points straight in the middle, not in- 
cised ; stigma large ; marginal cell long, ending in a rather 
blunt point not quite on costa; three subniarginal cells, the 
first longest below, but not very greatly so; second subraar- 
ginal cell very broad, receiving the first recurrent nervure 
beyond the middle ; third s.m. greatly narrowed to marginal, 
receiving the second r. n. beyond the middle ; second r. n. 

Protomelecta brevijyenniff^ sp. n. 

Length about 9 mm. 

Black; anterior wing Sj mm. ; abdomen 5 mm. long or 
nearly and about 3 wide, extending about 1 mm. beyond 
closed wings ; wings fuliginous, stigma black, nervures 
brown ; flagellum thick, about 310 /i diameter. Wings quite 
hairy ; abdomen with sparse but evident hairs. Ocellar 
basin (for middle ocellus) oval, about 391 yu, long and 255 
broad. Basal nervure originating some distance from stigma, 
its lower part gently curved, but not at all as in the Balic- 
tines ; thud transvtrdo-cubital with a double curve, formed 
about as in Xenoylossa ; apex of first discoidal prolonged and 
sharply pointed. 

The fulluwing wing-measurements are in /i : — 

Depth of stigma 238 ; length of marginal cell 1598, its 
depth 459; length of first discoidal cell IG49 ; lower side of 
first subniarginal cell (JIG, of second 595, of third 544 ; lower 
section of basal nervure G12, the upper very much shorter ; 
lower side of first discoidal 969 ; first recurrent nervure 663 ; 
insertion of first r. n. to end of second s.m. 85 ; insertion of 
second r. n. to end of third s.m. about 85 ; upper side of 
second s.m. about 459, of third s.m. 187; distance between 
insertions of tlie recurrent nervures 493. 

llah. Fossil in the Miocene shales of Florissant, Colorado, 
Station 14 {W. I\ Cockercll, 1907). 

342 Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell — Descriptions and 

A very Mehctn-\'\kQ genus, but with tlie venation of tlie 
Eucerines and the hirg-e stio:ma of the Andrenids. In Ann. 
& Mag. Nat. Hist., July 1902, p. 45, the affinities of Melecta 
are discussed, and it is concluded that it is derived from tlie 
Anthophorine series, and is especially related to the Euceriues 
(Xenoghssa &c.). The genus now described would therefore 
fall into the series as a primitive Melectine, retaining, how- 
ever, the large stigma characteristic of lower groups. Among 
the known fossil genera it has a rather close resemblance to 
Lithajidrena, but the latter has not the Jle/ecta-Wke antennge 
and the proportions of the submarginal cells are different. 
Frotomelecta is no doubt a parasitic genus, but there is no 
reason for supposing this of Lithandrena. 

Cadioi'i/s henguellensis, sp. n. 
5. — Length about 16 mm.; anterior wing a little over 
10 mm. 

Black, including the legs and tegulse, with dense snow- 
white pubescence on cheeks, sides of face, upper part and 
margins of pleura, &c. Hair on eyes only moderately long; 
clypeus with white hair, no keel on it or the supraclypeal 
region ; mesothorax and scutellum dull, with very dense 
large punctures ; scutellum with no median tubercle, teeth at 
its sides long, a little curved. Legs with white hair, but it 
is orange-ferruginous on inner side of tarsi. Anterior wings 
dark fuliginous, violaceous, hyaline at base ; hind wings 
liyaline, with the apex broadly fuliginous. Abdomen 
strongly and quite closely punctured, with linear white hair- 
bands, broadening laterally; venter with three broad white 
liair-bands, failing more or less in the middle ; margin of 
penultimate ventral segment covered with white hair ; last 
dorsal segment keeled about | of its length, its apex rather 
blunt ; last ventral surpassing last dorsal by nearly a milli- 
metre, narrow, with long fuscous hair on each margin and 
%vith a little sharp tooth on each side a little beyond level of 
apex of last dorsal ; penultimate ventral segment rough with 
excessively minute punctures, giving way to larger ones at 
the base. In Friese's table of African CGelioxys (' Arkiv for 
Zoologi/ 1904) this runs to C. setosa, Friese, but differs from 
that E. -African species in the colour of the hair on the 
clypeus and apical segment of abdomen. In the structure of 
the apex o£ the abdomen there is some analogy with C. elon- 
gata, Lep.^ but the apex of the last ventral is very much 
narrower than in that species, and the lateral teeth are not 
nearly so near the apex. 

Records of Bees, 343 

Hah. Hiiiteiland of Benguella, W. Africa, Jan. 3, 190S 
(F. C. We/lman). 

It was taken, along with nu'uerous otiier bees {Anthophora 
ccerulea, Friese, $ , Cr< cisa picta, Smith, ? , Apis adansoni, 
Latr., worker, &c.) at a small patch of flowering Coiupositte, 
species of Othonna and Geigeiia. 

Thrinchostoma orchidarum, sp.. n. 

(^ . — Length a little over 11 nun. with tiie liead thrust 
forward ; anterior wing Sf mm. 

Black, with the hair on head and thorax above mainly 
ferrui;inous, but on cheeks and pleura white; sides and 
middle of face with dense white hair; clypeus greatly pro- 
duced as usual^ its apical margin broadly light yellow ; tongue 
long and slender, orange, very hairy ; palpi clear ferruginous; 
last joint of maxillary palpi long and slender; antennaa 
ordinary, flagellum ferruginous beneath; eyes prominent; 
mesothorax and scutellum extren)ely closely and densely 
punctured; tegulse clear ferruginous. Wings ample, ferru- 
ginous-tinted, stigma and nervures ferruginous; costal margin 
with short dark h lir ; apex of wings not infuscated ; second 
s.m. large; second t.-c. with a patch of black liairas usual in 
the genus, but straight (not l>ent as in T. bicometes) ; third 
t.-c. almost straigiit (not curved as in T. wellinani) ; third 
s.m. receiving both recurrent nervures at about equal distances 
from a}>ex and Ixise ; femora black; tibiae with a yellow 
basal spot and more or less yellow apically ; hind tibiai broad, 
triangular, with a greatly produced and eidarged inner angle, 
on the lower side of which the two sjjurs are seen, widely 
separated ; tarsi clear light yellow, the apical two or three 
joints ferruginous; abdomen black, with the hind margins of 
the segments broadly brilliant silvery, the apical segment 
with black hair. 

From the structure and colour of the wings this cannot be 
the male of T. loellinani. It is also quite distinct from 
T. bicometes {IJi<i(jonozus bicometes, Enderlein) and 'T. pro- 
ductutii (Smith). lis closest affinity is with T. renitanteli/, 
Saussure, from Madagascar, but it differs in several points of 

llab. Hinterland of Benguella, Jan. lOOS, in llowers of a 
large orchid [F, C. Weltinan). 

Thrinchostovia orthomuv, y[). n. 

? . — Length hardly 8 mm. ; anterior wing (J mra. 
Shining black ; head and thorax with white hair, a little 

344 Mr. E. E. Austen on the Synovymy and 

fuscous on scutellum ; clypeus produced, but not so exces- 
sively as in some species, exceedingly shiny, very sparsely 
punctured ; sides of face covered with white hair ; malar 
space broader than long; antennse black; front densely and 
minutely j)unctured ; mesothorax with dense strong punc- 
tures, but shining ; postscutellum covered with white tomen- 
tum and white hair in scutello-mesothoracic suture ; area of 
mefathorax broad, with a raised cancellate sculpture; tegu'a3 
dark reddish. Wings reddish, stigma and nervures rather 
dilute brown; second very large; third s.m. receiving 
the recurrent nervures near apex and base ; second and third 
transverso-cubital straight. Legs black, the tarsi ferruginous 
at apex. Abdomen black, the hind margins of the segments 
broadly hyaline, rather sparsely beset with silvery hairs; 
dark parts of abdomen with much black hair. 

The smallest known species of the genus ; nearest to 
T. jv'oductum, but malar space shorter, and the sculpture of 
the thorax very different. 

IJah. Hinterland of Benguella, Jan. 3, 1908 (F. C. 

Taken with other bees (CceUo.rys henguellensis &c.) at a 
small patch of flowering Composita:', Olhonna and Geigeria. 
Tiie hind legs are loaded with the deep orange pollen. 

Bomhus ephippiafus montezumce, n. n. 

Bomlus Inboi-iosus, Smith, Jouni. of Entom. 1861, p. 1-33 (not of P'abii- 
cius, 1804).— Mexico. 

LIV. — On the Synonymy and Systematic Position of some 
Species of Tabanidse described by Thunberg and Lichten- 
stein. By Ernest E. Austen. 

In a recent paper on the ''Nomenclature of Diptera " Prof. 
Eezzi * has called attention to certain forgotten writings of 
C. P. Thunberg and A. A. H. Lichtenstein, and has also 
{loc. ci't. p. 84) expressed his conviction that, as has already 
been done in the case of other orders of insects, " a permanent 
and immutable nomenclature can be established for the 
Diptera also, alter all generic and specific names, proposed 
by all the older authors without exception, have been com- 
jjletely elucidated and interpreted." The following notes are 

* Wien. Ent. Z. xxvli. Jahrg., Heft ii. & iii. (20tli Feb., 1908) 
pp. 77-83. 

Systematic Fodlion of some ^/'ecj'es 0/ Tabanidse. 345 

offered in tlie hope of expediting, in liowever small a degree, 
the advent of so desirable a consummation. 

Bezzi is not strictly correct in statin^j [loc. cit. p. 80) that 
the species of Tabaiiid* described by Thunberg (Nov. Act. 
K. Soc. Sci. Upsal. ix. 1827, pp. 53-75) are "entirely 
wantiniij " from Kertesz's ' Catalogus Tabanidarum ' (1900), 
since Tabauus ruher^ Thunb. {loc. cit. p. 56. — Habitat un- 
known), and Tuhanus triceps, Thunb. {loc. cit. p. b\'>. — 
Cayenne and Brazil), are duly recorded by Kert^sz. The 
inclusion of these species, however, in view of the exclusion 
of all the others, is certainly remarkable. 

Tanyglossa ci/u/ulata, Thunb. {he. cit. p. 70, tab. i. fig. 8. 
— ^(!ape of Good Hope), = Pa??^o«ia angulata, Fabr. 

From Thunberg^s description and tigure, Fcnigo'iia con- 

Juncta, Walk. (List Dipt. Ins. in Coll. Brit. Mus. i. (1818) 

p. 135. — S. Afiica). Avould appear to be identical with 

Tanyglossa pnlcra, Thunb. {/oc. cit. p. 72, tab. i. fig. 9), 

which, however, is stated to be from Brazih 

Tanyglossa rostrata, Thunb. {loc. cit. p. 75, tab, i. fig. 13. 

— Cape of Good Hope), ajparently = P«/?^o/u'a [Tabanus) 
rostruta, Linn. 

Tanyglossa obscura, Thunb. {loc. cit. p. 73, tab. i. fig. 10. 
— Locahty not given), is a Fangonia, as stated by Bezzi — 
jierliaps I\ rostrata, Linn. 

[Tanyglossa cleustu, Thunb. {loc. cit. p. 68, tab. i. fig. 7. — 
Biazil), is not a Neinestrinid, as su<i:gested by B>'zzi, but = 
JJeterosfylum ritfam, Olivier (fam. Bombylidffi).] 

Tanyglossa cttliiopica, Thunb. [loc. cit. p. 67, tab. i. fig. 6. 

— Caj)e of Good Hope). — Apparently this is the species 
previously (Mus. Nat. Acad. Upsal. Dissertationes, Pars 7 
(1789) p. 91) described by Thuijbergas Tabanus ccthiopicus* . 
lie this as it may, there can be no doubt that it is a Pan- 
gonia, and not P. rosirata, L., as Bezzi believes, but 
P. (Corizoneura) varicolor, Wied. (Auss. Zw. Ins. i. (1828) 
p. 98 : syn. P. nppendiculata, Macq.). "Wiedemann's name 
consequently becomes a synonym, and the species must 
henceforth be known as Pangonia athiopica, Thunb. 

Tanyglossa tlioracica, Tluinb. [he. cit. p. 71. — Locality 
nnknown), is a Pangonia, apparently allied to 1'. angulata, 
Fabr. H' so, it must be from IS. Africa. 

According to Bezzi {loc. cit. p. 83, note 2), with the excep- 
tion of Mydus nitida, none of the species of exotic Hiptera 

* Omitted by Bezzi, Wion. Eiit. Z. x.wii. Jain-^., Heft ii. it iii. (Feb, 
20lb, IW6) p. 79. 

346 Mr. O. Thomas on the 

described in Anton August Heinrich Lichtenstein's * Cata- 
logus ' * have been noticed by Wiedemann or any other 
author. Bezzi (loc. cit. note 2) gives the number of the 
species under the genera under which they were described, 
but states that he has not yet seen the publication in 
question. This is not sui prising, since, according to Slieiborn 
(Ann. & Mag. Nat. serl 7, vol. iii. Ib99, p. 272), 
Lichtenstein^s *Catalogus' is "so rare that only two copies 
are known to exist, ( ne in the British Museum and one in 
the University of Kiel." Lichtetistein''s Tabanidte were 
described as Tahinus costalis (op. cit. p. 213) and Tuhanus 
Hottentotus and T. charopus (ibid. p. 2l4). Ihe descriptions 
are exceedingly short, and since few dipterists are likely to 
be in a position to consult the originals, they are transcribed 
in their entirety below, with a note in each case on the 
systematic position of the species: — 

'^295. Tabanus striatus; n. 39+. Item: Tabanus cos- 
talis; nobis. Taban. oculis seneis ; ferrugineus, alis hyaliuis 
costa flava. Habitat in Ooromandel.''' 

[Apparently a labanus, but precise species probably 

" 304. Tabanus Hottentotus ; nobis. Tabanus ater ; 
thorace, & abdominis segmento tertio supra flavo macularis 
[sic]. Habitat ad Cap. bon. Spei. Haustelluui longitudine 
capitis, a!ai nigise." 

[Evidently a Cadicera, near, though apparently distinct 
from, C. {Fanyonia) clinjaostigma, VVied.] 

"305. Tabanus charopus; nobis. 'J'abaiius oculis fuscis, 
ater, lanugiiie alba, alis hyalinis. Habitat ad Cap. bon. hJpei. 
Haustellum longitudine thoracis.^' 

[Probably Boinhylius anatis, Fabr., c? •] 

LV. — The Missing Premolar of the Chiroptera. 
\^J Oldfield Thomas. 

Ko bat has normally more than three premolars, above or 
below, and the question has naturally arisen as to which of 
the full mammalian set ot four has disappeared in this group. 

* ' Catalogus reruin i.aturalium rarissiniarum Hamburg] . . . auctionis 
lege dLtraliendaiuiu . . .' Sectio tertia [Iiis-ecta]. bvo, llauiburg, 179ti. 

t The uumber under which Tabcmus ftriuttts was originally described 
by Fiibricius, Eut. Syst. iv. 1794, p. 371. — E. E. A. 

Missing Premolar of the Chiroptera. 347 

Tlitlitrto authors have taken for granted tliat tlic anterior 
tooth, the protus * or jj^, was the missing one ; but they 
appear to have done this ratlier because it was the simplest 
theory than tliat tliey had any strong reason for it. Even 
"Wiiige, \\\\o gives in most cases such full reasons for his 
cnnchisioiis, merely says " it is usually presumed that it is 
l?- which is absent " f. 

In such cases the arguments that are available are of three 
kinds, viz. : (1) relative position in the jaw, (2) ihe occasional 
aecurrence of atavistic teeth, and (3) ttie presence or absence 
of milk-teeth corresponding to the permanent ones. The first 
two of these arguments may often be fallacious, while ihj 
third is a very important one ; but if, as now, all three agree 
in pointing to one conclusion, that siiould be accepted even if 
it differs from the usual opinion on the subject. 

It is, of course, certain that the two posterior premolars of 
bats are to be homologized as jy" and p^, tritus and tetartus; 
and the question to be settled is as to whether the most 
anterior one is the protus or deuterus, p^ or p"^, and I have 
come to the conclusion that this tooth is the protus and that 
the deuterus is missing, for the following reasons : — 

(1) As to relative position, attention may be drawn to ths 
way in which the anterior tooth in Pterocyon helvus, \n 
Lonchoglossa, and others, stands close behind the canine, 
with a gap separating it from the other teeth. 

(2) Dr. K. Andersen has shown me a skull of Pieropus 
scapulatus (B.M. no. 86. 11. 1. 1) in which the mandible 
possesses on one side a well-developed tooth standing in the 
gap thus formed, and, 1 would suggest, representing the 
missing j(y2. The additional premolar described by Peters;}: 
in a specimen of Anvura geoffroiji is again in an exactly 
similar position, and may be equally of an atavistic nature. 

(3) The really important test as to whether a tooth is a. p^ 
ox p^ is, among the l^V-rte, as to whether it does or does not 
have a milk predecessor, no protus in the group being knowu 
to change §, while the deuterus is always represented by bjtli 

* Cf. P. Biol. Soc. Wash, xviii. p. 196 (1905). 

t " Pattedyrenes Tandskifte," iu ^'id. Medd. Nat. For. Copenhagen, 
1882, p. 02. 

X MB. Ak. Berl. 1869, p. 398. 
§ A case contradicling this rule 

4 iliX^. Xin. ^CJX. ,.^KJKJ, (.. XJ^^. 

§ A case coiitradiciing this rule would appear to be represented by the 
mole's dentition a.s described by Tauber (Naturh. Tidsskr. (3) viii. p. '2'y2, 
pi. xi., 1872), but, judjrinp: by the tigure, his interpretations are palpably 
iucoiTect. Taking his own diagram, no one could hesitite in deciding 
that the teeth he calls mil. 1 in the upper jaw and ;wj. 1 in the lower 
correspond absolutely with each other, instead of one being milk and the 
other peruuiueut. The true explanation of his drawing is evidently that 

348 On the Missinr/ Premolar of the Chiroptera. 

milk find permanent teeth. Now, with one exception, ex- 
phtined below, no bat has ever been recorded as havin<^ more 
than two milk-preniolars, those belonging to the two |)Osterior 
teeth, the tritus and tetartus. The anterior Chiropteran 
cheek-tooth therefore never changes, and is, ipso fucto^ /)' 
(unless it is w^;', a possibility about which I cannot at 
present express any opinion, though I do not think it 
unlikely). 'J hat the absence of the milk-tooth cannot be 
correlated with the reduction that the anterior permanent 
tooth generally exhibits is shown by the fact that in Pterocyon 
he/vus this premolar is decidedly larger than the incisors, 
and yet no trace of a milk-tooth belonging to it is to be 
found, while the milk-incisors are large and conspicuous. 

The one exception referred to is Leche's record of three 
upper milk-premolars in Glossophaga*, although the adult has 
only two j)crmanent premolars. But this latter fact gives 
the clue to the apparent anomaly of the Glossopkaga dentition, 
for to my mind it indicates without doubt that the anterior 
cheek-tooth regarded by Leche as a milk-tooth is simply 
the ordinary anterior premolar itself, somewhat premature in 
development and deciduous in the adult. 

As I agree with Dr. Knud Andersen that it is the outer 
and not the median upper incisor that has disappeared in 
bats t, the following would be the full Chiropteran formula 
when at its maximum : — 

ri 3 4 fl 2 3^1 
^ r " ' ' M. 1x2=22.38. 

3 4 

ll 3 4 ll 2 3. 

the teeth just mentioned are the non-changing protus and protid, while 
the objects he labels as ;jm. I above and ind. 1 below are not teeth at all, 
but soft structures which he has mistaken for such in the belief that teeth 
ought to be found there. 

* I.unds Univ. Arsskr. xiv. p. 11, pi. ii. fig. vii. (1878). 

t Partly because of the reduction of the third lower incisor in many bats, 
partly because of the way the lower canine bites on to the space where a 
missing i^ would have stood, and partly on the analogy of such other mem- 
bers of the Fera3 as Gmtetes, where this reduction can be clearly proved 
(see P. Z. S. 1892, p. 504). Mr. Miller's argument (' Genera of Bats,' p. 27, 
1907) .about the median imperfection of the premaxilhe appears to me 
quite fallacious, for the innermost incisor of three, in one geological epoch, 
would not be atiected by the fact that in a later one, aftei- the reduction 
to two incisors, the premaxillte were (/om(/ to become imperfect in the 
middle line of certain genera. The reduction from three to two must 
have taken place long before any tendency to premaxillary imperfection 
began to appear. 

071 a new Deer from Venezuela. 349 

LVI. — A neio Deer of the Brochef Group from Venezuela. 
By Oldfield Thomas. 

MaHnv^a hricenii, sp. n. 

Similar in many res])ects to M. tema, Raf,, tlie Central- 
American Brocket (commonly known as M. sartori'i^), but 
disfinciiished by smaller size and deeper lacrymal pits. 

Coloration ])ractically the same as that of M. tema, the 
body ricli chestnut-rufous, the head, ears, nape, fore limbs, 
and hind feet dark brown. Under surface rather light'^-r tlian 
upper, the bri^-Jit rufous of tlie interramia and throat strongly 
contrasted with the dark brown o£ the cheeks. Tail short, 
with a few rufous and more brown hairs on its upper side, the 
hairs of its lower side white. 

Skull, as compared with that of M. tema, smaller and more 
delicately built throughout. Premaxilloe with a long nasal 
articulation. Lacrymal vacuities rather small. Lacrymal 
pits unusually developed for a member of this group, about 
7 or 8 mm. in deptii, those of a tema of similar age and 
sex about 2 or 3 mm. Orbit conspicuously smaller than in 
the allied form. 

Dimensions of the skull (the animal not having been 
measured in the flesh, and the skin being so prepared as to be 
useless for measurement) : — 

Greatest length 15!) mm. ; basal length 143 ; greatest 
breadth 70; nasals 43*5 x 22-5 ; interorbital breadth 34-5; 
height of orbit 25 ; muzzle to front of p^ 45 ; combined 
length of three upper j)remolars 23*5, of wdiole tooth-row 51. 

JIab. Paramo do la Culata, Merida, Venezuela. Altitude 
3000 m. 

Ti,pe. Adult female. Collected 14th August, 1907, by 
S. Briccno, after whom I have named the species, in recog- 
nition of the immense number of mammals which he has 
been instrumental in discovering. 

While of described species this animal is undoubtedly most 
nearly allied to M. tema, yet there is a t-kuU in the Museum 

* While Hernandez's Temamazame has been riyhtly referred by all 
authors, frona Alston downward.^, to the Central-American Brocket' the 
techuiriil name based on it by liatinetiqae in 1817, M. tenia, has been, 
for some inscrutable reason, left attached to its larger S.-American ally 
(M. ni/inus). Even Dr. Mcrriam, who in Isito had written " the Tern i- 
mazaiue of Mexico, whicli linfinesqiie called M. temti'' {' Science,' i. p. IS), 
speaks in lUOl (P. JJiol. Soc. Wash. xiv. p. 10")) of " M. sartorii" as the 
" only known species from Mexico," the name hu uses beinjj- forty-three 
years later in date than M. tema. 

350 Mr. O. A. Sayce on a 

which much more closely agrees witli that of M. hricemi, 
ramely tlftit figured by de Winton as being the skull of his 
Pudua mej)h{sto2iheJes *. Since Mr. Soderstrom sent the 
first and typical specimen of P. mepldstojyheJes he has been 
good enough to present two further exaniples to the British 
Museum, and these show that some mistake must have 
occurred in the allocation of the skull Mr. de Winton 
described. For the skulls of the fresh specimens, about 
which there can be no question, are very like that of 
P. pudu in most particulars, and show that mephistoplieles^ 
although a perfectly distinct species, is not so widely different 
from P. pudu as Mr. de Winton sup|)osed. Curiously enough, 
like that figured, the true mejMstopheles skull has a broad 
naso-premaxillary articulation, and, in addition, diffei'S from 
that of P. pudu by the almost entire absence of the lacrj^mal 
pit so well marked in the Chilian form. 

On the other hand, the skull wrongly supposed to be that 
of P. mephistopheles is closely similar to that of Mazama 
Iricenii, and indicates the existence in Ecuador of a highland 
Brocket allied to, and perhaps identical with, the animal now 
described from Venezuela. 

LVII. — Description of a netv remarhahle Crustacean loith 
Primi'ive Malacostracan Characters. )iy O. A. SaycE f. 

(Read before the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, 8th October, 1907.) 

The new crustacean, of which I now offer a preliminary 
description, is a very important one, having in a mnjor degree 
the character of the stalk-eyed forms, although possessing 
definitely sessile eyes, and also bearing other features which 
.<^hed additional light on divergent groups. I consider it the 
most primitive sessile-eyed Malacostracan hitherto recorded. 
Its nearest ally is undoubtedly the stalk-eyed Anaspides 
tastnanice, G. M. Thomson. 

It has been easy to separate crustaceans, apirt from the 
more primitive forms, such as the Entomostraca, into two 
divisions — one, possessing movably stalked eyes, Podoph- 
tlialma, and another, with sessile eyes, Edrioi)lithalma — and 
hitherto there has been no sharp merging of one into the 

* P. Z. S. 1896, p. 510, figs. 2 Sc 4. 

t From the ' Victoriau Naturalist,' vol. xxiv. no. 7 (November 7, 1907), 
pp. 117-120. 

new remarkable Crustacean. ?,o\ 

oflif'v. This basis for classification was arlopted by Leach in 
1815, and is to-day the generally accepted one. 

For some years ))ast, however, some few carcinologists, 
notably Prof. Boas, and later Dr. H. J. Hansen, have con- 
ceived that in certain circumstances this is not a natural 
classification, and that in the more primitive forms of each 
division — viz. the stalk-eyed Schizopoda and the sessile-eyed 
Isopoda — some of the former are more closely related to the 
latter than are some Schizopod families to each other. 
Hansen differs in many points from Boas, and no subsequent 
writer seems to have adopted their recommendations until 
recently, when Di'. W. T. Caiman * has confoimed to 
Hansen's suggestion (with some modifications and additions), 
and done away with the Schizopoda as a natural group, 
uniting some, the Euphausiacea, to the Decapoda fcrayfish, 
crabs, &c.), and the remainder, the Mysidacea, to a large 
group including all the sessile-eyed forms (Isopoda and 

'J'his is not the place to enter into a detailed discussion as 
to the systematic position of the present species, but I shall 
do so in another place, and give a detailed description, with 
illustrations of its anatomy. SuflScient to say here tliat it 
cannot be placed in Caiman's division Syncarida, composed 
of the single order Anaspidacea, to which tiie present species 
is rather closely allied, without considerable alteration of his 
diagnosis; for instance, it has not all the thoracic somites 
distinct, the anterior one being coalesced with the head, the 
eyes are not pedunculated, nor are the thoracic limbs flexed 
between the fifth and sixth joints, but between the fourth and 
fifth. I can, however, respect his order Anaspidacea, so far 
undefined, and in consequence of the present species I oft'er a 
diagnosis of it. 

Should the opinion preponderate that the Schizopoda, with 
the Euj)hausid and Mysid types both included, be kept for 
the present as a natural group, then Anaspidacea may be 
included as a tribe of that group. 

I am aware in joining the present species to Anaspidacea 
that it originates an order possessing both stalked and sessile- 
eyed forms, but J feel confident tliat the close relationshii) 
shown in other respects of this new species to Anaspules 
warrants such a union. 

Fundamentally the present species has the well-known 
Schizopod characters, and, of the two rather widely divergent 

* "On the Classiliciitit)n of the Criu^tnroa Arahicostrncn," hy W. T 
Calmfti), D.Sc. : Ann. ^: Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) xiii. p. 1 II (1904). 

352 Mr. O. A. Sajce on a 

types of tliat order, it has marked affinities with the 
Euphausid, and to a less degree witli the Mysid type, as 
well as having a strong likeness to the primitive forms of 
Isopoda and Amphipoda. 

Considering the stalked eye as a primitive character and 
dominant throughout the main stem of descent of the crusta- 
ceans, and the sessile-eyed forms as a lateral divergence, it 
appears to me that the present form is an early stage of such 

It will not be disputed that the present species in general 
form and structure is like Anaspides tasmanim^ G, M. Thomson, 
a noteworthy species in freshwater pools on the summit of 
Mt. Wellington, Tasmania, and in Lake Field, situated 
40 miles from the above situation, at an elevation of about 
4000 feet. 

Anaspides differs from other Schizopods in possessing no 
vestige of a carapace, and has eight distinct thoracic somites. 
The present species has marked affinities with it, but differs 
in a good many minor characters and fundamentally in the 
eyes being sessile, there being no antennal scale, and in the 
coalescence of the first tiioracic somite with the head. 

I'he loss of stalked eyes, carapace, and scale-like exopodite 
on the antenna — each, I think, acknowltdged as primitive 
features — while in most other respects quite of a Schizopod 
type, marks the present species as the most primitive sessile- 
ejed Malacostracan at present known, and it is no doubt a 
very ancient type. I may also note that Caiman has shown 
that Aiiasjndes closely resembles some of the oldest fossil 
Malacostraca [Uromctes &c.). 

Specimens were collected from small freshwater reedy pools 
beside a tiny little runnel which joins the Mullum MuUum 
Creek, Ringwood, near Melbourne, during an excursion of 
the Nature iStudy Class for teachers, under the direction of 
Mr. J. A. Leach, M.Sc, to whom I am indebted for specimens. 

Order Anaspidacea, Caiman, 190L 

This order, so far, has not been defined. 

Body generally slender, of nearly cylindrical form, integu- 
ment thin. Carapace absent. ^Jlioracic somites distinct or 
with the anterior one fused with the head. Abdomen of 
about equal length to the cephalon and thorax combined ; 
somites distinct, flexing evenly throughout. P^yes stalked or 
sessile. Antennary scale small or absent. Auditory organ 
at base of first antenna. Peduncle of second antennge 
four-jointed. Mandibles without a secondary cutting-edge 

new remarkahle Crustacean. 353 

(lacim'a mohilts of Hansen). Maxillipeds and succeeding pairs 
of legs uniform in general structure and adapted for walking. 
Swimming-branches (exopods) on all but the last two or 
three pnirs of legs. Branc!iia3 forming a double series on all 
but the last one or two pairs of legs, simple, lamellar, wholly 
uncovered. Pleopoda natatory, no appendix interna^ inner 
branch (endopodite) rudimentary or wanting except in the 
males, when it is modified in the first two pairs for sexual 
purposes. Telson and uropoda normal, together forming a 
"fan.^^ No marsupial plates (oostegites). 

Fam. 1. Anaspidae, Thomson, 1894. 

Thorax of eight segments. Eyes pedunculated. Antcnnal 
scale arising from the second joint. Mandibles with single 
dentate cutting-edge, " spine-row " or setose ridge, and 
molar expansion. Maxillipeds with exopodite small, simple, 
and lamellar ; epipodite quite small and simple; possessing 
also small gnatliobasic lobes on the inner face. First five 
pairs of legs with well-developed swimming-branch. Branchiae 
on all but the last pair of legs, which are without any ap- 
pendages. Pleopoda with rudimentary endopodite. 

Fam. 2. KoonungidaB, no v. 

In general appearance like Anaspidae. Tliorax with ante- 
rior segment fused with the head, leaving seven distinct sub- 
equal segments. Eyes sessile. No anteunal scale. Mandibles 
with a single dentate cutting-edge and molar expansion, no 
" spine-row " or its equivalent. Maxillipeds without any 
trace of gnatliobasic lol^es, otherwise like AnaspidaJ. Branchiae 
and swimming-branches of legs like Anaspidse. Last pair of 
legs fiexed in the opposite direction to the preceding ones. 
Pleopoda absolutely uniramous, except the first two pairs in 
the male. 

Genus Koonunc.a, nov. 

Ce|)halon of about equal length to the following two 
segments combined, possessing a short transvt-rse sulcus ou 
each .«ide at about the middle distance, posteriorly to which 
the margins are produced downward and inwards. Frontal 
margin of cephalon scarcely })roduced, incised above the 
altacluncnt ot the second antenme, forming a small lateral 
lobe. Eyes small, round, situated on the dorsal surface at 
the angles formed by the union of the frontal margin and the 
incisions. Antennae long and filamentous, the upper with 

Ann. (Sc May. N. tliat. fcser. 8. Vol. i. 23 

354 On a new remarkable Crustacean. 

basal joint of flagellum with sensory modification in the 
male, lower nearly as long as the upper. 

]\Iandibles with a three-jointed palp. First maxilloe with a 
small but distinct palp. No swimming-branch on the last 
two pairs of thoracic limbs. 

Remarks. — The name is derived from the aboriginal name 
of a creek which runs near where specimens were collected. 

Koonunga cursor, sp. n. 

Specific description.— Anterior portion of the body of sub- 
cylindric form, becoming gradually rather broader, deeper, 
and cylindrical posteriorly. All the segments of the thorax 
and abdomen subcqual. Abdomen of equal length to the 
thorax, last segment not longer than the preceding one, with 
one or two dorsal spines close to the attachment of the telson. 
Telson entire, slightly broader than its length, of triangular 
form and rounded apex, margin fringed with a double or 
more series of stout spines. Uropoda with peduncle ex- 
tending to half the lengih of the telson, its branches some- 
what longer than the peduncle, inner one fringed along the 
inner margin with upturned spines, and three longer ones at 
the apex pointing outward ; outer margin and apex fringed 
with very long feathered setee ; outer branch fringed with long 
feathered setae, and the outer margin also with a row of 
upturned spines. 

Mandibles each with a broad cutting-plate, that of the left 
side curving outwards, and the edge divided into six stout 
teeth ; that of the right side also broad, curved in the reverse 
direction, and the edge divided into five stout teeth ; molar 
process similar in each, forming a well-extended broad ridge 
clothed with short stout setaj, surrounding a minute triturating 
surface with chitinoid papillse. 

Maxillipeds rather stouter than the legs, extending directly 
forwards about as far as the distal end of the peduncle of the 
upper anteniise ; the seventh joint (dactylus) minute, stout, 
and bearing four claws on the rounded extremity. The 
seventh joint also of each of the other limbs minute, and 
bearing three long stout claws, the middle one rather longer 
than the other two, which are positioned closely on each side 
of it and quite similar to each other. 

Colour. — General appearance marbled dark brown. Micro- 
scopically showing a yellowish stratum, thickly dotted over 
with rounded areas composed or black granules. 

Length. — Largest specimen measured 9 mm. (^ inch). 
Occurrence. — From freshwater reedy pools beside a tiny 

On some Tliysanoptera {Tubul'i/era) from Papua. 355 

runnel joining the MuUum Mulluui Creek, Ringwoo J, near 
]\1 el bourne. 

Remark'!. — It 13 remarkably active ; usual form of loco- 
motion running, but can spring forcibly forwards and alio 
swim easily. It shuns strong light. 


G. M. TuoMSON. — " Description of a Remarkable Schizopod." Trans. 

Linn. Soc, Zool. (2) vi. 3. 
W. T. Calm AN. — "On the Genus Atiaspides." Trans. Roy. Soc. 

Edinburgh, xxxviii. pt. iv. 

[ISfofe. — By the kindness of ^Ir. Sayce, the British Museum 
has now received specimens of the very remarkable crustacean 
described above. From an examination of these I am able 
to bear witness to the accuracy, in all essential points, of his 
description. I believe, however, that the difference from 
Anasjoides in the fl.'xure of the thoracic legs will prove to be 
more apparent than real, and I do not think that the altera- 
tions now necessary in the diagnosis of the Syncarida in any 
way impair the status of that group as a natural division of 
the Malacostraca. A discussion of these and similar points 
must, however, be deferred until the appearance of Mr. Sayce'a 
promised memoir. — W. T. (Jalman.] 

LVIII. — On some New and Curious Thyscvwptera (Tubu- 
lif era) from Papua. By RiCHARD S. Bagnall^ F.E.S. 

[Plates XIV. & XV.] 

The present small contribution to our knowledge of the 
world's Tliysanoptera is based upon four specimens collected 
at Dorey, Papua (New Guinea), by Dr. A. R. Wallace, 
F.R.S., which were presented by him to the late Mr. W. 
Wilson Saunders, and are now in the British Museum *, 
Unfortunately only one specimen of each species exists, 
and as they are gummed on cards the descriptions are of 
necessity incomplete. Dr. Wallace is under the impression 
that he took these creatures from under bark. 

A[Kirt from the general interest attaclied to insects so 

* I have withheld the description of a fifth species, which is not in 
very good condition. 


356 Mr. R. S. Bagnall on some 

curious as the first three herein described, two of which are 
giants of their order, one feels that there is also a considerable 
historical interest in connexion with this collection, associated 
not only with a naturalist of world-wide fame, but with that 
portion of the Eastern Hemisphere whereon is ba?ed one of 
his most widely read works, the ' Malay Archipelago.' It is 
therefore a pleasure to me to have this opportunity of 
naming one of the most important species in this small but 
valuable collection in Dr. Wallace's honour. 

I would also exjDress my gratitude to Mr. C. O. 
Waterhouse for the kindly help rendered me in examining 
the collections of Thysanoptera belonging to the British 

Suborder TuBULiFERA, Haliday. 

A knowledge of the species of the suborder Tubulifera 
outside Europe leads one to believe that it might with advan- 
tage be divided into two families, Phlceothripidas and Idolo- 
thripidffi, the characters given by Haliday for his two genera, 
Phloeothrips and Idolothips, being in themselves sufficient to 
warrant such a division. 

Ocelli tres sequidistantes, in alatis saltern : hau- 

Btellum inter coxas anticas subdeflexum : 

palpi labiales ovati : alse anticse vena unica 

nonnisi inchoata(vel abbreviatae aut nullje). 

[Caput oblongum, depressum : abdomen [Uzel. 

depressum.] Fam. Phloeothripidae, 

Ocellus anterior remotus ab basi antennarum : 

baustellum basin prosterni attingens : 

palpi labiales papilliformes : alse anticse 

vena uuica obsoletiore dimidiata, aut abbre- 

viata. [Caput longissimum, teres : abdo- [mihi. 

men excavatum,] Fam. Idolothripidae, 

The Phlceothripidse contains several genera already well 
known, whilst the Idolothripidse will contain the genus 
Idulothrips (s. s.), Haliday (type species 1. marginata, 
Haliday, 1852), and other allied genera which it will be 
necessary to establish for the reception of certain species now 
in my hands. 

Family Idolothripidae, mihi. 
Genus Mecynotheips *, nov. 
Head more or less cylindrical, three times as lonf as 
* iIfecy«o= prolonged. 

Thysanoptera {Talulif era) from Papua. 357 

tlie protliorax ; posterior third widened to base ; fore-part 
inucli produced beyond the eyes, elevated, and bearing tlie 
anterior ocellus (protected by two strong spine-bearing 
tubercles) midway between the anterior margin of eyes and 
the extreme apex of head, which is widened for the seating of 
the antennae ; cheeks set with spine-bearing warts. Eyes 
large and prominent. Antennce slender and nearly as long 
as the head and prothorax together, furnished with long hairs 
and sense-cones. Mouth-cone 

Prothorax strongly and rugosely sculj^tured, raised slightly 
to posterior edge; a large spine-set wart at each posterior 
angle, and anterior angles produced, forming a pair of strong 
recurved horns. Fore femora much enlarged, each armed 
with a tooth having its base above the mid-line beneath ; 
fore tibise broadened, with one or more small blunt teeth at 
apices and each tarsus armed with a large tooth. Wings 

Abdomen very long, slender, and tapering ; simple ; tube 
less in length than the ninth abdominal segment *. 

Species large. 

'lype. Mecynothrips wallacei, mihi. 

Mecyrwthrips may be separated from allied genera by the 
abnormally produced head, the form of pronotum, the elon- 
gate ninth segment of abdomen, and the short tube. In 
known species of this group the tube is about three times as 
long as the preceding segment, which is comparatively 

Mecynothrips wallacei, sp. n. (PI. XIV. figs. 1-8.) 
<J. Length 12 to 13 mm., breadth of mesothorax about 
I'o mm. 

Colour shining black, juncture of meso- and mctascutnm 
and ill-defined patches on the lateral edges of intermediate 
abdominal segments almost blood-red. Intermediate and 
hind femora "brownish black ; all tibiae brownish black, 
reddish yellow at knees, and shaded to yellow at apices; 
anterior tarsi reddish brown, others yellowish brown, and all 
tipped with black. Antennae yellow, two basal and three 
apical joints dark brown, joints three to five tipped with the 
same colour. 

Head long, finely and transversely striate, reticulate near 
base ; widest at base and five times the length of its greatest 
width; only as wide immediately beyond eyes as width 
between them, but widening to the ai)ex. Cheeks with a 

* These geceric characters are, porforco, tirawu from the male sex. 

358 Mr. R. S. Bagnall on some 

number of strong spines set in warts. Eyes large, finely 
facetted, bulging anteriorly and apparently extending further 
on under side than on upper. Ocelli large, posterior pair 
on a line with centre of eyes and close to their margins, widely 
separated from the anterior ocellus, which is borne between 
two spine-bearing warts midway betwixt the extreme apex 
of head and the anterior margin of eyes. Ayitennce inserted 
above the apex ; joints 3 to 6 elongate and claviform, 7 and 8 
fusiform. Third joint tw ice the length of the two basal joints 
together, fourth four-fifths of third, fifth three-quarters of 
fourth, sixth much shorter than the preceding and equal in 
length to the penultimate and apical joints together. An- 
tennal spines at the apex of each joint very long, especially 
on the outer side, dark brown ; sense-cones light and therefore 
inconspicuous, slender and acute, at least two on each of the 
joints 3 to 7, three or more on the fourth. 

Prothorax one-third as long as head, disk deeply sculp- 
tured, upper surface strongly narrowed from middle to base, 
and two large tubercles, set low down, forming posterior 
angles, and another pair within and above this pair ; each 
anterior angle produced, thus forming a very strong recurved 
horn, which is striated transversely and bluntly toothed near 

Anterior coxa not greatly enlarged, plainly reticulate, and 
armed with one fairly conspicuous spine. Fterothoi-ax much 
broader than head, apparently longer than broad, with ineta- 
sternum laterally rounded, narrowed, and armed with several 
strong white bristles. Wings present, short in comparison 
with the great length of the body, apparently reaching to fifth 
abdominal segment. Legs long : fore femora much enlarged 
and each armed with a strong tooth which has its base above 
the mid-line beneath ; fore tibise broad and flattened, one or 
two small blunt teeth at apices and each fore tarsus armed 
with an exceedingly stout long tooth. Intermediate legs 
comparatively slender, set with a number of long light- 
coloured bristles. 

Abdomen simple, extremely long and slender, being two- 
thirds the length of the whole insect and about one-eighth as 
wide at base as it is long. Tapered very gradually to tube. 
Tube only two-thirds the length of ninth abdominal segment 
and only one-third the length of head ; terminal hairs short 
and weak, and spines on abdomen comparatively sliort. 
Surface transversely striate and in parts plainly reticulate. 
Type. One male in British Museum (ex coll. Sauudersj. 
Hab, Dorey, New Guinea {Wallace). 

Thysanoptera [Tuhulifera) from Papua. 359 

Family PMoeothripidae, Uzel. 
Genus Macrothrips *, nov. 

Head at least twice as long as broad and longer than the 
length of the piotliorax ; cheeks set with long spines. Eyes 
comparatively small ; ocelli present. Antennce longer than 
head; intermediate joints much elongated; sense-cones 
small and inconspicnous ; hairs very small and fine, giving 

the joints the appearance of being naked. Mouth-cone 

Prothorax not more than two-thirds the length of head, 
very abruptly raised to the posterior edge, thus throwing 
the disk into a vertical position ; posterior edge forming a 
strongly sculptured corona terminated at each posterior angle 
by a large spine-sot tubercle. Anterior coxce (of male) 
abnormally produced; apices of fore tibiaa and tarsi armed 
with teeth. Fore legs of male greatly enlarged, femora 
thickened and each with a large broad-seated tubercle or 
blunt tooth at the base within. Wings present. 

Abdomen comparatively broad and heavy. 

Species large and massive. 

Type. M. papuensis, mihi. 

There are two carded specimens in this collection, one of 
each sex. At first I was inclined to regard them as the sexes 
of one species, but, owing to the strong and divergent 
characters, which, I think, cannot be only sexual, they must 
be described as separate species. Further, the male specimen 
is very much larger than the female, whereas the males in 
the Phloeothripidse are almost invariably smaller than the 

Macrothrips pajyuensis, sp. n. (PI. XV. figs. 9-11.) 

^. Length 11 mm., breadth of mesothorax 2 mm. 

General colour very dark brown, tibiae and tarsi reddish 

Head three times as long as width of cheeks ; immediately 
behind eyes narrower than the width across eyes, but filling 
out gradually and narrowing again before base; cheeks full 
and set with long white bristles or spines; vertex raised. 
{Surface shining, finely and transversely striate, base faintly 
reticulate, a belt of close punctures across centre, wrinkled 
transversely behind eyes and narrowly sculptured between 
ocelli. A strong backwardly curved protuberance set with a 
fahort stout spine behind each eye. Eyes comparatively 

* Macro = h\Vi:e. 

360 Mr. R. S. Bagnall on some 

small, finely facetted. Ocelli rather large, posterior pair 
placed immediately behind line drawn across the head at 
the posterior margin of the eyes. Antennae separated at 
their base, longer than head and prothorax together. Basal 
joints cylindrical, first longer and wider than the second ; 
three to six much elongated and mildly claviform, seven and 
eight fusiform. Third joint twice the length of basal joints 
together, fourth five-sixths of third, fifth three-quarters of 
fourth, sixth a little more than two-thirds of fifth and slightly 
less than the penultimate and apical joints together. Hairs 
and sense-cones lightly coloured, small and inconspicuous. 
Prothorax two-thirds the length of head, shortly and abruptly 
raised to posterior edge. Anterior edge defined, widely 
emarginate, and set with short inwardly directed bristles, 
mid-lateral and posterior marginal spines also small. Disk 
slightly rugose, more strongly rugose laterally ; the raised 
edge wide and very strongly though evenly sculptured ; a 
series of tubercles immediately behind this channelling and 
two large upwardly directed tubercles forming posterior 

Anterior legs very massive and outwardly set with long 
white bristles ; coxa abnormally produced, forming a genicu- 
late horn which lies over the femur ; femur longer than the 
head, very broad and slightly flattened, produced to a blunt 
tooth at base within ; tibia broad and flat, granulate, armed 
with two fairly stout teeth at apex within ; tarsus armed with 
a long dagger-like tooth. Hind and intermediate legs simple, 
hirsute, two or three bristles at knee especially long. Ptero- 
thorax broader than prothorax and about as long as broad. 

Wings coriaceous, reaching to sixth abdominal segment ; 
fringes short, especially at apices. 

Abdomen almost as broad as pterothorax and somewhat 
heavy ; narrowing to base of tube from the sixth segment ; 
wing-retaining bristles short. A peculiar brush-like patch on 
lateral edges of metasternum, and similar but smaller patches, 
composed of shorter and finer bristles, on lateral edges of the 
abdominal segments 2 to 6, these patches diminishing in size 
till those on segment 6 are scarcely perceptible. Spines 
light-coloured and comparatively long, terminal hairs very 

long. Tube The apex of the ninth segment is 

ventrally produced. Dorsal surface shining and very finely 
striate, a broad belt at base of each segment very finely 

Type. One male in British Museum (ex coll. Saunders). 

Bab. Dorey, New Guinea {Wallace). 

Thysanopiera {Tubuh'ftra) from Papua. 361 

Mucrothrips duhius, sp. n. (PI. XV. figs. 12-14.) 

? . LerKjtli 7 mm., breadth of mesothorax about I'D ram. 

Colour and general form as in M. papuensis. 

Head oidy twice as long as broad, sides parallel, not 
narrowed bi hind eyes, very finely and transversely striate ; 
postocular spines present, but tubercles absent or obsolete ; 
space between eyes wider; oc^/Z/ similar, but posterior pair 
placed well above the line of the posterior margin of eyes. 

Prothorax more gradually raist^d, with the disk less defined 
and the posterior edge comparatively narrower and not nearly 
so strongly or evenly sculptured. Anterior legs small ; femora 
thiekenedj simple ; each tibia with a very small straight 
tooth shortly before the apex within ; tarsal tooth long and 
narrow. Head and legs more sparsely setose. Fore coxa 
simple, armed with a long spine. Wings reaching to seventh 
abdominal segment. Tube much longer than head ; terminal 
liairs weak, but hairs on the ninth segment much longer than 
the tube. 

Tijpe. One female in British Museum (ex coll. Saunders). 

Hub. Dorey, New Guinea ( Wallace). 

Genus Acantiiothrips, Uzel. 

Head longer than broad ; cheeks with spine-bearing warts. 
Antennce twice as long as head, intermediate joints elongate 
and possessing sense-cones more than usually long. Mouth- 
cone slender and much longer than its breadth at base. Fore 
femora enlarged in both sexes, and, as a rule, each furnished 
with one or two teeth at apex wiihin ; tarsus armed with a 
stout tooth. Wings present in both sexes. Male without 
scale at base of tube. 

This genus was created by Uzel * for the reception of 
Renter's Phoelothrips nodicornis f, and more recently Hinds \ 
has described a second species, A. magyiafemoralis, from a 
sin<jle male taken at Miami, Florida. 

The species about to bo described, ^l. sanguineus, must be 
provisionally regarded as belonging to this genus, though 
the fore femora are not really characteristic of a true Acaniho~ 

* ' Monograpliie dor Orduung Thysanoptera,' 1895, pp. 2G0-261, pi iv 
fig. 28, pi. vii. lig. 145. 

t " Thysanoptera Fenuica, I. Tubulifera," Bidrag till Kannedom af 
Finlands Natnr och Folk, 4U, 1880, p. 16. 

X " Coutiibiitiuu to a Monograph of the North-American Thysano- 
ptera," Proc. U.S. Nat. Museum, vol. xxvi. pp. 199-200, pi. ix. figs. 93 

362 On some Thysanoptera {Tuhuh'fera) from Papua. 

thrips. To meet the case I have slightly modified the above 
diagnoses, as it would be presumptuous to erect a new genus 
on such slight grounds. 

Acanthothrips sanguineus, sp. n. (PI. XV. fig. .1.5.) 

(^ . Length 29 mm. 

General colour bright red, coxa (excepting fore pair, wliich 
are red) and all femora stone-coloured, and all tibise and 
tarsi testaceous. 

Head at least one and one half times as long as wide, not 
much longer than prothorax. Cheeks gradually widening 
behind eyes and narrowing to the neck ; set with three con- 
spicuous lateral wart-set spines, two anterior and one posterior, 
and with smaller anterior spines above the extreme lateral 
row. Eyes fairly large and finely facetted. Ocelli on raised 
vertex, large, posterior pair above the centre line of eyes. 
Antennce approximate, scarcely twice the length of head ; 
testaceous, the three basal and two apical joints dark, joints 4 
to 6 suffused near apex with brown. First joint cylindrical, 
second roughly globular, third obconical, dilated and much 
broader than the others, as long as the two basal joints 
together; fourth clavate, as long as third but much narrower; 
fifth clavate, slightly shorter than fourth; sixth to eigiith 
almost filiform. Spines and sense-cones lightly coloured, 
long and slender. 

Prothorax about two-thirds the length of head, widening 
rapidly to beyond middle and then more gradually to base. 
Surface roughened and dull, a few rather large rounded-off 
elevations unevenly scattered over dorsal surface. Ptero- 
thorax wider than prothorax. Wings long and slender. Legs 
fairly long; fore femora much broadened and each armed 
with a long, sharp, and slightly curved tooth from the base 
within ; fore tibiae bent outwards at base, rather long and 
slender, and thickened towards apex ; tarsus armed with a 
sharp tooth. Hind and intermediate legs comparatively 
long and slender. All femora set with minute spine-sjt 

Abdomen much depressed, broadened laterally, and con- 
verging gradually from sixth segment to base of tube. 2'uhe 
little more than one-half the length of head, hairs encircling 
tip iihort. Abdominal spines rather short and blunt. 

Type. One male in British Museum (ex coll. ISaunders). 

had. Dorey, New Guinea {Wallace). 






















On a Species o/ Palaemon /rom Sydney. 3G3 

Plate XIV. 

Fig. 1. Mecynothrip» wallacei, gen. et sp. n., S , a, showing expansion 
of wing3. 

Lateral view of fore-part of head. 


Apex of fourth antennal joint, showing sense-cones. 

Prolongation of anterior thoracic angle. 

Jjet't fore leg from below. 

Intermediate leg (right) from above. 

Ninth abdominal segment and tube. 

Plate XV. 

Fiff. 9. Macrothrips papuensis, gen. et sp. n., S . Head, antennae, fore 

legs, and prothorax. 
Fif/. 10. Ditto. Kight fore coxa from above. 
Fiy. 11. Ditto. Apical prolongation of ninth abdominal segment, viewed 

from above (tube removed). 
Fiy. 12. Macrothrips dubius, sp. n., 2 • Riglit fore leg from above. 
Fiy. IS. Ditto. Right fore coxa from above. 
Fiff. 14. Ditto. Tube. 
Fiff. 15. Acanthothrips scmouineus, sp. n., c?. Head, antennae, fore legs, 

and prothorax. 

LIX. — Description of a Species of Palsemon from near 
Sydney, probably either a neio Species or the Adult Form 
of Palaemon (Eupalajinon) damCj Heller. I3j Dr. J. G. 
DE Man, of lerseke (Holland). 

[Plate XVI.] 

? Palcemon dance, Heller, Crustaceen der Novara-Reise, 1865, 
p. 120, pi. xi. fig. a. 

Palcemon ornatiis, Ilaswell, Catalogue of the Australian Stalk- 
and Sessile-eyed Crustaceaj 16^2, p. 196 (nee Fal. orna- 
tus, Oliv.) (teste McCulloch). 

Some time ago Mr. Allan II. McCulloch, of the Australian 
Museum, Sydney, sent me a specimen of a species of the 
genus Palamon from the neighbourhood of Sydney for 
examination, with the remark that it was a good representative 
of the species determined by Haswell as Pal. ornatus, Oliv. 
According to McCulloch, it is not uncommon in Queensland 
and New South Wales. 

Our species belongs to the subgenus Eupahtmon, and is 

364 Dr. J. G. de Man on a Species of 

closely related to Pal. {EupnL) lonyipes, de Haan, from 
Japan, and to Pal. [Eupal.) waiter star jji^ Nob., from Surabaya, 

This specimen, which is a male, apparently adult, is 
118 mm. long from tip of rostrum to the end of the telson; 
the carapace, rostrum included, measures | of the whole 
length, viz. 46 mm. The stout large rostrum (PI. XVI. fitr. 1) 
is lanceolate and reaches to midway between the tips of the 
antennal scales and those of the spine at the far end of their 
outer margins. The rostrum rises with a crest just in front 
of tiie middle of the carapace and projects straight forward ; 
the upper margin is slightly convex above the eyes and is 
armed with ten comparatively small teeth, of wiiich three 
are on the carapace : the distance between the first and 
second teeth is one third longer than that between the second 
and third ; the second to eighth teeth are equidistant, but 
the penultimate tooth is a little farther from the ante- 
penultimate than are the preceding teeth from one another, 
and the penultimate tooth is placed also a little nearer to the 
tip of the rostrum than to the antepenultimate tooth ; the 
foremost tooth, finally, which is smaller than the preceding, 
stands close to the tip. In this specimen the tip of the 
rostrum projects horizontally forward, but Mr. McCulloch 
wrote rae that in some specimens the point may be a little 
bent upwards, in others the upper margin of the rostrum 
may be straight, and he says that the form and the 
length of the rostrum are variable. The slightly arcuate 
ascending part of the lower margin bears five equidistant 
teeth, which are a little smaller than those of the upper ; the 
first tooth is situated just below the sixth of the upper 
margin, the fifth just below the penultimate tooth; tlie 
fifth tooth is therefore a little farther from the point of the 
rostrum than from the fourth. Whereas the rostrum proper 
is 19'5 mm. long, it is 5'5 mm. high, only 3^ times as long 
as high ; it shows therefore a rather stout shape. At the 
level of the first tooth of the lower margin that part which is 
situated above the lateral crest appears once and a half as 
high as that below it. 

Antennular peduncles much shorter than the scapho- 
cerites, reaching to midway between the fourth and fifth 
teeth of the lower edge. 

Hepatic spine situated just behind the antennal spine, 
a little below it. 

By means of a magnify ing-glass one observes here and 
there on the carapace a few microscopical spiuules of a 
yellow-brown colour (fig. 1) ; these spinules, only 016 mm. 

Palaemon //-om near Sydney. 365 

long, are not sliarp, but rather obtuse. Twenty or tliirtj 
of these spinules are seen just behind the liepatic spine, 
some occur also on the latter and on tlie crest of the antennal 
spine ; several spinules are, moreover, scattered on the upper 
border of the carapace between the base of the rostrum and 
the posterior margin ; the posterior branchial regions are, 
however, quite smooth. It is, of course, impossible to say 
whether these spinules are indeed always so sparse, or 
whether in this specimen they are worn off. Similar spinules 
occur close to the postero-inferior angles of the second to fifth 
abdominal pleura, as also on the tergum of the sixth somite, 
though they are here rather scanty, but the telson and the 
endopodite of the caudal fan are thickly covered Avith them ; 
they exist, finally, also on the basal joint and on the hardened 
outer part of the exopodite. 

The telson no doubt usually ends in an acute point, but the 
latter appears in our specimen, unfortunately, mutilated. 
McCulloch wrote me that the acuteness of the telson, which 
latter is sometimes almost rounded, is variable, and that the 
latero-terminal spines are sometimes wanting: in my opinion 
all such specimens are mutilated. In our specimen the 
latero-terminal spines, of which the inner are much longer 
than the outer, are well developed, as also the two pairs of 
spinules on the ui)per surface of the telson. 

External maxillipedes reaching to the end of the penulti- 
mate joint of the aijtennular peduncles. The legs of the 
first pair are smooth and project with half their carpi beyond 
the tip of the antennal scales ; the carpi (17 mm.) are about two 
and a half times as long as the chelai {^'iy mm.), of which the 
fingers are a little shorter than the palm. 

The legs of the second pair are equal, 1S7 mm. long, more 
than once and a half as long as the body, and four times as 
long as the carapace, rostrum included. The meri (fig, 2), 
31 mm. long, project two thirds of their length beyond 
the tip of the scaphocerites. The meri gradually thicken, 
though at first very slowly, towards their distal extremity ; 
looked at from above they appear to be 3 mm. thick at their 
proximal extremity, 3*25 mm. in the middle, and 3*9 mm. at 
the distal end, so that tiicy are just eight times as long as 
thick at thtir distal extremity. The carpi (fig. 3), 58 mm. 
long, are exactly as long as all the preceding joints taken 
together and almost twice as long as the meri ; viewed from 
above these very slender joints appear to be 2*75 mm. broad 
at their ])roximal extremity, 3 mm. in the middle, and 4-2 mm. 
at the distal end, so that the carpi are just Jourtten times 
as long as broad at the distal i.v(remiti/. The carpi are 

366 Dr. J. G. de Man on a Species of 

cjlindrical and, but for the proximal fourth part, gradually 
thicken to the distal articulation ; thej are not quite straight, 
but slightly curved inward at their proximal fourtii, the inner 
margin appearing here, therefore, slightly concave, the outer 
slightly convex. The chela, also very slender, is 71 mm. 
long, about one fourth longer than the carpus ; the palm, 
b2 ram. long, is but little shorter than the carpus and almost 
three times as long as the fingers, which measure 19 mm. 
Just in the middle the palm is 3 mm. broad, exactly as broad 
as the carpus in the middle ; near the carpal articulation it is 
3'25 mm. broad, appearing here a little less broad than the 
far end of the carpus ; near the articulation of the fingers, 
finally, the palm is 3*7 mm. broad and 2-75 mm. thick, 
so that it appears here slightly compressed. Just in the 
middle the palm is also 2*7.5 mm. thick, and near the carpal 
articulation 3 mm., so that the palm may be described as 
cylindrical. Viewed from above (fig. 3) the fingers appear 
slightly curved inward. The immobile finger (fig. 4) very 
slightly narrows towards the tip, appearing near the latter 
hardly less broad than at its base ; the dactylus, which is a 
little longer, tapers more distinctly, and appears therefore 
near the tip narrower than the immobile finger. At one 
third of its length from the articulation (figs. 4 & 5) the 
dactylus bears a small conical tooth, and midway between 
this tooth and the articulation another, also conical though 
somewhat compressed and more acute tooth, which is a little 
larger ; immediately behind the distal tooth of the dactylus 
the immobile finger is armed with a somewhat larger conical 
and acute tooth, and between this tooth and the articulation 
with a long prominence, which is subdivided into five small 
teeth, of which the distal one is the largest, conical, like the 
fourth, whicli is smaller, whereas the first three are the 
smallest o£ all (tig. 5). The inner margins of the fingers are 
covered with felted hairs^ which, as Mr. McCulloch informs 
me, may be very dense or almost absent. Palm and fingers 
carry (tig. 6) on their inner margin a double row of small 
subacute spinules similar to those of the body and 0*2 mm. 
long; similar spinules, though much smaller, are distributed 
on the upper and lower surface and on the outer margin of 
palm and fingers, those on the outer margin being also 
arranged in two rows. On the inner half of its surface tiie 
carpus is sparsely covered with similar subacute spinules as 
the palm, which are a little larger, viz. 0'2t5 mm. ; those on 
the outer half are much smaller, but much more crowded. 
The spinules with which the merus is covered are of the 
same size as the larger ones of carpus and chela, except on 

Palaeraon/row near Sydney. 367 

the upper border, where they are much smaller and rare. 
The upper border of the ischium-joints (fi^. 2) is quite smooth, 
but the lower border and the sides are rather sparsely covered 
with subacute spiuules. The second legs are glabrous, except 
the fingers. 

The third legs (fig. 7) project with three-fifth parts of 
their propodites beyond the antennal scales; the propodites 
(16*5 mm.) are three times as long as the dactyli (5 mm ) 
and little shorter than the mero]iodites (17*5 mm.). The 
fourth legs are little shorter and extend with two fifths 
of their propodites beyond the scaphocerites ; those of the 
fifth pair with one third of the penultimate joints. These 
legs are rather slender. The meropodites of the third legs, 
which are 17*5 mm. long, are 15 mm. broad in the middle, 
measured on their outer side, so that they are nearly twelve 
times as long as broad ; the propodites, 16'5 mm. long, are 
1 mm. broad, sixteen and a half times as long as broad. 
Along their lower margin the propodites of the third legs 
bear a row of eleven or twelve spinules which are 0"42 mm. 
long, whereas their upper border appears a little hairy and 
covered, not very thickly, with small stout spinules only 
0-12 mm. long, the acute tip of which is curved forward. 
The carpi and tlie meropodites are also covered with similar 
microscopical spinules, except on their outer surface, which 
is nearly smooth. 

Pal. {Eupalcemon) loncf>'pe.<>, de Haan {confer de Man, in 
Zoolog. Jahrb. ix. Ahth. f. Syst. 1897, p. 770, and x. 1898, 
pi. xxxvii. fig. 69), diff'U-s from our species in the following 
characters : — The carapace of de Haan's species is almost 
everywhere covered with thickly crowded acute spinules ; 
the rostrum is shorter, more strongly convex above the eyes, 
and the lower edge bears only two or three teeth, which are 
placed on the distal half. The carpus of the second legs 
appears shorter in j)roportion to the nierus, being little more 
than once and a half as long ; the carpus appears quite 
straight and less slender^ for it is only nine or ten times as 
long as thick at the distal end. The proportion between the 
length of the chela (which, like the Citrpus, has also a less 
slender .«hape than in our Sydney species) and the length of 
merus and carpus is nearly the same in both species, but the 
fingers of Pal. longxpes are slightly longer, not shorter (J)ut 
a Utile longer)^ than half the length of the palm. Both species 
are, however, easily distinguished by the three posterior legs, 
which in the Japanese species are shorter and with less slender 
meropodites ; the third legs of Pal. longipes, e. g., project 

368 Dr. J. G. de Man on a Species of 

witli only their dactyli beyond the scaphocerites, and their 
meropodites are only seven times instead of twelve times as 
long as broad (compare de Man, I. c. fig. 69 c, with tig. 7 of 
this paper). 

The examination of the type specimen of Pal. (Eupalcemon) 
wolte7-storjffi^ Nob., kindly sent me by the Directors of the 
Museum at Magdeburg, enables me to add the following to 
Dr. Nobili's description in Bollet. Mus. Zoolog. di Torino, 
vol. XV. no. 379 (1900). 

The palm of the left (larger) chelipede, 46 mm. long, is 
4*7 mm. broad near the articulation of the fingers, 4*8 mm. in 
the middle, and 4*9 mm. near the carpal articulation ; the 
palm is 4*6 mm. thick in the middle. The carpus, 52 mm. 
long, is 5*4 mm. broad at the distal extremity, 3-75 mm. in 
the middle, and 2'8 mm. at the proximal end ; this joint is 
5 mm. thick at the distal extremity. The carpus of the right 
leg, 43 mm. long, is 4 mm. broad and as many thick at the 
distal extremity ; it is 2*75 mm. broad in the middle and 
23 mm. near the proximal extremity. The palm, 34 mm. 
long, appears 3"5 mm. broad near the articulation of the 
fingers, 3 mm. in the middle, whereas the slightly thickened 
proximal extremity is also 3"5 mm. broad; the palm is 
2'9 mm. thick in the middle. The regularly and distinctly 
tapering dactylus of the larger chelipede carries on either side 
and close to the cutting-edge (which is not at all prominent), 
between the tip of the finger and the second tooth (which is 
conical, compressed, and slightly larger than the first or basal 
tooth), eight or nine small obtuse tubercles, which much resemble 
those of Pal. elegans, de M., a species also inhabiting the 
island of Java. The immobile finger also gradually narrows 
towards the tip ; its cutting-edge is more distinct, and one 
sees close to it, though only on one (namely, the lower) 
side, eight similar small tubercles. The fingers are glabrous 
and are almost smooth above and below. The distal tooth of 
the immobile finger is considerably larger than the teeth of 
the dactylus, but also acute and conical, and the elongate 
prominence close to the articulation is divided into four small 
obtuse teeth, which increase in size from the first or proximal 
one to the fourth. 

The fingers of the smaller chelipede agree with those of 
the other. The dactylus carries, close to the cutting-edge, on 
the lower side of the chela, eight, on the upper side six 
tubercles, similar to those of the larger leg; the immobile 
finger bears seven of these tubercles on the lower side and 
one oidy on the upper side of the chela, close to the more 

Paltemon/rom near Sydney. 369 

distinct cutting-edge. The legs of the third pair reach witli 
their dactyli })eyond the tip of the anteniial scales. The 
meropodite of these legs is 15 mm. long and 1*5 mm. thick 
(or broad) on its outer side, appearing thus ten times as long 
as broad. The three following joints, measured from articu- 
lation to articulation, are respectively 7 mm., 13*.i> mm., and 
4 mm. long ; the propodites areO'84: mm. broad in the middle 
of their outer side, appearing sixteen times as long as broad. 

The larger chelipede closely resembles that of Pal, {Eupal.) 
longipes, de Haan {vide de Man, I. c. 1898, tig. 69 a), as 
regards length and breadth of the joints, but both carpus and 
palm are slightly curved in the Java species, and the charac- 
teristic tubercles on the fingers are wanting on those of Pal. 
longipes. The latter species also differs in its less slender 
meropodites of the three posterior legs, in the shape and 
characters of the rostrum, &c. 

Our Sydney species at first sight differs from Pal. loolter. 
storffi })y the considerably more slender legs of the second 
pair ; the palm appears almost straight, and the fingers, which 
are comparatively shorter, do not gape at all and, although 
the characteristic small tubercles are loanting, are more or 
less covered with felted hairs near their cutting-edges. 

Pal. {Eupal.) acanthosonia, Nob. (in ' Annali ilus. Civico 
di StoriaNatur. di Genova,' ser. 2% vol. xx. (xi.), Nov. 1899, 
p. 242), from Katau, New Guinea, may prove to be identical 
with our species from Queensland and New South Wales ; 
but this question cannot be decided, because the legs of the 
second pair are unknown. In my opinion it is not advisable 
to describe species of this difficult genus when the legs of 
the second pair are wanting. 

Another species from Sydney was described by me in 
Zoolog. Jahrb, ii. Abth. £. Syst. 1888, p. 711. Tiiis species, 
probably identical with Ortmann's Pal. australis {op. cit. v. 
1890, p. 708), differs from that described in this paper by 
the legs of the second pair. 

The specimen received from Mr. McCulloch may, however*, 
eventually prove to be the adult male of Pal. (Eupal.) dan^v, 
Heller, a species discoveretl by the ' Novara ' Expedition also 
at Sydney, about which the late Dr. Koelbcl has furnished 
some interesting observations taken from the two type 
specimens, a male and a female, in the Museum at V^ienna 
(vide de Man, in Max Weber's ' Zool. Ergebnisse,' ii. 1892, 
p. 438, footnote). The second legs of the female are wanting, 
Ann. cfc May. X. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. i. 24 

370 Mr. 0. T. Eegan on a 

but the male still bore the right leg ; of this leg, merus, 
carpus, palm, and tingers were respectively 7"1 mm., 10*3 mm., 
6*4 mm., and 4-5 mm. long. According to these measure- 
ments the leg of the second pair has probably been wrongly 
shown in fig. 3 of plate xi. of the ' Novara-Ueise,' for in 
that figure the chela appears once and a half as long as the 
carpus; the palm appears probably too broad. Tlie rostrum 
appears in that figure a little longer and more slender than 
in our adult male, but, as has already been observed, the 
form and the length of the rostrum are variable in our species ; 
the fact that the lower margin bears only three teeth may be 
a juvenile character, Heller's species being otdy 70 mm. long. 
According to Koelbel the dactylus of the second legs should 
carry five teeth near the articulation, the immobile finger 
hardly traces of two, or, perhaps, three small teeth — just the 
contrary of what is seen in our male. 

The examination of a series of specimens of different ages 
is therefore necessary to decide this question of identity. 

Should, however, our species eventually prove to be 
different from Fal. dance, the name of Pal. {Eupal.) novce- 
hollandice is proposed for it. 


Fiy. \. Lateral view of rostrum and carapace, X 2. 

Fig. 2. Ischium and merus, x 1 i- 

Fig. 3. Carpus and chela of the right leg of the second pair, X I5. 

Fig. 4. Fingers of the same leg, X 2. 

Fig. 0. Toothing of these fingers, X 4. 

Fig. 6. View of a part of the palm of the same leg, just in the middle, the 

inner margin being at the left hand, X 12. 
Fig. 7. Leg of the third pair, x 2. 

LX. — DescHption of a new Cichlid Fish of the Genus 
Heterogramma//oni Demerara. By C. Tate Regan, M.A. 

Ileterogramma steindachneri, sp. n. 

Depth of body 2| to 23 in the length, length of head 24 
to d. Snout as long as diameter of eye, which is ?>l to oj in 
the length of head and equal to or a little greater than the 
interorbital width ; depth of praeorbital § to | the diameter of 
eye. Maxillary reaching the vertical from anterior edge of 
eye ; jaws equal anteriorly ; fold of the lower lip continuous ; 
cheek with 3 or 4 series of scales ; not more than 5 or 6 

neio Ci'chlid Fish from Demerara. 


gill-rakers of the outer series on the lower part of tlie anterior 
arch. Scales 24 g ; upper lateral line extending to below 
end of spinous dorsal, from which it is separated by 1 or 1^ 
series of scales for most of its course. Dorsal XV 7, the 
spines increasing in length to the last, wliich is more than ^ 
the length of head ; twelfth spine equal to or a little more than 
i the length of head. Anal III 6; third spine less than ^ 
the lengtii of head. Pectoral a little shorter than the head. 


Ileteror/ramittft steindachneri. 

extending to above the origin of anal. C-audal rounded ; 
caudal peduncle deeper than long. Brownish ; a dark lateral 
stripe from eje to base of caudal ; a dark stripe from eye to 
upper lip, another from eye to interoperculum ; dark cross- 
bands on the posterior part of the body ; vertical tins dusky ; 
membrane between first three spines of the dorsal blackish ; 
posterior part of soft dorsal and anal with oblique stripes ; 
caudal with transverse stripes and with a dark spot at the 

Hah. Georgetown, Demerara. 

Two specimens, 70 and 75 mm. in total length. 

Closely allied to //. ajassizii, 8tdr., and to //. anucnum, 
Cope, which have a ditfereut coloration, whilst the former is 
also distinguished by the more slender form, the latter by the 
lower spinous dorsal fin. This is probably the species 
described from the Amazon by Steindachnor (Sitzungsb. Ak. 
Wien, Ixxi. 1875, p. 115) as Geophagus tivn>utus, Gthr., but 
which ditTers from the last-named species in the deeper bodv, 
shorter fin-spines, smaller eye, &c. 

372 On a new Fish from Chile. 

LXI. — Description of a new Fish of the Genus Galaxlas 
from Chile. By C. Tate liEGAN, M.A. 

Galaxias hullocki. 

Depth of body about 5 in the length, length of head 4 to 4^. 
Snout a little shorter than eye, the diameter of which is 3^ in 
the length of head and less than the interorbital width. 
Mouth oblique j jaws equal anteriorly or the lower a little 
projecting ; maxillary extending to below anterior edge or 
anterior ^ of eye ; no canine teeth. 6 branchiostegals ; about 
10 gill-rakers on the lower part of the anterior arch. Dorsal 
9-11. Anal 13-16. Origin of anal well in advance of that 
of the dorsal ; posterior end of base of anal vertically below 
that of the dorsal. Pectoral extending about \ of the 
distance from its base to that of the ventral. Ventrals 
5-rayed, originating at a point a little nearer to the end of 
snout than to the base of caudal. Caudal emarginate. 
Caudal peduncle much longer than deep. Greenish; a 
broad orange longitudinal band along the lower half of the 
side ; fins pale or tinged with orange. 

Hah. Maguehue, Temuco, Southern Chile. 

Numerous examples, measuring up to 60 mm. in total 
length, received from Mr. D. S. Bullock, who obtained them 
on April 6, 1907, from a pool of muddy water left by a 
dried-up creek. 

This species differs from all others of the genus in having 
the origin of the anal fin in advance of that of the dorsal and 
the ventral fins 5-rayed. 

In my " Revision of the Galaxiidae ^' (Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1905, ii. p. 363) six South-American species of Galaxias 
were recognized as valid. The only one since described, 
G. titcombi, Everm. & Kendall (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xxxi. 
1907, p. 92, fig.), from the Kio Traful, Argentina, is, in my 
opinion, a synonym of G. platei, Stdr. 

Inn. if- .\J, u,. Sal .Hist. S. a. Vi'l.l.Vl . All. 

E PoppU-.dt 

J.Grem, liU\ 

Ia/// rV- . \h,n..\nl.lliyl . S. //. \'rl . { . /V . .f///. 

' V (J '1^' 

E . Popple , del 

J Green.lah 

,4//// rP Mnq.SarUisI .S.i\. Vnf . I . /'{ . XIV. 

R S.Ba^nall del 

J. Green lith 

hfN.S' Mar/. .A'f</J/isf ..S.fJ.Vol.l. /Y . 11' 

R S.Ba.^tuill del. 

d.On-.-.ri hUi 

.^7^/^ .<€ . Mn<j. .\,,l . /lis/ . S. 8. ly/ . /. /Y . XM . 



\.x 2. 

3.x f 

J. Green lith. 





No. 5. MAY 1908. 

LXII. — Notes from the Gatty Marine Laboratory, St. An- 
drews.— ^o.' XXIX. By Prof. M'iNTOSH, M.D., LL.D., 

F.R.S., &c. 

[Plate XVII. 

1. On a Tumour in a Plaice. 

2. On the Britisli Opheliidce, Sealibregmidie, and Telethmte. 

3. On the same Families in the ' Porcupine ' Expeditions of 1869 and 


4. On the foregoing Families dredged by Dr. Whiteaves in the Gulf of 

St. Lawrence, Canada. 
6. On the same Groups dredged in Norwegian Waters and in Finmark by 
Canon Norman. 

1. On a Ttimour in a Plaice. 

On the 13fch November, 1907, a fislierman (James Gourlay) 
brought a plaice about 10^ iiiclies in length and normal in 
coloration which presented on the right side above the lateral 
line an elongated elastic swelling. The tumour was some- 
what irregularly elevated, and at first sight it resembled, 
from the irregular prominences, the condition resulting from 
an injured or diseased spine. On the left or white surface 
the tumour was more uniformly elevated, forming an elon- 
gate-ovoid mass 3^ inches in its long or antero-posterior 
diameter, and If inch in its transverse at the widest part, 
which was median. It was slightly narrowed at each end 
and of the same soft elastic nature as on the dorsum. On 

Ann. i& Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. i. 25 

374 Prof. M'lntosh's AWs/rom <Ae 

section tlie tumour appeared to be more or less gelatinous, a 
pale fluid and blood escaping, and it was easily pierced by a 
blunt knife. It had hollowed out for itself an elongated 
cavity on the left side, extending over at least 20 neural 
spines, from 12 to 14 of which were distinctly curved, and this 
was deepest in front, where the densest part of tlie mass was, 
and moreover showed signs of degeneration with effusion of 
blood. The spines in this area had an unusually distinct 
convexity to the right. The upward (to the right) pressure 
of the tumour had by-and-by caused a portion to protrude 
between two neural spines, enlargitig the space, and then it 
liad spread over an area corresponding to four neural spines. 
The soft gelatinous nature of the tumour appeared to make 
the passage easy, and no affection of the bony tissues 
occurred. The tumour could be enucleated from the cavity, 
though muscular fibres and connective tissue slightly adhered 
to its capsule. Microscopically * the mass consisted of a vast 
number of small areolae, with intervening small cells, appa- 
rently rapidly proliferating, the whole richly supplied with 
minutely ramified blood-vessels. The areolae varied much in 
size, and in the sections appeared to be empty, the fluid or 
semifluid contents probably having escaped, and minute 
nuclei occurred in their walls. Larger nuclei abounded in 
the general cellular stroma, with traces of fibrillation. 
Moreover, larger cavities, surrounded by definite and more 
deeply stained walls, existed here and there, the contents being 
a minutely granular and apparently coagulable fluid without 
nuclei and occasionally with effused blood. Such probably 
was the gelatinous fluid which exuded on section. Other 
spaces presented sections of large blood-vessels, but these 
were less defined than those without blood-vessels and may 
have been partly caused by manipulation. In certain small 
areas the blood-vessel was kept in situ by bands of tissue 
radiating from the wall. The minute cells seemed to be in a 
transparent gelatinous matrix which lent cohesion when 
portions were separated by dissection, and also gave a streaked 
or fibroid aspect to the sections. 

So far as could be observed the tumour, though apparently 
of tolerably rapid growth, did not aftect the surrounding 
tissues, since the muscular fibres could readily be separated 
from its capsule, and there was no affection of the bony 
structures. The rapid proliferation of the cells appeared to 
be confined within the capsule, whilst the yielding mass 

* I am indebted to Pr. J. R. Tosh for excellent sections variously 

Oatty Marine Laboratory ^ St. Andreios. 375 

pushed the latter before it to the upper (rio;ht) side, where 
expansion was making progress at the time of capture. On 
the whole it seemed to belong to tlie group of the myxoma or 
mucous tissue tumours, the great proportion of cells in its 
structure giving it the character of a medullary myxoma. 
Whether eventually it might have shown more harmful 
characters is conjectural, though its vascularity and the rapid 
cell-growth gave it a tendency to trouble in this respect. 
The Hsh was fairly well nourished and ha<l recently taken 

2. On the British Opheliidae, Scalibregmidrc, and 

In Dr. Johnston's Catalogue of the Collection in the 
British Museum the foregoing families are placed under the 
division Limivora, but it is doubtful if it would be distinctive 
to consider that in such a form as Ophelia the dissimilar rings 
divided the annelid into head, thorax, and abdomen, or that 
there was no proboscis. 

The most conspicuous representative of the first family is 
Ophelia Umacina, H. Kathke, which frequents such sandy 
bays as that of St. Andrews in numbers, and is tossed on 
shore in violent storms as an inert reddish-pink worm which 
exhibits comparatively little motion on irritation, though it 
is not devoid of hardihood. Almost all the examples thus 
stranded are adult, so that the habits or habitat of the young 
would seem to be different, and yet both abound in the 
stomach of the haddock. The feet are about thirty-four in 
number, the first ten having the pale iridescent bristles 
supported by a fillet in front and behind, but at the eleventh 
foot the ])osterior fillet is dorsally much eidarged as a lamella 
behinil the bristles, and fiom it the long, tapering, branchial 
cirrus extends. The bristles are long, simple, longitudinally 
striated, and arranged in two tufts, the dorsal considerably 
longer than the ventral, and both curving outward and back- 
ward. The body diminishes abruptly j)osteriorly and ends in 
a vent surrounded by about a dozen short cirri, two on the 
ventral surface being much larger and in life coloured of a 
deep red hue. The range of this species is wide, viz. from 
Britain to Norway and Greenland, and, like other annelids, 
it is a favourite tood of fishes. 

A small form (which may provisionally bo termed Ophelia 
rathkei) dredged by the late Dr. Uwyn Jefireys in Valentia 
Harbour apparently adds another species to Britain. Tlie 


376 Prof. M'Intosh's Notes from the 

head is somewhat similar to that of Ophelia liinacina, tlic 
snout being acutely conical, and the mouth formin<^ a trans- 
verse slit behind it, as in that species. The enlarged anterior 
region of the body is longer in proportion to the rest, and 
there are only about twenty-three bristled segments, instead 
of thirty-five as in 0. limacina. The branchia3 are propor- 
tionally shorter and do not quite reach the tail. The tail 
diverges, for it presents only a few blunt cirri dorsally and a 
rounded median and two short lateral cirri ventrally. When 
viewed from the rear this region shows a series of short blunt 
cirri, about nine in number, forming an arcli over the large 
median bluntly rounded papilla on the ventral surface. One 
of the cirri forming the arch had a slender terminal process 
or papilla distally, but it is uncertain whether the others had 
such. The structure of the caudal region thus differs from 
that of Ophelia limacina, and is not a stage in the develop- 
ment of that form, nor does it approacli that of Ophelia 
neglecta, Aim^ Schneider, or other form. The structure of 
the foot is similar to that of the species just mentioned, with 
a shorter branchial cirrus, and beneath it two tufts of simple 
bristles. The example is a female with large ova in the 
coelomic cavity in July. 

Even more generally distributed than Ophelia limacina is 
the next form, viz. Ammotrypane aulogaster, H. R., which 
ranges along both eastern and western coasts of Britain and 
extends far north. Instead of the anterior region being devoid 
of a groove, as in 0. limacina, in the present form the entire 
body is deeply grooved ventrally from end to end, and the 
setigerous region bears a single tutt of simple bristles, a large 
dorsal cirrus (branchia) , and a small ventral cirrus. The anus 
terminates in a scoop-shaped hood opening ventrally, and with 
four cirri along each border, a pair of larger and rather thick 
cirri at its base, and with a slender cirrus between them. 

A genus not hitherto known in Britain is Armandia, 
Filippi *, an example of which was dredged amongst sandy 
mud off one of the small islets in the Sound of Harris in 
1872. It has been provisionally termed A. rohertiance. In 
this the head is obtuse and rounded, somewhat like that of 
Ammotrypanella arctica, M'l.f, marked dorsally by a con- 
striction, whilst ventrally the prominent ridges of the ventral 
longitudinal mu-cles leave only a small free rim at the snout. 

* Arch, per la Zool. I'Anat. e Fisolog. Genova, 1861, vol. i. p. 215. 
t Trans. Linn. Soc. 2ncl ser. vol. i. p. 605, pi. Ixv. fig. 12. 

Gatty Marine Laboratory^ St. Andrews. 377 

Minute nuchal organs are present on each side just in front 
of tlie termination of tlie lateral groove, but they are only 
distinct in life. 'J'he body is about 14: mm. in length, some- 
what short and thick, tapered at each extremity, rounded 
dorsally and grooved ventrallj", the powerful ventral longi- 
tudinal muscles forming a cons[ncuous ridge on each side, 
almost from end to end. The mouth opens as a small pit 
behind the isthmus of the longitudinal muscles towards the 
tij) of the snout. The colour of the dorsum is greenish 
speckled with dark brownish points, a dark central transverse 
bar occurring at intervals, so as to give the dorsum a 
segmented apj)earance. Much of tiiis pigment remains in the 
spirit-preparation. The ventral surface is pale greenish. 
The j)OSterior end is abruptly diminished to an upturned 
caudal process, whicli is terminated by a slightly oblique 
border (the slope trending from below upward and forward) 
I'urnished witli sliort and somewhat clavate cirri, two being 
dorsal and two ventral besides two or three lateral, the most 
conspicuous pair being the ventral. These form a fringe to 
the anal aperture, which thus opens into a small funnel. 
Ihe diminished caudal region is marked by closely arranged 
circular strias. 

In the groove above each ventral ridge of the longitudinal 
muscles is a series of dark brown pigment-spots (so-called 
eyes) at regular intervals, but no bristles are visible except 
in tlie posterior region, where from live to seven tufts of 
slender curved glistening bristles form a fringe on each 
side, sloping downward and backward. Moreover, upon the 
narrow caudal process a few bristles occur distally on the 
sides, but their origin is uncertain. The bristles are trans- 
lucent, taper to a fine point, and do not show evident 
striations. Small tutts occur considerably in front of those 
mentioned above, but are only visible under the microscope. 

Like its congeners, it is an inhabitant of muddy sand and 
swims through the water actively like an eel. 

Wiiilst the caudal region somewhat resembles that of 
De St. Joseph's Arniandia doUfussi *, it ditfers in the struc- 
ture of the head, which in the French species has a sleniler 
})ri)cess {tentaculaire mince, De St. Joseph), in the absence of 
cirri, and in the inconspicuous nature of the bristles. 

Another species new to Britain is Polyophthalmu,< pictus, 
which comes from various parts of the west coast of Ireland, 
Irom Kerry to Galway, and is well known on the French ai?d 

* Ann. 8c. Nat. 8"" sor. t. xviii. \\ 111, pi. vi. tigs. 146-lol. 

378 Prof. M*Intosh*3 Notes from the 

other southern coasts. Tlie bluntly rounded head usually in 
the preparations is devoid of eyes, though three are described 
by l)e St. Joseph *, but lias well-marked nuchal organs, each 
of which occasionally projects as a papilla on each side. In 
some examjiles the head is paler than the succeeding region 
and shows a pigment-speck (eye) on each side in front of the 
brown band at the neck. The body is about an inch in 
length, rounded dorsally and grooved ventrally, tapered at 
each end, especially posteriorly, where the caudal process 
forms a short cone with a few short terminal cirri (De St. 
Joseph says from eight to twelve unequal cirri). Dorsally 
the body sliows about twenty-eight or thirty transverse brown 
bars, with a fine dusting of the same pigment between and 
beyond them. The bars seem to have a detinite position, a 
line drawn from their extremities striking the middle of each 
space between the so-called eyes, and they thus nearly agree 
with the number of segments mentioned by De St. Joseph, 
viz. about thirty. These pigment-spots are the eyes of some 
and the photogenic organs of Hesse and Benham. They 
vary, according to De St. Joseph, from ten to sixteen, and 
commence on the seventh segment. The densest dusting of 
pigment appears to occur on the anterior and posterior ends, the 
base of the caudal process, indeed, having a continuous brown 
blotch. No example has a complete series of pigment-spots 
(eyes), for they have been more or less bleached by long 

Though at first sight the bristles are not evident, yet they 
occur in a rudimentary condition in each segment as minute 
tufts of simple tapering bristles, best seen towards the caudal 
region. De St. Joseph, who had the opportunity of ex- 
amining living specimens, observes that the bristles form 
dorsal and ventral tufts with the intermediate lateral organ of 

Grube, Filippi, and Claparede's view that this form is 
only a genus of the Opheliidaj would appear to be reasonable. 
It resembles the Opheliidce in general aspect, in the iridescent 
skin, in the arrangement of the ventral longitudinal muscles, 
in the presence of the ventral groove between them and the 
lateral groove above them, as well as in the form of the 
caudal process and its papillae. It is further interesting to 
note how closely the structure of the body-wall in Folygordius 
approaches that in the present group, as shown long ago, and 
as De St. Joseph more recently corroborates. 

* Aun. Sc. Nat. 8^ s6r. t. v. p. 386 (1898j. 

Gatty Marine Laboratory^ St. Andrews. 379 

Tlie widely distributed genus Travisia of Dr. Johnston, 
wliicli ranges from Greenland to Kerguelen, is usually asso- 
ciated with the Opheiiidae, and for the present no objection is 
necessary. The common form, Travisia forbesii, occurs in 
great stretches of sand and sandy mud both on the east and 
the west coasts, from Shetland to St. Andrews, and ranges to 
Greenland and other northern waters. In five examples 
from Greenland the anterior runs into the posterior region 
without marked distinction, except the gradual disappearance 
of rings on the segments. Moreover, the total number of 
segments seems to be smaller than stated by Dr. Johnston, 
viz. from twenty- five to twenty-eiglit. In life the British 
form has a uniform pinkish colour, paler or straw-coloured 
laterally and posteriorly, and somewhat iridescent both 
dorsally and ventrally. A coil of intestine which protruded 
through a rupture was gamboge-yellow. The branchial cirrus 
has a streak of red. This form is the Ammotrypane oestroides 
of H. Rathke and the Ophelia mammillaia of QCrsted, both 
of these describing it a little later than Johnston. 

The arrangement of the family Scalibregmidaj has recently 
been carefully attended to by Dr. Ashworth *, the two main 
groups being: (1) Those in which the bead has antero-lateral 
tentacles, body enlarged anteriorly, feet (after the fifteenth) 
prominent, with a laminate dorsal and a ventral cirrus ; gills 
on the anterior segments {ScaJihregma) or none [Pseudo- 
seal ibr eg ma). In a subsection (B) the simple rounded feet 
do not form laminate appendages, and the ventral cirri, if 
present, are confined to tiie posterior region. Strong curved 
bristles on the first bristled segment {Sclerocheilus and Asclero- 
cheilus) . (2) The head has a median groove ; no tentacles ; 
body maggot-like, feet represented by dorsal and ventral 
papillcC. No anal cirri. Gills on the anterior segments 
present or absent (Eumenia and Lipohranchus). Baron de 
St. Joseph t had formerly grouped them into those with and 
those without branchiw. 

Nowhere does Scalihregma tnjlatum, H. Rathke, an 
example of the first group, flourish so well or attain so large 
a size as in the Outer Hebrides, where it was known more 
than forty years ago ; yet its range is wide, for it is found on 
the east as well as the west coast, and extends to Norway, 
Spitzbergen, and Greenland. The peculiar tessellated appear- 

* Quart. Jouru Mior. Sc. n. s. xlv. (1904). 
t Ann. !>c. Nat. S' m r. t. wii. ji. 103. 

380 Prof. Mantosh's Notes from the 

ance ol: the rings, as i£ they were paved with minute red 
bricks, is a characteristic feature, and was shown by Rathke ; 
yet they disappear in imperfectly preserved examples, and 
thus are absent from representations made from these. The 
body is terminated by a papillose venj, beneath which are 
four or five cirri, which are unusually long and slender in the 
small Norwegian specimens dredged by Canon Norman. In 
life the animal is of a dull brick-red throughout, the tessellated 
portions being minutely dotted with yellow. The posterior 
region of the body is often discoloured from the contents of 
the gut — being dull greyish, and thus throwing the paler lobes 
of the feet into relief. A slight iridescence occurs on the 
ventral surface, along which the large ventral blood-vessel 
passes. The branchiee commence on the first bristled foot 
and increase in size from the first to the fifth and last. In 
small specimens from the west coast of Ireland only four 
branchiae are present, but as the first, even in a large example 
in life, is very small, such may be due to retraction under 
the surface. Moreover, certain forms agree in all respects 
with the typical form, but the branchiaj are entirely absent, 
and Dr. Ashworth states that he has observed the same 
condition in a few American examples. It is a question 
whether these should be regarded as specifically different. 
The coloured sketch made from life in the Outer Hebrides in 
1865 represents only four branchise. 

The first bristles occur on the second body-segment, and 
in this and the following four are borne on conical processes, 
dorsally and ventral ly, elevated on pads. The bristles are 
finely iridescent and form slightly radiate tufts. The next 
nine or ten are similar, but the pads are smaller. About the 
fifteenth or sixteenth foot a dorsal and a ventral cirrus are 
evident, and in the posterior region they form somewhat 
lanceolate lobes with the setigerous process at the inner base 
of each — that is, below the dorsal and above the ventral. 
In addition, a series of furcate bristles occur in each foot, but 
they scarcely project beyond the surface. 

In this family is also Eumenia {Lipohranchus) Jeffrey siiy 
M'l., as described in 1869, a species dredged off the 
Hebrides and the Shetland Islands by Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys, 
and it also extends to Norway and probably to other northern 
regions. The specific distinction mainly rests on the absence 
of branchiee, and if these organs may be absent or present in 
allied forms, such as Scalibregma, a reconsideration of the 
subject may be necessary. A new form to Britain is Sclera- 

Oatiy Marine Laboratory ^ St. Andrews. 381 

cheilus minutus, Grube*, first found in tlie Adriatic in 17-35 
fathoms by its discoverer. It was procured on a valve of 
jPec^en entangled by a trammel-net on the ground off Fermain 
Bay, Guernsey, and also between tide-marks at Herm. In 
this the head is furnished with two well-marked though not 
long tentacles and two brownish-red ocular bands which form 
an inverted /\ by union in front. The body is about | of an 
inch in length, is somewhat fusiform, resembling a miniature 
Scalibreyma, slightly tapered anteriorly and more so poste- 
riorly, the surface being minutely tessellated and marked by 
transverse furrows. It is flanked by a scries of short fool- 
lobes, with rather long tufts of pale resplendent bristles. 
Posteriorly it terminates in an anal segment provided with 
five slender cirri. The body has a uniform dull brick-red 
colour or very pale brownish red, more deeply tinted on the 
dorsum here and tiiere from the blood-vessel. The mouth 
opens on the under surface of the peristomial segment as a 
broad /N. in the spirit-preparation, the angle directed forward. 

The first segment is achetous. The second has dorsally a 
foot-papilla bearing simple bristles, ventrally a papilla 
holding a series (five or six) of stout simple bristles finely 
tapered at the curved tip, though sometimes more or less 
abraded. De St. Joseph associates these with the making 
of its galleries in shells, just as in the case of the powerful 
hooks on the fifth segment of Polydora. Their function, 
whatever it may be, is certainly important, and they are 
moved by special muscles. They are brownish by trans- 
mitted light and have no longitudinal stria?. The next and 
succeeding segments have simple curved bristles of a fine pale 
golden sheen on the dorsal and ventral papillae, which vary 
somewhat in the different parts of the body, forming shorter 
cones in front, longer posteriorly. At the base of these 
bristles and just projecting beyond the skin is a series of bitid 
forms, one limb of the fork being longer than the other, and 
the inner edge in both limbs is spinous. Towards the 
twenty-second segment a slender cirrus, about a third the 
diameter of the body at its longest, appears below the ventral 
papilla. According to De St. Joseph its tip is furnished with 
palpocils in life. 

This is a southern type so far as present examples go, but 
it may yet be found on the western shores. It may have 
been overlooked from its small size and obscure habits. It 
bores actively with its snout amongst the mud. 

* Arcb. f. Naturges. xxix. i. p. 50 (18G3), ami ' Die Insel Liissiu u. 
ihre Meeresfauna,' p. 85. 

382 Prof. M'Intosli's Notes from the 

De St. Joseph* found it common on shell and oyster- 
grounds frequented by Sabellaria spinulosa off Dinard and 
St. Malo, at a depth of 7-25 metres, and corrected Grube's 
view of the ocular points. 

The family Telethusae or Arenicolidae is represented by 
three species, viz. Arenicola marina^ L., A. ecaudata, John- 
ston, and A. gruhei, Clapar^de, as recently and excellently 
described by Drs. Gamble and Ashworth in several publica- 
tions, the iirst-mentioned representing the tailed group, the 
two latter those in which the branchicfi go to the posterior end. 
Constantly sought on every suitable beach for bait, no marine 
form could illustrate better than Arenicola marina the 
permanence of such a marine type, notwithstanding man's 
efforts to destroy it. Yet it is always easily reached by 
man, whereas the food-fishes have the wide ocean and all its 
manifold arrangements as safeguards. This species is 
ubiquitous in its distribution on the British shores, whereas 
A. ecaudata is a western and southern form, and so is 
A. grubei. Several stages in the development of Arenicola 
ecaudata may be referred to. The smallest example procured 
jbetween tide-marks at Lochmaddy, North Uist, in August, 
measures about 4 mm. in spirit, but it would probably stretch 
considerably more in life. As Dr. Ashworth points out, there 
is no abrupt narrowing of the caudal region as in the pelagic 
young of ^. marina procured at St, Andrews in the bottom- 
net. No branchise are present. The anterior rings are wide, 
the posterior narrow. There are between fifty and sixty 
bristled segments. The next stage is represented by a 
specimen 7 mm. in length from the same locality and on the 
same date. In front of the first bristle-tuft are the somewhat 
large blunt prostomium and five rings. The setigerous lobes 
are distinct, and the first gill arises on the sixteenth. As the 
anterior segments are much broader than the posterior, the 
branchial region occupies less than half the length and is 
characterized by a deep furrow on the dorsum. In the anterior 
half a single ring is interpolated between the setigerous lobes, 
but the feet are so crowded posteriorly that no more than one 
ring to each segment is present at this stage. The branchiae, 
which number more than forty pairs, consist for the most part 
of simple filaments or a pair of filaments, and they appear to 
be largest anteriorly. The bristles are proportionally longer 
than in the adult and have a trace of a wing on each side. 

* Ann. Sc. Nat. 8^ s^r. t, xvii. p. 104. 

Gaily Marine Laboratory^ St. Andrews. 383 

The anus is median and is crenate from papillae, and several 
of the caudal segments are devoid of gills. 

The third stage, also obtained between tide-marks at Loch- 
maddy in August, is about 11'5 mm. in length, and the same 
general shape is maintained. It agrees with the form 
described by Prof. P. Fauvel * in his disquisition on the 
Clymenidian and Branchiomaldane stages in the development 
of Areiiicola. There are about forty pairs of gills, but the 
caudal segments devoid of them are more numerous. Except 
the first simple gill, all show secondary processes, especially 
anteriorly, where they form sliort branched tufts. Moreover, 
another example of the same length had somewhat longer 
gills in front, whilst a third agreed with the first. The 
fourth stage is 16 mm. long, and the body is more attenuate. 
It also was found in August at Salthill, Co. Dublin. The 
pigment is boldly marked anteriorly, the snout in front of 
the nuchal grooves being dark brownish (in spirit), whilst 
the pale grooves form a broad N/ with the concavity forward. 
A dark brown belt succeeds, with a paler area behind. Then 
three blackish-brown segments follow, whilst the rest of the 
body is pale brown. The bristle-tufts and the rows of hooks 
are respectively marked by pale areas and pale bands, the 
latter continuing a considerable distance along the posterior 
or branchial region, which is now nearly half the entire 
length. The gills are longer and more distinctly branched. 

3. On the same Families of Annelids in the 'Porcupine * 
Ea-peditions 0/1869 and 1870. 

Very few examples of the three families occurred in these 
collections, only Ammotrypane auloc/aster, H. ii., being 
present in the expedition of 18G9 ; yet one or two rare forms 
were procured. 

Thus a Travisia, viz. T. gravieri, sp. n., was dredged at 
Station 9 in the ' Porcupine' Expedition of 1870, lat. 48° 06' 
N., long. 9° 18' W., at a depth of 539 fathoms, on a bottom 
of grey mud and a temperature of 48°. It is a small form 
resembling the larva of one of the Diptera, and measuring 
about 5 mm. in length. The head terminates in a smooth 
pointed process, the body gently dilating thereafter and 
continuing as a rounded ringed sac to the posterior end, 
where a slight diminution occurs before it somewhat abruptly 
terminates. The rings in the contracted posterior region 
encircling the central caudal process are distinct. The dorsal 

• Bullet. Sc. Fr. el Bflfr, t. xxxii. p. 287 (1809). 

384 VroL M'lutosh' a Notes from ike 

surface is convex, the ventral concave. The body is closely 
ring^ed from the base of the prostomium to the caudal process, 
and the anterior dorsal surface is tessellated as in Scalibregma, 
but the ventral surface is smooth. At first sight feet appear 
to be absent, but closer inspection shows a pair of minute 
papillae on every third ring. No bristles were present. 

Another species, apparently very near the Ammotrypane 
cylindricaudatus of Hansen *, from the '* Norske Nordhavs- 
expedition i 1876," has an acutely conical head ending in a 
slender process with a clavate tip, as in A. gracilis of the 
' Challenger ' t, and thus agreeing with ffirsted's genus 
Ophelina. The ventral longitudinal muscles pass almost to 
the extremity of the snout. Mouth a short distance behind 
the latter. The body is very slender, with numerous 
branchial cirri, which are conspicuous posteriorly, as also are 
four setigerous processes in front of the caudal appendix, 
which is cylindrical or somewhat clavate, transversely marked 
by minute ribs, as also in the Ammotrypane delajndans of 
Kinberg \, first procured at Valparaiso, and aiterwards 
described by Ehlers § from various parts of Chili, and with 
an uneven posterior margin — that is to say, the dorsal edge 
forms a prominent papilla, the ventral being less, whilst an 
elevation occurs between them. In the majority the process 
is gradually narrowed to its base, so that it is really some- 
what clavate. The bristles are short, simple, and tapering. 
This form ranges from Station 17 o, at 795 fathoms, in the 
'Porcupine' Expedition of 1870 to Norway and Canada. 
Hansen's description and figures leave some doubt as to the 
actual identity, but such may be partly due to the larger size 
and more perfect condition of his specimens. Thus he 
describes and figures the head as similar to that of Ammo- 
trypane auloyaster, H. R., whereas in this it forms an acute 
cone ending in a slender process with a clavate tip. The 
caudal process in both is similar in general outline, and so 
with the four lateral setigerous processes in front of it ; but 
the processes on the posterior margin differ in the small 
examples from the ' Porcupine,' it may be from friction or 
other injury. Moreover, the organ appears to be readily 
reproduced. On the whole, the two forms seem to be identical. 
The Armandia weissenhornii of Kiikenthal ||, from Perim, is 

* Nyt Mag. f. Ncaturvid. Bd. xxiv. p. 8, Taf. vi. figs. 1-8. 

t Annel. ' Challenger,' p. 357, pi. xliii. figs. 9, 12. 

X bfvere. K. Vet.-Akad. Forh. 1865, no. 4, p. 258. 

§ Polychfet. Magell. u. chil. Strandes, 1901, p. 173, Taf. xxii. fig. 9. 

II Jenaische Zeitsch. Bd. xxi. K. F. xiv. p. 366, Taf. xxi. fig. 6. 

Gatty Marine Laboratory^ St. Andrews. 385 

an allied form, the caudal process beinnj as long as the last 
four segments and with numerous rings, but its tip has 
several slender papillae. The Ammotrypane lanyii, of the 
same author*, from the Philippines, has a somewhat shorter 
ringed caudal cylinder. 

A third form, Ammoti-y pane {Ophelina) kiikenthali'\, sp. u., 
was dredged in the * Porcupine ' Expedition of 1870, in 795 
fathoms. It is distinguished by its pointed snout, with its 
slender clavate papilla projecting beyond it, and its slender 
elongated body, like that of Pohjgordius^ about 25 mm. in 
length, tapered a little anteriorly and posteriorly, rounded 
dorsally, and grooved ventrally. The ventral longitudinal 
muscles run on each side from the region of the mouth to the 
base of the caudal process, and have the usual lateral groove 
above them, but, so fjir as observed, neither bristles nor 
pigment-specks are present. Posteriorly the body somewhat 
abruptly narrows to the short, cylindrical, caudal process, 
which has a smooth edge posteriorly — in one example oblique 
and in the other rounded ; but as both seem to have been more 
or less dried, there is uncertainty on this point. The slender, 
smooth, glistening body, and the absence of bristles as well 
as of cirri and papilla; on the caudal process are features of 

4. On the foregoing Families dredged by Dr. Whiteaves in 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. 

The representatives of the foregoing are comparatively 
few, and, indeed, are confined to one family, viz. the Ophe- 
liidse. The fact that little or no shore-collecting was done 
])erliaps accounts for the absence of the Telethusie, and, to 
some extent, of the Scalibregmidte, though the representatives 
of the latter also occur in deep water. Of the Opheliidre, 
Ammotrypane aulogaster, H. Rathke, is not uncommon and 
of good size, and Ammotrypane cylindricaudatus, Hansen, 
was also procured. 

A fine example of Ophelia radiafa,T)e\\ix Chiaje (PI. XVII. 
fig. 1), was dredged at Station Gl, viz. north-north-east of 
Sliediac Island, -ith iSeptember, 1873, probably in water not 

* Itud. p. 305, Taf. xxi. tigs. 4 & 5. 

t Alter Prof. Kiikeiithal, of Breslau, the author of a paper on the 
Ojiheliaceaj of tho ' Vettore Pisaiii' Expedition, Jeiiaische Zeitsch. 
xxi. m. N. F. xiv. pp. 3r)l-;57.% Taf. xxi. (1887). 

386 Notes from the Gatty Marine Laboratory. 

more tliaii 10 or 12 fathoms' depth, though this is not stated. 
It is distinguished superficially by the more regular and more 
definite cuticular ridges anteriorly (PI. XVII. fig. 2), by the 
more elongated and more acute head, by the smoother and 
more glistening body throughout the posterior region, by the 
presence of two sets of cuticular ridges towards the tail, two 
occurring a little in front of the caudal hump and four on the 
edge of the downward slope to the caudal process, which 
generally agrees with that o£ Ophelia limacina, while 
differing in detail. The mouth is more posterior in position 
than in 0. limacina, and the anterior region, viz. that in 
front of the cirri, is considerably longer. The cirri are much 
longer and have a warty aspect, from little papillfe or eleva- 
tions — it may be due to extravasations. On the other hand, 
the bristles are less developed, a feature conspicuous poste- 
riorly in 0. limacina, where they form a fringe on each side 
of the dorsal groove of the caudal process. No well-marked 
groove occurs on the dorsum of this process in 0. radiata, and 
the process itself is shorter. Ventrally both are deeply 
grooved to the tip, but the two ventral cirri of 0. limacina 
are considerably smaller and terminated by two clavate or 
button-like processes, whereas the ventral cirri of 0. radiata 
are broadly ovate flattened processes, conical posteriorly, and 
ending in a simple very slightly tapered filament (PI. XVII. 
fig. 4). Delia Chiaje shows fourteen cirri, forming the upper 
arch of the tail, whereas Claparede * describes and figures 
only eight. On the other hand, Baron de St. Joseph f gives 
sixteen, including, however, the two median ventral, in his 
differentiation of the species from Ophelia neglecta. In the 
present example five occur on each side and a median cirrus 
dorsally, so that the total number is eleven % (Ph XVII. 
fig. 3). This species is the common one at Naples, and the 
sexes are distinguished by colour, the males being pale. The 
ova are greenish. Claparede gives considerable attention to 
its structure in the work just referred to, and puts a different 
interpretation on the diverticula on the dorsum of the 
oesophagus from that given by several of his predecessors, 
who varied in interpretation from salivary glands and respi- 
ratory organ to heart. This muscular organ he associated 
with the stiffening of the snout by the perivisceral fluid 
during its boring in the sand and muddy sand. De St. 

* Annfl. Chetop. Naples, p. 284, pi. xxvi. tig. 1 c. 
t Ann. Sc. Nat. 9^ ser. t. iii. p. 231 (1906). 

X The artist makes seven on each side of the median. It has not been 
possible to check these figures before publication. 


On African and S.-American Otters. 387 

Joseph * points out the distinctions of this species from 
0. nerjlecta, A. Schneiiler, in his detailed description of that 
form, wliich has eighteen anal papillae besides the two larger 
ventral cirri. 

5. On the same Groups dredqed in Norwegian Waters and 
in Finmark hy Canon Norman. 

Both Ophelia limacina, II. R., Ammotn/nane aulogaster, 
II. R., and the widely distributed Trnvisiaforhesii, J ohmiowy 
are not uncommon in the fiords. Moreover, the finest example 
of the second comes from Finmark. Ammotrypane ( Ophellna) 
cy/indricaudatus, Hansen, likewise occurs in the same fiords 
near 15ergen. ScaliJiregma inflatum, H. R., is often dredged 
in the same seas, but all the examples are small, especially in 
contrast with the large specimens from Lochmaddy, North 
IJist. No example of the Telethuste is present, the absence 
of these littoral annelids being due to the fact that dredging 
alone was resorted to, and this in water of considerable depth. 


Fiij. \. Ophelia radiata, Delle Chiaje, in profile. Enlarged under a lens. 
Fiy. 2. Anterior end from the dorsum, to show the acutely conical snout 

and the ridges of the skin. Enlarged under a lens. 
Fig. 3. Caudal processes from the dorsum. Enlarged under a lens. 
Fuj. 4. Caudal processes from the ventral aurface. Similarly enlarged. 

LXIII. — On certain African and S.-Americnn Otters. 
^y Oldfield Thomas. 

SixCK I wrote my paper on the arrangement of the otters in 
iSSy Xy opinion has changed as to the value of the characters 
which should justify generic distinction between different 
^^roujis, and I am now prepared to admit, with other authors, 
that the clawless otters {Aony.v) and the margined-tailed otter 
of Brazil {Pteronura) should be recognized as generically 
different from the ordinary otters of the genus Lufra. The 
two species of Aonyx, A. capensis and cinereaf widely different 

* Ann. Sc. Nat. 8' s^r. t. v. p. 369, pi. xxi. figs. 181-195, and pi. xxii. 
figs. 19G-199. 

t I am indebted to the courtesy of the Carnegie Trust for the figures 
on this Plate. 

1 P. Z. S. 1889, p. 19(). 

388 Mr. 0. Thomas on 

as they are in size and habitat, undoubtedly have a certain 
agreement in the shape of their skulls and teeth, so that 
their common non-possession of claws is evidently a genuine 
connecting character, and not a parallelism, as was formerly 
supposed to be the case. 

Descriptions of a new subspecies of Aonyx and of the 
South-American species of the Lutra platensis group follow. 

Aonyx capensis angolce, subsp. n. 

External characters much as in true capensis, though with 
rather a greater tendency to a whitening of the bases of the 
wool-hairs. Hairs of head and nape tipped with whitish. 
Ears with light edges. Hairs of chin and throat white to 
their bases, the brown round the angles of the mouth at a 
minimum. Second and third phalanges of fingers quite 
naked above. 

Skull indicating affinity with capensis and nienelekl rather 
than with kindei, agreeing with the two former by its 
greater size, as judged by length, its large flattened bullae, 
and other characters. But it is conspicuously narrower in 
every breadth-measurement, the difference being so great as 
quite to alter the general proportions of the skull. Unfor- 
tunately the typical skull is that of a female, and allowance 
for this has to be made in comparing it with the other skulls 
and with those measured by Dr. Lonnberg. Interorbital 
reoion narrow, the interorbital breadth only about three 
fourths of that in a male capensis, the difference against the 
female being only about one-ninth in a pair of hindei. Post- 
orbital processes little developed, not projecting more than in 
a female hindei. Brain-case elongate-oval, longer and less 
broadened posteriorly and externally than in any others of 
the present group, its sides, when viewed from behind, more 
nearly vertical than in the other forms ; its surface smooth 
and little ridged, though there is a fairly distinct median 
crest, and the lambdoid crests are well developed, meeting the 
saoittal one at a well-marked re-entrant angle. Zygomata 
unusually little spread, the zygomatic actually less than the 
mastoid breadth, while even the latter breadth is markedly 
less than in the allied forms. Bullae broad and low, a single 
large foramen on the inner edge of each. Molars large and 
heavy, as in true capensis. 

Total length, measured in flesh, 1270 mm., of which, 
judging from skin, the proportions would appear to be 
about : — 

Head and body 800 mm. ; tail 470. 

African and S.- American Otters. 389 

Skull: basal length 128 mm.; zygomatic breadth 01'5; 
mastoid breadth 92-5 ; breadth of brain-case exclusive of 
mastoid flange (I(j ; breadtli of" nasal opening 18; interorbital 
breadth 27 ; tip to tip of postorbital processes 30o ; inter- 
temporal breadth 25'5 ; palate length 'o'o ; antero-posterior 
diameter of ^7* 12'9 ; greatest diameter of m^ 18, antero- 
})Osterior diameter of its inner lobe 13 ; greatest height of 
zygomatic arch 10. 

//ah. Coporolc R., Angola. 

7'i/pe. Adult female. B.M. no. 98. 3. 20. 1. Collected 
by Mr. G. W. Penrice. 

I have hitherto not ventured to determine definitely this 
fine otter, partly owing to its being a female and partly for 
want of good S. -African material for comparison. 

Now, however, that the Museum possesses a good adult 
pair of skulls of the nearly allied A. c. /lindet oi Ei. Africa, 
from which the differences due to sex can be estimated, and 
a good skull of tlie true S. -African capensis has been described 
and measured in Prof. Einar Lonnberg's recent interesting 
paper on the subject *, I am in a position to determine the 
Angolan form. 

So far as sex is concerned, there appears to be remarkably 
little difference between male and female in the general out- 
lines of the skull, the male having merely much more heavily 
roughened bones and larger crests and processes for the 
attachment of muscles. But the breadth as compared with 
the length measurements are practically the same in both 

If therefore, as we may presume, the male L. c. angohv has 
the same general proportions as the female, it will be readily 
seen from the above measurements and from those given in 
Prof. Lonnberg's paper how markedly the new form differs 
from any African otter hitherto described. As it happens, 
the chief length measurement is exactly the same in the type 
of angol(e and in Prof. Lonnberg's Natal example, while the 
zygomatic breadth is actually 13 mm. and the mastoid breadth 
10 mm. less in the former than in the latter, a difference 
which naturally produces a very considerable alteration in 
general outline. Jiut I suspect that the roughening of the 
bones and increase of the processes in the male will result in 
enough assimilation to A. capensis to justify my considering 
the Angolan otter as only a subspecies of that widely spread 

♦ ' Arkiv fcir Zoolo^,'!,' iv. no. 1:2 (1908). 
Ann. tO May. .V. /list. Ser. 8. Vol. i. 26 

390 My. O. Tliomas on 

The Lutra platensis Group. 
The difficulties presented by the members of tliis Soutli- 
American group of otters were the chief reason for the incom- 
plete state of the 1889 paper above quoted, and but little 
progress has been made in their elucidation to the present 

The only two points that have been published about them 
are that Nehring * has shown the earliest name, paranensis, 
Rengger, to have been based on the large Pteronura hrasili- 
ensis, so as to remove that name from the group, and that 
Dr. Major has described the Central-American form as a 
distinct species, L. annectens. 

Material has, however, been gradually accumulating, and 
I am now in a position to sort this ditficult group into seven 
fairly distinct forms, of which the characters and distribution 
are as follows : — 

1. Lutra annectens J IMaj. 

Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) xix. p. 618 (1897) ; Zool. Anz. 1897, 
pp. 136-142. 

Nose-pad quite naked, its upper line of demarcation with 
a distinct upward projection in the centre, as in the European 
otter, L. lutra. 

Skull very broad and low, with broad flattened brain-case 
and widely expanded mastoid processes. Nasal opening 
fairly narrow, its breadth less than its slanting internal 
height-length diameter. Bullae well swollen. 

Upper carnassial not very large, the hinder edge of its 
inner lobe not touching the front of m^. 

A male skull measures in condylo-basal length 117 mm. ; 
zygomatic breadth 80 ; mastoid breadth 78 ; antero-posterior 
diameter oi p* 10*2. 

Hah. Central America : Tepic, Jalisco, Mexico {Buller) ; 
Guatemala (Sahin). 

Txji^e in British Museum, no. 92. 3. 17. 8. 

2. Lutra emerita, sp. n. 

Nose-pad as in annectens. 

Size rather less than in that species. Skull with com- 
paratively large, rounded, and high brain-case, tlie height 
greater and the breadth less than in the Central-American 
species. Upper profile convex. Sagittal crest little developed ; 

* SE, Ges. uat. Freund. Berl. 1900, p. 221. 

African and S.- American Otters. 391 

lambdoirl crests well-marked, and, owing to the shape ot" 
the brain-case, surpassing behind the back of the condyles. 
Mastoid flanges not excessively developed. Nasal opening 
small, its proportions about as in annectens. Biillai rising to 
a high and rather narrower ridge than in annectens. Teeth 
about as in that s|Decies. 

Skull-measurements (adult male) : condylo-basal length 
110 mm.; basal length 101 ; zygomatic breadth 77*5; mas- 
toid Ijreadth 71 ; inferorbital breadth 2'1''6 ; brain-case, 
breadth Gi ; height from between bullae to crown 4:1 ; palatal 
lejigth 49; antero-posterior diameter o£ j/ lO'l; greatest 
diagonal diameter of w' 11"4. 

I/ah. Merida, Venezuela. Type from the Rio Chama at 
2000 m. altitude. 

Ti/pe. Adult male. Collected 13th August, 1007, by 
S. Briceno. Two specimens examined. 

This species is readily distinguishable from all the members 
of the group by its high rounded brain-case, and from the 
two which share the structure of its nose-pad by its markedly 
smaller size. 

3. Lutra provocaa;, sp. n. 

Nose-pad as in annectens, therefore markedly different 
from that of the geographically nearer L. platensis. 

Skull about as large as in annectens, its frontal region 
particularly flat and the upper profile comparatively straight. 
Nasal opening, owing to the flattening of the muzzle, broader 
in proportion to its height, its breadth more than its internal 
height-length diameter. Sagittal crest little developed, and 
the lambdoid not projected far back. Bullaj rather small. 
Teeth of medium strength, the inner lobe of ;:>■* not excessively 
large, but touching the front of m^ owing to a projection at 
its postero-external border. 

Skull-dimensions of type (old male) : condylo-basal length 
115 mm.; basal length 106; zygomatic breadth 78-5; 
mastoid breadth 1-i; interorbital breadth 2b; brain-case, 
breadth 58, height 38 ; palatal length 56 ; antero-posterior 
diameter of ^/ 11'? ; greatest diagonal diameter of )u' 13-5. 

A female skull has condylu-basal length lOU mm. ; mastoid 
breadth 74; ;>M01. 

Hah. Southern C!hili and Patagonia. Type from south 
of Lake Nahuel lluapi, Patagonia. Other specimens from 
Temuco, S. Chili [Bullock), and Magellan Straits (Voyages 
of ll.M.SS. ' Challenger' and 'Alert,' and of Lord Crawford's 
yacht the 'Valhalla'). 

Type. Old male. B.M. no. 3. 11 . 5. 14. Collected during 


392 Mr. O. Thomas on 

the Chih-Argentuie Frontier Commission, and presented by 
Sir Thomas Holdich. 

This otter occurs side by side with L. felina along the 
coasts of Southern Chili and in the Straits of Magellan, 
where it was first obtained during the voyage of the ' Chal- 
lenger,' and later on in the same region by Dr. Coppinger 
of H.M.S. ' Alert.' I have long doubted my provisional 
reference of it to L. jylatensis, from which I now hnd it can 
always be distinguished by the different structure of its nose- 
pad and the flattening of its muzzle, with the consequent 
alteration in the form of tlie nasal opening in the skull. 

4. Lutra platensis, Waterli. 

Voy. Beagle, Mamm. p. 21, pi. xxxv. fig. 4 (skull) (1838). (Maldonado, 

Lufra solitaria, Wagn. Arch, f . Nat. 1842, p. 358. (Ypanema, Sao 

Lutra latifrons, Nehr. SB. Ges. nat. Berl. 1887, p. 23. (" S. America, 

east of Andes.") 

Nose-pad naked, its upper line of demarcation running 
either straight across or even curving somewhat downwards 
towards the septum, its definition always sharp and well 

Skull larger and well ridged, not unusually flattened. 
Nasal opening comparatively narrow, its breadth distinctly 
less than its interior height-length diameter. BulltB well 
swollen, p^ large, with broadly expanded inner lobe. 

In an old male the skiill-measurements are : condylo-basal 
length 114'5 mm.; mastoid breadth 72*5; antero-posterior 
diameter of p* 12"5. 

Hah. Southern Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina ; inland 
to Matto Grosso. Examples in Museum from Rio Grande 
do Sul {Ihering), Uruguay {Darwin.^ Aplin), and Buenos 
Ayres {Lord Lilford). 

Type skull in British Museum, no. 55. 12. 26. 215. 

5. Lutra incarum, sp. n. 

Nose-pad ill-defined, the hairy part from above projecting 
downwards in the middle without any very clear line of 
demarcation, and in some cases almost or quite meeting a 
corresponding upward projection from below. There is, 
however, never a broad continuous band of hair down the 
septum as there is in L. enudris. In old specimens a good 
deal of the hair may be worn off, but traces of it are to be 
seen with a lens. 

African and S.- American Otters. 393 

General colour rather paler than usual. 
8kull and teeth large and heavy, apparently quite similar 
to those of L. pJatensis, though the inner lobe of />* averages 
rather smaller. 

The type skull (young) has a p'^ measurement of 12"4 mm. 
An old male skull from Eten gives the following dimen- 
sions : — Condylo-basal length 118 mm.; zygomatic breadth 
77-5; mastoid breadth 72 ; interorbital breadth 2-1-8 ; palate 
length 54. 

Ifah. Peru. Type from Marcapata, Prov. Cuzco. Other 
specimens from Eten on the N.W. coast (P. 0. Simons). 

This otter is most nearly allied to L, platensis, of which 
it may hereafter prove to be a subspecies, when specimens 
from intermediate localities are available for comparison. 

Two other otters have been described from Peru, L. peruvi- 
ensis, Gervais, and L, montana^ Tschudi. The former was 
based on a skull picked up on San Lorenzo Island, off Callao, 
and has long been synonymized with L. cinerea, Molina, the 
small Chilian otter. That this reference is correct is now 
proved by tlie examination of a specimen obtained by 
Mr. Perry Simons on that very island, a specimen which 
precisely agrees with Gervais's figure and also with speci- 
mens of L. cinerea from Chili. 

With regard to L. montana, it is difficult to believe that 
the animal Tschudi described was an otter at all, as of no 
member of the genus can it be said that " der Unterleib ist 
schwarzlich," that " die Fiisse sind schwarz/^ or that " die 
Wollhaare sind gliinzend schwarz.'" Possibly Tschudi heard 
accounts of the"Lebensweise und geographischeVerbreitung" 
of this species, and then had palmed off on him as an otter 
an imperfect skin of some other animal altogether, possibly a 
Tayra, which he described. 

No specimen is preserved under the name of L. montana 
in the Museum at Neuchatel, where I have been able to 
examine the majority of Tschudi's types. 

6. Lutra jnitis, sp. n. 

Nose-pad as in L. incarum, but rather more hairy, the hair 
above generally connected by a narrow mesial line with that 
below, though often more or less worn off in old specimens. 
In the most hairy specimens the band may attain at its 
narrowest part a breadth of about 2-3 mm., but it is more often 
about 1 mm. in breadth when not worn down. 

General culour dark. 

Skull smaller and lighter than In any other of the present 

394 On African and S.- American Otters. 

group of otters, witli comparatively narrow interorbital 
region, small nasal opening, little expanded mastoid flanges, 
and small though well-swollen bullge. Teeth light and 
delicate, the inner lobe of ^* small. 

Dimensions of the tj^pe skull (adult male) : — Condylo- 
basal length 103"5 mm.; basal length 94:"5 ; zygomatic 
breadth 68 ; mastoid breadth 65 ; breadth of nasal opening 
11*5; interorbital breadth 20; height of brain-case 37; 
palate length 47 ; antero-posterior diameter of p* 10"6 ; 
greatest diameter of m^ 12'7. 

Hah. Guiana and Eastern Brazil. Type from Surinam, 
other specimens from Cayenne (Stevens), Para [Robert), and 
Porto Peal, liio Janeiro [Hardy du Deneuf). 

Type. Adult male. P.M. no. 86. 5. 12. 1*. Collected by 

This otter was considered by Gray to be F. Cuvier^s 
L. enudris [L. " enhydris"\ but the particulars which Prof. 
Trouessart has been so good as to give me of the typical 
skull of that species indicate that the latter is the larger and 
not the smaller Guianan otter. 

7. Lutra enudris, F. Guv. 

Diet. Sci. Nat. xxvii. p. 242 (1823). _ (Guiaua.) 
Lutra insularis, id. t. c. p. 24.3. (Trinidad.) 
Lutra enhydris, auct. (emend.). 

Nose-pad with an unbroken band of hair passing down the 
nasal septum between the nostrils, 3-5 mm. in breadth at its 
narrowest point. 

Size comparatively large, about as in L. platensis. 

Skull much as hi L. j^latensis, neither specially high nor 
flattened. Bullge well swollen. Teeth large and heavy, the 
antero-posterior diameter of p'^ exceeding that of any other 
species of the group. 

Dimensions of the type skull in the Paris Museum, kindly 
furnished me by Prof. Trouessart: — Length 112 mm.; 
breadth 80 ; j/, external length 14, greatest diameter 
(diagonally) 15, antero-posterior diameter 13. 

Hab. Guiana and Trinidad. 

Type skull in the Paris Museum. 

Of this fine species the British Museum possesses an adult 
male skull from Demerara belonging to a specimen now 

* Skull and skin having come separately, and a certain doubt being 
possible as to their belonging to each other, 1 would definitely select the 
skull as the type. The nose-pad of this specimen is damaged, but another 
skin that came -with it shows the hairy structure particularly well. 


Inclusion of Foreign Bodies by Sponges. 395 

mounted in the ]3ritish Guiana Museum vvliicli I examined 
some years ago, and noted the characters of its nose-pad. 
This siiull closely agrees with tlie dimensions of F. Cuvier's 
type kindly supplied to me by Prof. Trouessart. 

In addition we have a skin without skull from Trinidad, 
therefore a to[)otype of F. Cuvier's L. insularis, which it may 
be taken to represent. 

Unfortunately, as Prof. Trouessart informs me, the typical 
mounted skins of neither L. enudris nor L. insularis are now 
to be found in the Paris Museum. Happily by the help of 
the type skull of the former and the British Museum topotype 
of the latter we are able to identify both with practical 

LXIV. — The Inclusion of Foreign Bodies hy Sponges, with a 
Description of a new Genus and Species of Monaxonida. 
By Igerna B. J. yOLLAS. 

Owing to the kindness of the captain of the ' Durham Castle ' 
the Members of the British Association were allowed to land 
at Mozambique and at Mombasa on the homeward journey 
from South Africa in September 1905. An opportunity of 
half an hour's shore-collecting was thus afforded, and at 
Mozambique there was a ricli growth of sponges, particularly 
of Cinachyra voeltzkowi, Lfd. Oue sponge, Miyas porphyrion, 
gen. et sp. n., which, owing to its consistency and general 
appearance, 1 sup[)Osed would prove to be a member of the 
Ceratosa, is, in fact, an interesting form of Monaxonida 
which possesses a skeleton consisting of both ''proper'^ spicules 
and foreign bodies. Certain features in the cortex of this 
specimen seem to me to throw some light on the method by 
which foreign bodies are included in this case and possibly 
also in the case of other sponges. 

Migas porphyrion is a massive sponge ; the surface is 
raised into a system of low ridges. The single specimen 
which 1 possess measures 4'5 x 2"a cm. A tine individual 
of Cinachyra voeUzkoioi has lixcd and grown upon a part of 
its surface. The colour when living was dark purple, out- 
wardly butf in the deeper parts ; in spirit the purple has 
turned to grey. The dark pigment is contained in the 
granular cells of the cortex. The cortex is '8 mm. at its 
greatest thickness and contains large cavities. The chambers 
are very small, "015 mm. in tlianieter, few and aphodal. 


Miss I. B. J. Sollas on the Inclusion. 

The proper skeleton consists of not very numerous oxeas 
measuring '96 x '016 mm., and arranged partly in loose 
strands, partly irregularly. The strands run up to the 
surface and their free ends project. This spicular skeleton is 
su])plemented by sand-grains scattered through the tissues 
and quite unconnected with one another. Most of them have 
a covering of some brown substance. 

Fig. 1. 

a and b. Portions of the surface of Migas j^orphyrion^ showing the 
inclusion cf sand-grains by pseudopodia-like extensions of the surface- 

Fig. 2. 

Portion of the surface of Migas porphyrion, showing a sand-grain 
seated on a pillar of cortical tissue. 

The incorporation of foreign bodies occurs commonly 
among Ceratosa, and in the Monaxonida it is found in the 
Gelliodine genera Phoriospongia and Sigmatella, in the 

of Foreign Bodies by Sponges. -^97 

Dendoriclne species Tedania commivia, R. & D., and in tlie 
Ectyonine j^enus Aulena. In Psammopemma anion;^ Ceratoaa 
and in Tedania comntixta the foreign bodies are not enclosed 
in fibres, but lie in the ground-substance. Professor Minchin * 
speaks of this phenomenon as a " remarkable property- 
possessed })y the spongin fibres," and says, " Sand-grains . . . 
and such-like bodies which fall on to the surface of the sponge- 
body become included in the fibres, apparently by adhering 
to the tip of the fibre at its growing point, where it is con- 
tinuous in all probability with the external cuticle of the 
sponge-body, Tiie absorption of foreign particles into the 
spongin fibre is therefore not so mucli a question of their 
travelling down into it as of their being passively surrounded 
by spongin as the fibre grows upwards." 

The appearaTice of the surface of the present species 
suggests that here, at any rate, inclusion takes place in a 
different manner. In thick freeliand sections the sand-grains 
lying on the surface are seen to be enveloped by the super- 
ficial tissue of the s))onge, which is raised up round them and 
adheres to them. Sometimes pseudopodia-like extensions of 
the sponge-tissue are found partially enwrapping the grain 
(fig. 1). When sand-grains are found, as in fig. 2, attached 
to the apex of a conulus, I believe that this results from a 
flow of material to the neighbourhood of the irritant grain, 
not from the sand-grain having fallen upon the summit of a 

The abundance of sand-contents makes it difficult to cut thin 
sections while the grains are in place, the tissues were therefore 
demineralized with hydrofluoric acid. In sections of material 
treated for a day or two with this reagent some remnants of 
siliceous fragments were still present, but the outer layers 
were sufficiently free to admit of fairly thin sections being 
cut. In these sections it is seen that in the cortex there are 
numerous cells containing coloured granules; of these some 
are confined to the cortex, others aggregated in oval cell- 
clusters occur throughout the tissues. In both cases the 
granules conceal the nucleus. The granular cells are fre- 
quently elongated and fusiform ; sometimes, particularly 
beneath remnants of foreign bodies (fig. 3) and on the flat 
summits of the low ridges of the cortex, they are of irregular 
rounded shape or lobed, and they are massed together in 
numbers. The surface of the sponge appears to me to be 
absolutely devoid of cuticle and to be bounded by granular 
cells. This observation was found to hold good also in 

* ' A Treatise on Zoology ' (edited by E. Ray Lankester), 1900, p. 42, 

398 Miss I. B. J. SoUas on the Inclusion 

sections of selected bits of cortex which, owing to their 
comparative freedom from sand-contents, could be cut without 
desilicification. Icannot doubt that theinclusionof sand-grains 
is due to the activity of these small granular ama3bocytes ; 
and I think it is worth while to consider whether some similar 
cellular activity is not responsible for tlie inclusion of foreign 
bodies in sponges generally, for, on the hypothesis that this 
phenomenon is a property of the spongin-fibre, the fact of 
selection of particular kinds of foreign bodies by various 
species remains unexplained. Why, for example, do fibres 
of Phyllospongia silicata contain foreign spicule fragments, 
while in various other species of Phyllospongia sand-grains 
are found as the fibre-core ? or, again, in IRppospongia why 
siiould one group of species possess fibres free from foreign 
bodies, while in a second and third group the fibres contain 
foreign spicules and sand-grains respectively ? It seems to 
me still more difficult to account for the skeleton of some 

Fig. 3. 


Thin section of the desilicified cortex of Migas porphyrion, 

a, partially dissolved sand-grain. 

species of Aulena without the assumption of the selection of 
fibre-contents by cellular activity. Thus in Aulena gigantea 
in addition to the supporting skeleton, which is cored by 
sand-grains, there is a surface skeleton consisting of (1) sili- 
ceous spicules lying irregularly in the "skin," (2) a tan- 
gential network of stout fibres cored with an axial series of 
sand-grains, (3) echinated fibres running from these to the 
surface and cored with spicules. '' The spicules in the skin 
are partly foreign, like those which are found in the axis of 
the echinated fibres " (Lendenfeld's description). The 
tangential network (2) being remote from the surface, surely 
the sand-grains must be carried to it. 

Again, when foreign spicules are included in the fibre they 
are arranged with thtir long axes parallel to the axis of the 

of Foreign Bodies hij Sponges. 309 

fibre. It can liardly be supj)osed that they fall on to the 
fibre-tip and adhere in this position. 

In a sponge which I have described elsewhere as Enspongia 
officinaHs, ? var. rotunda, the following points are to be noted : — 
Tiie cortex is closely like that of Migas porphyrion, but deeper, 
and, being free from loose sand-grains, is easy to cut. The 
whole appearance suggests a tissue of wliicli the cells are in 
active motion. There is an abundance of amoeboid granular 
cells (like the smaller granular cells of Migas parphyrion) ; 
in places these form, as it were, streams of fusiform cells, but 
in other places the cell-bodies are more massive and crowded 
together. Often when the aggregation occurs at the surface 
the latter has minute irregularities, suggesting pseudopodia. 
Where foreign spicules are to be found just beginning to 
pass into the sponge there are clustered lobose granular 
cells (tig. 4). An argument which seems to me to be worth 

Fig. 4. 

Frotn the surface of Euspongia officinnlis, ? var. rotunda, 
s, foreign spicule t'ragnuent. 

considering is this : within the cortex are scattered spicular 
fragments lying" more or less parallel to the surface and 
obviously occupying the position which they had in the 
living sponge (Hg. 5). Now the main fibres alone contain 
foreign bodies, and there are no free spicule fragments in the 
deeper parts of the sponge. What, then, is the meaning of 
this temporary position of the spicule fragments if it is not 
that they are on their way to the main tibres to which they 
are being carried by the granular cells? It is ditticult to 
understand the concerted action of amccbocytes, but it is not 
more diflicult in this case than in that of the wonderful 
migrations of cells carrying spicules with them which Evans 
has shown to occur during the formation of the gemnuile- 
coat of iSjjoiigiild. Cotte attributes the, excavating power of 

400 Inclusion of Foreign Bodies hy Sjyomjes. 

Cliona to the action of amoeboid cells at its surface ; so that 
the foregoing suggestions are not without precedent, and, 
seeing that amoeboid action witliin the sponge-body is well 
established, it would not be surprising if in such lowly 
creatures it should also occur at the outer surface. 

Fig. 5. 
!ExCerna,Z suryixce 

T~=. • <f : 

From the cortex of Eiispongia officinalis, var. rotunda, 
s, foreign spicule fragment. 

When I wrote the foregoing remarks I was unaware that 
the subject Lad already been discussed. The following state- 
ment of the position of the discussion is taken from von 
Lendenfeld's ' Monograph of Horny Sponges,' 1889, p. 768 : — 
"... The sponge selects from the material deposited [by 
currents and waves] such particles as it requires, and allows 
them to sink into the skin. Haeckel originally assumed that an 
active selection took place. This was contested by Schulze, 
who w^as of opinion that the selection, about the existence of 
which there cannot be any doubt, was not active but passive, 
and he compared the differences in the size and nature of the 
foreign bodies in different sponges and their uniformity in 
one and the same specimen with an ordinary sedimentary 
process, as the deposit of rough gravel in one part of a river- 
bed and the deposit of tine sand in the other. If Schulze's 
hypothesis be correct, that the nature of foreign bodies in 
sponges is the result of (1) the physical properties of the 
sponge, and (2) the circumstances of its surroundings, then, 
of course, tiie nature of the foreign bodies would change if the 
surrounding circumstances (premiss 2) changed. But this is 
not the case. In whatever circumstance the sponge grows 

On new African Phlehotomtc Diptera. 401 

it always takes in the same kin*l of foreign matter. The 
spoiif^es from widely different localities and depths are in tiiis 
respect the same. We must therefore assume that a sponge 
selects from the numerous foreign bodies which fall on and 
adhere to its surface a certain kind only, and uses them to 
build up its fibres." 

In conclusion, the case of Tedania conimixta deserves a 
word of mention in that it shows that the inclusion of the 
sand-grains may occur as a result of more than one kind of 
activity of the sponge-tissues. In this species, of which I 
was fortunate enough to obtain a fragment through the 
kindness of Mr. Kirkpatrick, the body is divisible into (i.) an 
upper region, which has a well-developed spicular skeleton 
with a few sand-grains of small size scattered in the flesh and 
apparently taken in at the upper surface of the sponge, and 
(ii.) a lower region, in wdiich the sj)icular skeleton is still 
present and more irregular, and in which numerous foreign 
bodies of various kinds and often of large size occur. So 
abundant is the foreign matter, and so large the size of many 
of the fragments, that there can hardly be any question of 
these included substances having passed through the upper 
region of the sponge ; rather, tlie sponge has grown down- 
wards, including as it grew the constituents of its substratum. 
Tlius both the tissues of the free surface and of the basal 
surface appear in this case to engulf foreign matter. 

LXV. — New African Phlebotumic Diptera in the British 
Museum {Natural Histori/). — Part II. Tabunidce (con- 
tinued). By Ernest E. Austen *. 

Genus Hematopota, Meigen. 

The following pages contain descriptions of twelve new 
species from Tropical Africa belonging to this genus, and at 
least as many more, examples of which arc included in the 
National Collection, have yet to be descril)od. Of most of 
these, descriptions will appear in the next instalment of this 
scries of papers. Owing to the complicated nature of the 
wing-markings in Hcematopota, which in most cases present 
valuable specific characters, the drawing-up of recognizable 

* For Part I. see Ann. X. Mul'. Nat. Hist. >pr. 8, vol. i. (March 1908 
pp. 209-228. 

402 Mr. E. E. Austen on new 

descriptions of species, nnaccompanied by figures, is a task 
of no little difficulty. It is hoped, however, that the 
following descriptions, if carefully studied, will be found to 
have achieved their object, and also that in any given case a 
perusal of the diagnosis in italics will suffice to show Avhether 
it be necessary to read tlie detailed description. In studying 
descriptions of wings regard should always be paid to the 
most important characters, such as the "rosettes" (which, if 
present, will be found surrounding the distal extremities of 
the basal and discal cells, and the fork of the third longitu- 
dinal vein), the markirigs of the discal cell and of the iving-tip, 
the nature of the stif/ma, and the presence or absence of a 
larrje unbroken dark blotch beneath it. 

in order to characterize new species belonging to a fauna 
which has been well studied, it is frequently sufficient to 
indicate the points in which they diff'er from those already 
known. In studying H(Ematopota-m?itex\?i\ from Tropical 
Africa, however, we are breaking almost entirely new ground, 
and if descriptions of new species are to be recognizable it is 
impossible for them to be short. Allusion has already been 
made, in the introduction to the first paper in this series, to 
the peculiar richness of the Ethiopian Region in species of 
Hcematopota. With the opening-up of Tropical Africa at 
present in progress new representatives of this genus are 
coming to hand almost every week, and it is probable that 
the species already known represent but a small minority 
as compared with those still to be discovered. As yet, 
therefore, it would be futile to attempt anything in the nature 
of a key to the African species of Hamatopota : what is of 
far greater importance is to draw up such careful descriptions 
of new species, supported where practicable by a comparison 
with allied forms, that when the time arrives for the prepara- 
tion of such a key it may be possible to construct it with 
reliability and precision. 

The types of all the new species described below are in the 
British Museum (Natural History). 

Heematopota paliidipennis, sp. n. 

$ . — Length (9 specimens) 9 to 9*8 mm. ; width of head 
3*25 to 3*5 mm. ; width of front at vertex 1-2 mm. ; length 
of wing 8 to 8-3 mm. 

Smoke-grey^ ; dorsum of thorax mouse- grey, abdominal 
segments, except last, on each side of middle line with an olive- 

* For names of colours, see Eidgway, ' A Nomenclature of Colors for 
Naturalists ' (Boston : Little, Brown, k Company, 1886). 

African Fklelotomic J>iptera. 403 

brown ring, enclosing a grey spot ; antennce russet, frontal callus 
clove-brown ; wings pale smoke-grey, light markings milky ; 
hind tibia with two light rings. 

Head rather l)road, lateral frontal and median frontal dark 
brown spots well marked ; frontal callus of moderate depth, 
upper marjiiu nearly straiglit, very slightly coneave on each 
side of middle line; face and jowls pearl-grey, clothed with 
white hair ; palpi pale cream-buff or greyish buff, clothed 
with white or yellowish-white hair, interspersed on outer side 
of terminal joint with minute black hairs ; first joint of an- 
tennce somewhat incrassated, first and second joints clothed 
with black hair, upper angle of second joint eons[)icuously 
produced, last three annuli of third joint dark brown, length 
of last annulus less than that of the two preceding annuli 
taken together. Thorax : dorsum with an olive-grey median 
stripe running from front to hind margin and a pair of ad- 
median stripes, generally becoming indistinct behind trans- 
verse suture^ but reappearing near hind margin ; dorsum 
clothed with Avhitish hair. Abdomen : olive-brown rings on 
dorsum in contact with front margins of segments, but leaving 
well-marked hind borders of smoke-grey, and usually a 
smoke-grey median stripe ; venter light grey, hind margins 
of segments cream-coloured. Wings with the darker ground- 
colour very pale, markings of the usual type ; extreme tips, 
from end of second vein to that of main stem of third, with 
a milky border, in connexion with sinuous mark running 
down from end of second vein ; markings rather coarse, 
more or less distinct rosettes in the usual places — round 
fork of third vein and ends of discal and basal cells ; 
markings running obliquely across posterior cells and ending 
on hind border immediately behind terminations of veins ; 
two milky marks across discal cell, and usually two across 
each basal cell ; the two latter markings are continued more 
or less distinctly across the anal and axillary cells ; medias- 
tinal (or auxiliary) and first longitudinal veins oehraceous ; 
veins bounding distal extremities of both basal cells and 
base of upper branch of third longitudinal vein infuscated ; 
stigma short, light brown, sometimes paler. Halteres straw- 
yellow, knob brown or brownish above and below. Legs : 
coxjc clothed with whitish hair, front coxa; whitish grey, 
middle and hind coxic dark grey; femora oehraceous buff ; 
til)i;c cream-coloured, distal half of front tibi;e dark brown, 
middle and hind tibiiie with brown i)ands at base, in middle, 
and at tips ; front tarsi black, middle of hind tarsi brown, 
basal two thirds of first joints of middle tarsi, basal half of 
first joints of hind tarsi cream-coloured. 

404: Mr. E. E. Austen on new 

Nortliern Nijicria : type and six other specimens from 
Zaria, 1905 {Captain F. U. Carr, A.V.D.) ; one specimen 
from Kontagora, 1907 [J. Brand) ; one specimen from 
above Bajibo, left bank of R. Niger, Nupe Province, 
12. xi. 1906 {Major C. B. Swionds, R.G.A., Anglo-French 
Boundary Commission), "biting native paddler in canoe." 

Hamatopota paUidipennis is allied to H. brunnescens, 
Ricardo, which is found in Uganda and the Nyasaland Pro- 
tectorate ; it is distinguished, inter alia, by the colour of the 
frontal callus, the presence of a well-marked median frontal 
spot, the narrower and more elongated basal portion of the 
third joint of the antennae, the coarser wing- markings, and 
the milky border to the extreme tip of the w^ing. 

Hamatopota inflaticornis, sp. n. 

$ , — Length (7 specimens) 8 to 8*75 mm. ; width of 
head 2*6 to 3*2 mm. ; width of front at vertex 1 to VZ mm. ; 
length of wing 7 to 7*75 mm. 

Stoutly built thick-set species, with someivhat broad body ; 
dorsum of thorax olive-broivn, with three narrow olive-grey 
longitudinal stripes ; abdomen broadly bordered on each side 
and at distal extremity with olive-grey, and with a broad 
median dark brown stripe, diminishing in ividth from base to 
sixth segment, where it terminates, narrowly interrupted on 
hind margins of segments ; first joint of antennce elongate and 
conspicuously incrassate, especially when viewed from above ; 
hind tibice with two pale bands. 

Head smoke-grey, median frontal as well as lateral frontal 
dark brown spots usually well marked, but former sometimes 
inconspicuous, a pair of subquadrate admedian dark sepia- 
coloured spots on vertex, separated by an olive-grey stripe 
running upwards from median frontal spot ; frontal callus 
black, of moderate depth, its upper margin straight ; face 
and jov»fls clothed with yellowish-white hair, a few dark 
brown hairs on each side of face ; palpi olive-grey, clothed 
with rather long pale yellowish hair, terminal joint not much 
thickened towards base, and on upper portion of outer side 
of distal half sometimes with black hairs interspersed with 
the pale hair; antennce black, first joint dull olive-grey polli- 
nose, distal extremity (sometimes including as much as distal 
third) usually shining black, first joint clothed with rough 
pale yellowish hair, with some black hairs above and at tip, 
upper angle of second joint strongly produced, third joint 
ending bluntly, aimuli of considerable relative depth, terminal 
annulus rather shorter than two preceding annuli taken 

African Phlehotomic Diptera. 405 

together. Thorax : pleurae, pectu<=i, and anterior border of 
dorsum smoke-grey ; dorsudi clothed with short, deciduous, 
shining, pale yellow hairs, pleurge clothed mairdy with 
yello-wish-white hair, prse ilar c illi cloihed below with blackish- 
brown hair; scutellum raouse-giey, with a dark olive-brown 
blotch on each side of middle line. Abdomen : olive-grey 
border of dorsum somewhat olive-brown on sides of distal 
half and at tip, median line usually more or less distinctly 
marked with mouse-grey, hind b )rders of segments smok"- 
grey to mouse-grey on basal, light olive-ljrown on distal 
half ; dorsum clothed with short pale yellow hair on grey 
borders, in centre of first segment, and on hind margins of 
all segments, and with brownish hair on dark brown area ; 
venter uniform smoke-grey, clothed with whitish-yellow hair. 
Wings pale brown, light markings of usual type but rather 
coarse, and often running together in such a way as to 
produce a very confused pattern, markings extending 
througliout whole area from base of basal cells and axillary 
incision to end of second longitudinal vein ; stigma light 
brown, not sharply marked, but with a distinct quadrate 
brown patch below it extending to third vein, and there 
sending off a narrower process which reaches fourth vein 
where it forms upper boundary of distal half of discal cell ; 
distal portion of marginal cell beyond stigma often almost 
entirely pale ; each end of discal cell often occupied by a 
more or less comi)lete pale loop, separated by a brown band 
across centre of cell, and each with a centre of dark ground- 
colour ; the three usual rosettes generally more or less 
distinct, but sometimes partly obliterated owing to fusion of 
markings ; sinuous V-shaped mark beyond fork of third 
vein usually distinct; along posterior margin of wing a 
row of light markings often, but not always, present in 
distal angles of some or all jjostcrior cells ; basal cells each 
with a more or less complete pale loop at each end; anal 
angle with a more or less complete broad pale border, one 
extremity of which runs inwartls, as usual, across anal cell, 
while the other ends in the usual loop in angle formed by 
axillary incision and sixth longitudinal vein. Halteres stniw- 
yellow, knob brown above and below. Legs : coxje and 
femora mouse-grey, tibia) oehraceous buff, with brown rings ; 
front tibiie brownish at extreme base, dark bown at tip, and 
with a brownish band below middle, partly in contact with 
dark brown tip ; middle and hind tibiie with three brown 
bands, situate respectively at base, apex, and in midillc ; 
front tarsi dark brown, basal half or two-thirds of tirst joint 
Ann. it- Mag. X. Uist. JSer. S. Vol. i. 27 

406 Mr. E. E. Austen on new 

russet; middle and hind tarsi buff, last joint and tips of 
remaining joints dark brown. 

Angola : type and five other specimens from Bihe, No- 
vember-December 1904 {Dr. F. Creiyhton IVellman) ; a sixth 
specimen from Benguella, 1905 [Dr. F. C. IVellman). 
Dr. Wellman's field-note on this species states : — " About 
60 specimens in plains and edges of bush, 300 miles from 
coast. Active." 

H. inflaiicornis is sufficiently distinguished from its African 
congeners at present known by the broad grey lateral border 
to the abdomen. In the case of one specimen in Dr. Well- 
man's series, on the third and following segments there is a 
dark mark in the grey border on each side, Avhich would 
appear to indicate that the border has been produced by the 
fusion with the grey lateral edging of a dorsal series of 
paired grey spots. 

H<smatoj)ota brevicornis, sp. n. 

$ . — Length (12 specimens) 6*75 to 8*75 mm. ; width of 
head 23 to 3 mm. ; width of front at vertex 1 mm. ; 
length of wing 7 to 8*5 mm. 

Olive-brown ; dorsum of thorax vnth three olive-grey or 
smoke-grey longitudinal stripes, dorsum of abdomen with 
lateral borders, a double series of spots often more or less 
merged in the lateral borders, hind margins of segments, and a 
more or less distinctly marked narrom median stripe smoke- 
grey ; antenna (except tips) and legs ochraceous, font tarsi, 
and front tibice except basal third brown, middle and hind tibioe 
slightly broivnish, with tia > faintly marked paler bands; frontal 
callus like yellow horn, forming a prominent transverse ridge. 

Head drab-grey, clothed with pale yelloAvish hair, lateral 
frontal dark brown spots well marked, median frontal spot 
very small or wanting, a brownish mark usually visible 
between eye and base of antenna on each side ; upper margin 
of frontal callus curved, convex, or angulate in middle ; palpi 
cream-buff, clothed below with yellowish hair, terminal joint 
thickly clothed on outer side with minute black hairs ; an- 
tenna short, first joint somewhat incrassate, terminal annuli 
of third joint short, black (sometimes brown), ending bluntly 
and of practically same depth throughoat, length of last 
aunulus less than that of two preceding annuli taken together, 
first and second joints of antennae and upper margin of part 
of basal portion of third joint clothed with black hair. 
Thorax : dorsum with a pair of conspicuous cre>;centic pearl- 
grey marks on hind border, one in front of each basal angle 

African Phlehotomic Diptera. 407 

of scutcllum ; liind margin of latter olive- grey, olive-brown 
area on disk sometimes divided; pectus and pjeune drab- 
grey. Abdumen clothed for the most part with minute 
oehraceous hairs, darker parts of dorsum with brownish 
hair; venter yellowish grey, unieolorous. Wings brownish, 
pale markings clearly defined throughout, from base of bas;il 
cells to end of fork of third longitudinal vein, but coarse and 
much broken up, especially in apical portion ; siiyma russet 
or piile oehraceous, elongate, and well defined ; pale loop at 
distal end of stigma rather narrow; first submarginal cell 
crossed by pale marks at subequal intervals, and sometimes 
with a relatively rather large pale blotch at its distal extre- 
mity, in angle formed by up})er branch of third vein with 
costa ; second submarginal cell crossed by three pale streaks, 
and in addition usually with a pale mark immediately below 
tip of upper branch of third vein ; posterior cells with a 
distal series of oblique detached pale marks, running at an 
angle of about 45° to hind margin, and sometimes also with 
a series of pale marks along hind margin itself, in the proximal 
angles formed by the veins ; rosettes round distal extremities 
of diseal and basal cells more oi less distinct; discal cell 
with two pale marks across central portion and usually a 
third pale mark in distal extremity ; markings in basal, anal, 
and axillary cells normal, an almost complete loop at base of 
axillary cell, in angle formed by sixth longitudinal vein. 
HaUtrts light mummy-brown, stalk cream-coloure;!. Leys: 
nnddle and hind tarsi brown, except basal three-fourths of 
first joints, front tarsi as usual darker. 

Angola : type and eleven other specimens from Beuguella, 
1905 [Dr. F. Creiyhton JVellman). 

In the abdominal markings, at any rate. Hamatopota 
brcvicurnis, like H. pallidipenuis, presents a certain resem- 
blance to H. bruniiescens, Kicardo, alluded to above ; but, 
apart from its usually smaller size, it may be distinguished, 
iitlir alia, by the shortness of the terminal aunuli of the 
third autennal joint and by tliL; coarseness of the pale 
markings of the wings. 

Hamatopota buUatifrons, sp. u. 

?. — Length (5 specimens) 86 to 10 mm.; widtli of 
head 325 to 35 mm. ; w idth of front at vertex I to 13 mm. ; 
length of wing 8 to 9 mm. 

Dark-culoured species, with grey-striped thorax and dark 
brown, very distinctly marked wings. — Head smoke-grey, 
frontal callus a shining clove-brown or black knob, not v.v- 


408 Mr. E. E. Austen on n&io 

tending beyond antenna on each side ; thorax RcaUbrown ; 
scutellum smuke-yrey , hind border seal-broivn ; abdomen clove- 
broivn or block, hind borders of segments cinereous ; legs 
black or blackish brown, middle femora lighter, front tibice 
with a cream-buff band close to base, two bands on middle and 
hind tibia (often incomplete or indistinct in case of latter) and 
base of first joint of middle and hind tarsi buff, front and hind 
tibiae expanded, front and hind femora and liind tibice fringed 
above and below with long black hair, middle femora and outer 
side of hind femora and tibia also clothed with greyish-white 

Head: lateral frontal dark brown spots large, con- 
spicuous, not in contact with eyes, median frontal spot small, 
inconspicuous, vertex with a lar^e seal-brown spot on each 
side of middle line ; a large clove-brown or black spot below 
and in contact ivith inner angle of each eye, on a level with 
antennse, and a third spot of same colour between antenna 
below callus, with which it is in contact; frontal callus 
widely separated from eyes, its upper margin convex ; lower 
part of face and jowls clothed with yellortish-white hair; 
palpi smoke-grey, clothed with yellowish-white hair, distal 
half of last joint black, clothed with minute black hairs, last 
joint but little expanded at base; first joint of antenna buff, 
expanded towards tip, which is dark brown, second joint 
clove-brown, third joint seal-brown or dark brown, extreme 
base buff, basal portion elongate, slender, and tapering, last 
annulus equal in length to two preceding annuli taken 
together. Thorax : median dorsal stripe stopping short of 
hind margin, admedian stripes expanding posteriorly, curving 
outwards on hind margin and running forwards again as far 
or nearly as far as transverse suture, with a backward process 
on each side on to postalar callus ; pleurse and pectus smoke- 
grey. Abdomen : cinereous hind border of second segment 
expanded in middle line into a narrow forwardly-directed 
triangle, hind borders of all segments expanded on sides, 
sixth and seventh segments each with a pair of admedian 
grey spots ; abdomen clothed above with short blackish hair, 
except hind borders and sides of segments, which are clothed 
Avith whitish hair ; venter cinereous, clothed w ith minute 
appressed whitish hair, last three segments except hind 
margins black and clothed with black hair. IVings : a very 
conspicuous, quadrate, dark brow^n blotch extends downwards 
from stigma ; as far as third longitudinal vein it is usually 
unbroken, below this its continuation widens out and in- 
cludes rosette round distal end of discal cell, the markings 
composing which are slender and sharply defined ; another, 

African Phlehotomic Diptera. 409 

somewhat triangular and rather paler brown blotch, extends 
(l(;\vnwar(ls from tip of marginal cell, its apex reaching 
lower branch of third vein ; a third, basad, dark brown 
blotch extends from second longitudinal vein in middle of 
first basal cell to anal angle, widening out below; in tip of 
wing a sinuous light mark, broadest above, runs from end 
of second vein to distal extremity of second posterior cell ; 
beyond this, in extreme tip of second submarginal cell, is a 
second light mark, sometimes connected with former above, 
in other cases fused with it to form a large light mark close 
to tip of wing ; markings forming rosettes on each side of 
blotch below stigma usually more or less coalescent above, 
where they reach costa, so that there is a light area of some 
extent at each end of stigma ; a large light area in distal 
extremity of first posterior cell, in connexion with rosette 
round fork of third vein; a series of narrow disconnected 
curved marks running across middle of second and following 
posterior cells, and a series of pale blotches on hind margin, one 
in distal angle of each posterior cell except fourth; proximal 
extremity of discal cell, distal extremities of both basal cells 
(partly) and of anal and axillary cells, as well as a narrow 
sinuous mark running from hind margin of axillary cell to 
fifth vein, a curved mark in anal angle with concave side 
basad, a mark across second basal cell near its base, and 
usually another in first basal cell nearer its middle, pale ; 
extreme bases of both basal cells generally with pale 
markings ; alula uniformly dark brown. Halteres dark 
brown, stalk buff. Le//5 : middle and hind femora partly 
ochraccous buff, greyish pollinose ; greyish-white hair 
mingling with upper part of fringe on outer side of hind 

Northern Nigeria : type and one other specimen from 
Zungeru, June-July 1905 {Dr. Da/ziel, per Dr. J. H. 
Ashworth) ; three specimens from Zungeru, July 1907, 
INIarca, 4. vii. 1907, and Katscua Allah, August 1907, 
respectively (/. Brand). 

While presenting a certain superficial resemblance in 
fades to Hannatopota decora, Walk. (syn. H. dorsalis, Lw.), 
11. bullatifrons is not closely allied to any of its African 
congeners known to me, from which, apart from other 
characters, it can at once be distinguished by its swollen and 
Iriuged hind tibiie. 

HfVDittfupota torqiiens, sp. n. 
? . — Length (2 specimens) 9 to 9'2 mm. ; width of head 

410 Mr. E. E. Austen on nsw 

3 ram. ; width of front at vertex just under 1 mm. ; length 
of sving 8 mm. 

Broivn ; frontal callns large, clove-hroivn or black ; dorsum 
of thorax bistre, of ahdomen mvmimj- broivn, darker towards 
tip, hind margins of segments lighter, g?'eyish huff; ivi'-gs 
sepia-colonred, light markings buff, largely rnoniliform, rosettcS 
rather indistinct ; femora ochraceous buff, tips brown ; front 
tarsi and distal half of front tibia black or blackish broivn, 
basal half of front tibia cream-coloured, clothed with white 
hair ; middle and hind tibia and tarsi dark mummy-brown, tiv'/ 
bands on tibia and basal two-thirds of first tarsal Joints buff 
or cream-buff ; distal half affront tibia expanded. 

Head: front yellowish grey, face and jowls light grey, 
latter clothed with white hair, lateral frontal dark brown 
spots large, conspicuous, in contact with eyes when seen 
fi-om below, median frontal spot very small or wanting ; 
frontal callus extending, from eye to eye, depth of its sides equal 
to half its width, upper margin rising to a point in middle 
line; a clove-brown spot in middle line below callus, with which 
it is in contact ; paljn buff, last joint elongate, not greatly 
expanded at base, clothed on outer side with minute black 
hairs, intermixed with some yellowish hairs towards ba>e ; 
antenna cinnamon-coloured, basal portion of third joint 
except extreme base browner, terminal annuli dark brown, 
last annulus equal or almost equal in length to tw^o preceding 
annuli taken together, first joint of antennae somewhat ex- 
panded towards tip, but not markedly incrassate, basal 
portion of third joint elongate. Thorax : dorsum, including 
scutellum, clothed with minute shining yellow hairs, easily 
rubbed off; dorsum marked with three narrow smoke-grey 
stripes, more or less indistinct except in front, continuiition 
of admedian stripe on each side marked by a spot behind 
transverse suture and usual crescentic mark on hind margin ; 
pleuree and pectus smoke-grey, clothed with whitish hair. 
Ahdomen : dorsum clothed with minute brownish hairs; hind 
margins of segments with yellow ish hair, median portion of 
front margin of second segment sometimes narrowly grey ; 
venter smoke-grey, clothed witli minute appressed whitish 
hairs, hind margins of segments except last lighter. Wings : 
stigma dark mummy-brown, distinct, but brown blotch below 
it not conspicuous or sharply defined, on other hand brown 
colour in tip of wing, that is beyond rosette round fork of 
third vein, somewhat darker than elsewhere ; in extreme tip 
of wing an irregular curved mark, with its concavity towards 
apex of wing, runs down from below end of second longi- 
tudinal vein, and is indistinctly connected with margin in 

African Phhbotomic Diptera. 411 

middle of end of second sul)marginal cell ; light mark (upper 
margin of rosette) immediately beyond stigma small and 
narrow ; posterior cells crossed diagonally by several series 
of disconnected or semi-disconnected moniliform marks, and 
all except fourth with a light mark in distal angle on wing- 
margin ; discal cell with a minute light mark in proximal 
angle, a transverse mark before middle, and a more or less 
incomplete loop in distal half ; markings in basal and axil- 
lary cells of normal type, apex of anal cell not light-coloured. 
Halteres cream-butf, base of knob brownish above and 

Ashanti : Insu, Gold Coast Government Railway, 17. viii. 
1906 {Dr. W. M. Graham). 

Hcematopota torquens is closely allied to H. cordigera, Bigot 
(Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. Ix. 1891, p. 3G9 *—nec Bigot, Mem. 
Soc. Zool. Fr. V. 1892, p. 62Gj, the type of which from 
Assini, Ivory Coast, I have been enabled to examine through 
the courtesy of Mr. G. H. Verrall, in wdiose possession it 
now is. These two species present a strong similarity to 
each other in certain details, such as the shape of the frontal 
callus and antennas, but H. torquens is distinguished, inter 
alia, by the disk of the scutellum being brown, like the 
remainder of the dorsum of the thorax, instead of smoke- 
grey, by the deeper yellow colour of the hair clothing the 
dursum of the thorax, the paler femora, the first joint of the 
hind tarsi being cream-buff except the distal third, instead 

* Syn. H. guineensis, Bijrot, Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. xvi. 1891, p. 76. 
Although the name guineonds was published before cordiyera, Bigot 
(Auu. boc. Eiit. Fr. loc. cit.), the description (only two Hues) is too short 
to be recognizable. In the original label on the type of H. cordiycra 
(Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. loc. cit.) the word cordiycra has been struik out and 
(fuineensis inserted below in Bigot's handwriting. It is evident that 
Bigot, after reading (February 11, 18'.)1) his piper on the Diptera 
collected by M. Ch. AUuaud in Assini, in whith the original //. cordi- 
yeia was described (Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. loc. cit.), thought that the name 
C'</v/!(/era would be more appropriate to the species from India to whicli 
it was applied by him (without, however, a recogniz;ible description) in 
the " Tableau Synoptique '' of the species of the genus Hccmatopotu. read 
before the Socit^le Zoologiqiie de France on February 24, 18'Jl (Bull. Soc. 
Zool. Fr. loc. cit.), in which the West-African species .'-tyled cordiyera in 
the paper i*ead thirtetMi days previously is called yuinectisis. Although 
read lati^r, the paper in the Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. was actually published 
some months earlier (certiinly before the end of May IS'.U ) than that in 
tiie Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., which did not appear until December 2'!, \^\)\ ; 
but, as has already bei'u stated, //. yuiincusis, Bigot, is insufliciently 
characterized. It follows from this that the name cordiyera. Bigot, must 
lie reserved for t lie West- African sjiecit's and tln\t J f. cordiyera, IVigot, 
Mem. Soc. Zool. Fr. 1892, p. (i2t), from Bengal, must be renamed. I 
would propose to term the latter species JlioiuUopota fiuscijrons. 

412 Mr. E. E. Austen on new 

of entirely brown^ as well as by certain differences in the 

Hcpmatopota vexans, sp. n. 

$ . — Length (1 specimen) 6'5 mm. ; width of head 
225 mm. ; width of front at vertex 1 mm. ; length of wing 
66 mm. 

Small brown species, ivith dark hrown distinctly marhed 
wings ; thorax dark sepia-coloured, front part of dorsum loith 
beginnings of three narrow grey stripes ; scutellum smoke-grey ; 
abdomen uniform clove-brown, dorsum with hind margins of 
segments except last narrowly pearl-grey ; icings with cream- 
coloured light markings, rosettes somewhat confused, a con- 
spicuous transverse light mark connecting tip of second and 
that of loioer branch of third vein, and a light mark in distal 
angle of each posterior cell, on hind margin ; legs dark hrown, 
all tibia with narrow indistinct pale band close to base, middle 
tibite ivith a second indistinct pale band below middle, first 
joint of middle and hind tarsi except tip cream or cream-buff, 
other joints pale at base, first joint of front tarsi except tip 
mummy-brown ; front tibice incrassate. 

Head : front wdde, mouse-grey^ face and jowls pearl-grey, 
latter clothed with whitish hair, face on each side with a 
narrow, horizontal, dark brown streak belo^' level of an- 
tennae ; lateral frontal dark brown spots larg^e, conspicuous, 
each surrounded by a distinct light grey ri'ig and narrowly 
separated from eye, median frontal spot sm^l^ inconspicuous ; 
frontal callus seal-brown, narrow from alove doM^nwards in 
centre, but deeper at sides, running straight across from eye 
to eye, upper margin straight, a conspicuoiis quadrate clove- 
brown spot in middle line below, in contact with lower 
margin of ciillus ; basal joint of palpi ■*'ark brown, clothed 
with long whitish hairs below and blacl hairs on outer side, 
terminal joint drab-grey or mouse-gn-y, relatively large, 
elongate, somewhat swollen, blunt at ti>^ clothed on outer 
side with blackish and below with v-iVowish hair ; first and 
second joints of ffH/e??;/* russet, thff\ joint mummy-brown, 
last three annuli clove-brown, first ioint somewhat elongate, 
not incrassate, curved, with concave side outwards, upper 
angle of second joint blunt, ba^^l portion of third joint 
elliptical, terminal annuli flatt("ed from side to 'side. 
Thorax : dorsum (including scut-'Hum) clothed with minute 
pale yellowish hairs, continuation of admedian stripes in 
shape of a small grey spot on .^ich side behind transverse 
suture, and usual crescentic m;'ks on hind margin, con- 
tinuation of median stripe distnct from midway between 

African Fhlebotumic Diplera. 41.'i 

suture and liind margin ; pleurae and pectus mouse-grey. 
Ahdomen clothed with blackish hair, dorsum -with sides of 
second and third srgmeiits and hind margins of all segments 
except last two clothed with minute whitish hairs. W'int/s : 
daik lirown blotch l)elow stigma clearly define 1^ extendin^r 
unl)rok( n to below third vein, with an oblique prolongation 
across first posterior and discal cells ; in marginal cell imme- 
diately beyond stigma a complete flattened light ring en- 
closing a centre of brown colour; a series of disconnected 
ol)li([ne liglit markings running across all posterior cells ; a 
light marking in each extremity of discal cell and of 
both basal cells, and a large light marking occupying distal 
hall of anal cell ; simihir light markings (remains of rosette) 
at base of first submarginal and first, fourth, and fifth po.<te- 
riir Cells ; a small indistinct light mark at distal extremity 
ot second costal cell ; a large light loop in anal angle, with 
narrow opening above, below sixth vein, and a continuation 
each way along latter; alula with a light border. Halteres 
browni<li, stalk cream-coloured. Legs : bla .k hair on outer 
si'lc of hind tibiae fairly thick. 

Congo Free State, 1904 {Drs. Dutton, Todd, aid Christy). 

In some respects, such as coloration of body and width of 
front, this species resembles HcEinatopota lonrja, Ricardo, the 
type of which is from the Nyasaland Protectorate ; apart 
from its much smaller size, however, H. vexans may be 
d stlnguished, inter alia, by the fact that in the win^- the 
stigma is not conspicuous, being lost in the dark colour of 
the brown blotcii below it, and by the absence of a second 
light baud on the hind tibia. 

Hamatopota brucei, sp. n. 

?. — Length (1 specimen) 11 mm.; width of head 
4 mm.; width of front at vertex 1-2 mm. ; length of wing 
10 75 muK 

Clove-brorcn , abdomen hlackish brown or black, hind margins 
of segments excejd jirst light grey on dorsum ; fact with a deep 
black transverse baud above, ivhite below ; hind margin of 
thora.v greyish ivhite, with Jonvardly-direcled processes ; ante- 
rior half of disk of scutellum greyish ivhite ; wings black or 
blackish brown, light markings much reduced ; legs black, all 
tibiic rvith a broad white or cream-coloured band close to base, 
■middle tibice with a second band on distal half; hind tarsi 
entirely black. 

Head: front clove-brown, a narrow gnyish-white edging 
on each side above hitcral frontal llackish-browu spot, 

414 Mr. E. E. Austen on new 

below which is also a small light fleck, greyish-white edging 
broader on vertex, narrower in middle ; lateral frontal 
blackish-brown spots large, conspicuous, and broadly in 
contact with eyes, median spot also distinct ; frontal callus 
very narrow from above downwards, running straight across 
from eye to eye, upper margin straight; upper edge of black 
transverse band on face in contact with callus, lower edge 
level with lowest part of margin of eye on each side; jowls 
and lower part o£ face clothed with white hair ; palpi cream- 
coloured, basal joint brownish b low, terminal joint not 
greatly elongate, clothed with whitish hair, mixed on outer 
side of distal half with minute black hairs ; antenna clove- 
brown, first joint cylindrical, somewhat incrassate, notched 
above near tip, clothed with black hair and shining on outer 
side, second joint with upper angle greatly produced, basal 
portion of third joint somewhat elongate, deep at base and 
tapering to distal extremity. Thorax : dorsum in front with 
commencement of a pair of narrow greyish-white admedian 
stripes, in line with each of which and behind transverse 
suture is a greyish-white spot ; greyish-white hind border, 
which includes inner halves of postalar calli, clothed with 
yellowish hair and produced forwards into a broad pointed 
process on each side and a narrow median pointed prolonga- 
tion ; between median and each lateral process is a small 
angulate process, tips of three longer processes in line with 
each other ; a small elongate greyisli-white fleck on each 
side behind humeral callus; pleurae with a broad longitu- 
dinal greyish-white stripe covering upper portion of meso- 
pleura and extending on to pteropleura, sternopleura also 
with an oval greyish-white spot on posterior half of its 
upper margin. Abdomen : fii'st segment light grey on poste- 
rior angles, second segment light grey on sides, its grey hind 
margin deeper than that of other segments ; sixth segment 
with a pair of grey spots in front ; venter grey on tirst three 
segments except anterior angles and with a grey blotch on 
each side of next three segments, leaving anterior angles 
blackish brown ; ventral surface of seventh segment, excc[)t 
extreme hind margin, which, like that of the two preceding 
s( gments, is cream-buff, and lateral edges, which are grey, 
wholly blackish brown ; venter clothed on grey areas with 
short yellowish hair, elsewhere, like dorsum, with black 
hair. Wings black or blackish brown from extreme base, 
stigma dark seal-brown, large, sharply detiued, and con- 
spicuous ; usual rosette r.»und distal extremity of discal cell 
wanting, so that blackish-brown blotch below stigma extends 
almost unbroken to posterior margin ; light mark in extreme 

African Fhltlotomic Di'ptera. 415 

tip of witjg below end of second vein very faint, indistinctly 
bifurcate in tiist submarginal cell; a group of tliree some- 
what more distinct light marks in basal half of second sub- 
marginal cell, |)roxiraal mark the longest, continued across 
first submargiual cell to second longitudii al vein, middle 
mark connecting the two branches of third vein, distal mark 
a mere spot on lower branch of latter ; a small, roughly 
circular, light mark in marginal cell at distal extremity of 
stigma, enclosing a darker centre and with a nearly straight 
prolongation running downwards across first subraarginul 
cell to third vein before its bifurcation ; a large light blotch 
occupying distal extremity of first posterior cell, and a small, 
shar[ily defined, light spot on lower side of third vein, below 
end of a|)pcndix to upper branch of latter; usual series of 
oldique, disconnected, light markings running across poste- 
rior cells scarcely indicated, but a series of light blotches on 
hind margii\ in or near distal angles of second, third, and 
fifth posterior cells, and a larger light blotch round end of 
sixth vein and in apex of anal cell ; rosette round distal 
extremities of basal cells incomplete but well defined, a large 
curved light mark near tip of second basal cell especially 
noticeable ; first and second costal cells but very slightly 
infuscated ; discal cell entirely dark, except a single, well- 
defined, transverse light mark before middle; axillary cell 
with a small light spot near centre of its hind margin ; 
abila ciitiiely dark. //«//(^?*e5 cream-coloured. Legs c\ot\n.H\ 
with whitish hair on light bands, elsewhere with black hair; 
first joint of middle tarsi cream-buff at extreme base. 

Uganda: Unvoro, 1903 {Culunel David Bruce, C.B., 
R.A.M.C, F.R.S.). 

This handsome species, whicli I have much pleasure in 
naming in honour of its discoverer, is closely allied to 
Hieniatopota decora, Walk. (syn. H. dorsalis, Lvv.), which 
also occurs in Uganda, though its type is fr<jm Natal. The 
following summary may serve to indicate the chief points in 
w hich H. brucci differs from H. decora : — trout almost 
entirely clove-brown, grey colour confined to lateral margins 
of upp(!r half, aiul a minute Heck below eaciv lateral frontal 
blackish-brown spot (in //. decora the front is grey, with 
brown markings) ; median process from grey hind border of 
thorax pointed instead of usu:dly ending bluntly, lateral 
processes of same larger, not divided, and extending as far 
forward as median process ; hind tai'si entirely black, instead 
of first joint having broad cream-coloured band at base; 
much greater extent of dark colour in wing, pale marking 
close to apex quite small and indistinct, discal cell entirely 

416 Mr. E. E. Austen on new 

dark with exception of a single transverse light mark before 

Hamatopota cruenta, sp. n. 

? . — Length (1 specimen) 9 mm. ; width of head 3"2 mm, ; 
width of front at vertex jnst under 1 mm.; length of wing 
7 mm. 

Clove-hroion, dorsum of abdomen with hind margins of 
segments and a double series of spots grey ; frontal callus 
large, black, extending from eye to eye, upper margin pro- 
duced upwards into a blunt median jyrocess ; a large, circular, 
shining black median tubercle on face beluiv antennce ; poste- 
rior margin of thorax and base of scutellum light grey ; 
infuscation of wings uniform and extending to base, but not 
dark, light markings distinct, rosettes more or less broken up 
into spots ; legs black, all tibice with a broad white band close 
to base, middle tibice with a second narrower band on distal 
half, first joint of middle and hind tarsi cream-coloured at 

Head smoke-grey, front with a brownish mark on each side 
above lateral spot, sides of face with black blotches (partly- 
denuded?) and clothed like jowls with whitish hair, lateral 
frontal and median frontal dark brown spots small, former in 
contact with or scarcely separated from eyes ; palpi mouse- 
grey, lighter at extreme tips, clothed with shining whitish 
hair ; antennce clove-brown, basal portion of third joint some- 
what lighter and elongate-ovate, first joint short, not or 
scai'cely incrassate, pollinose, clothed with whitish hairs 
beneath. Thorax : dorsum with commencements of three 
pearl-grey stripes in front, further back continuation of each 
admedian stripe is represented by a small pearl-grey spot 
behind transverse suture and usual crescentic mark on hind 
margin, a very narrow continuation of mediaa stripe runs 
forward from hind margm rather more than halfway to 
transverse suture; humeral calli pearl grey above; pleurae 
and pectus mouse-grey, former clothed with whitish hair ; 
dorsum sparsely clothed with minute shining yellowish hairs. 
Abdomen: grey hind margin of dorsum of second segment 
the deepest, first four segments grey on sides, spots on third 
and fourth segments larger than rest ; first three (really 
first four) segments of venter grev, remainder clove-brown 
with grey hind margins; grey areas above and below clothed 
with minute whitish hairs, tlsewhere abdomen clothed for 
most part with blackish hair, last segment of dorsum with 
longer whitish hair on hind margin. IVings with conspicuous 

African Phlehotomic Diptera. 417 

(lark browi) sH/jma, below which a small quadrate brownish 
bhjtcli descends to third vein ; light mark beyond stigma 
also conspicuous, roughly circular, with small dark centre ; 
apical sinuous light mark from tip of second longitudinal 
vein to lov\er branch of third distinct, as also mark in second 
submarginal cell, between former and rosette round fork of 
third vein ; usual three rosettes distinct, though broken up 
as stated above ; hind margin of wing with large light 
blotches in distal angles of first, second, third, and fifth 
posterior cells and axillary cell ; usual oblique markings 
across posterior cells in form of more or less detached spots ; 
discal cell with a small light spot in or near proximal and 
distal angles, a transverse light mark at end of basal third, 
and a second transverse light mark (broken up into two spots 
in typical specimen) at commencement of distal third; light 
marking in apex of each basal cell in form (.f an imperlect 
loop, and each of these cells with usual transverse mark 
before middle ; an incomplete double loop at commencement 
of distal third of anal cell; markings in axillary cell of 
usual type, but ineomi)lcte. IJalteres cream-coloured, knob 
seal-brown at base above and below. Legs : front tibiae 
slightly incrassated; hind femora with some silvery hairs on 
distal half of upper side ; hind tibiae with a faint indication 
of a lighter mark (a rudimentary or vestigial band) on outer 
side of distal half. 

S.-E. Congo Free State : Ruwe, Lualaba River {circa 
11° S., 26° K.), February 1906 {Dr. A. Yale Massey). 

Hiematoputa cruenta is not closely allied to any other 
African species at present known to me; although agreeing 
with H. decora, Walk., in the markings of the tibiic, it is 
easily distinguishable from that species by, inter alia, the 
shape of the frontal callus, the short and non-swollen first 
joint of the antenme, the facial markings, and the marking 
of the dorsum of the thorax. 

Hcematopota sangninaria, sp. n. 

? . — Length (3 specimens) 8 to 8-6 mm. ; width of head 
2"8 mm.; width of front at vertex 0'7o mm.; length of 
wing 73 to 7*5 mm. 

Alummy -brown., uith darker broicn t/rei/spoftcd abdomen, 
last Joint of antenna tatrnij oc/iraceous, distal portion of scut cl- 
luin conspicuously ochraccous buff. 

Head yellowish grey, clothcil below with yellowish hair, 
sides of front nearly parallel, front but little expanded 
below J lateral frontal dark brown spots well marked, in 

418 Mr. E. E. Au3teu on new 

contact with or narrowly separated from eyeSj median frontal 
spot very small ; frontal callus mummy-brown to clove-brown, 
relatively deep, extending from eye to eye, lower margin 
straight, upper margin usually sliglitly convex ; no distinct 
spot below callus, between bases of antennae; palpi buff or 
cream-buff, terminal joint elongate, clothed on outer side 
with minute black hairs and on under side of basal portion 
with yellowish hair ; first joint ofa/itennce shining ochraceous, 
incrassate when viewed from above, clothed like secoud joint 
with short black hair, upper angle of second joint greatly 
produced, basal portion of third joint elongate-ovate, last 
three annuli of same colour as basal portion, terminal annulus 
brownish only at extreme tip. Thorax : usual three stripes 
on dorsum smoke-grey, median stripe entire, admedian stripes 
sometimes more or less interrupted behind expansions on 
posterior margin of transverse suture; humeral calli drab- 
grey, adjacent area smoke-grey ; pectus and pleurae smoke- 
grey, clotiied with whitish hair ; dorsum (including scutellum) 
sparsely clothed with minute shining yellowish hairs ; scutel- 
lum with a narrow mouse-grey transverse band close to base. 
Abdomen : dorsum of each segment, except sometimes first 
or first and last, with a pair of conspicuous admedian smoke- 
grey or drab-grey spots, except on first and second segments 
applied to front margins of segments, forming a double series 
extending throughout entire length of abdomen ; hind 
margins of segments and a more or less conspicuous median 
longitudinal stripe on each segment except first and last 
yellowish grey ; venter greyish buff", clothed with minute 
yellowish hairs. Mings : infuscation pale brown, uniform, 
rosettes and other light markings distinct, though markings 
forming rosettes larj^ely broken iip into spots ; stigma well- 
marked, pale brown to dark brown, with light marking at 
each extremity small but well defined, that at distal extre- 
mity of stigma roughly circular or oval, with dark centre ; 
apical sinuous marking, from tip of second longitudinal to 
lower branch of third vein widely interrupted in second sub- 
marginal cell ; usual oblique marks across posterior cells 
sometimes more or less broken up into spots ; light marks 
along hind margin, in distal angles of first, second, third, and 
fifth posterior cells, and axillary cell small ; discal cell with 
two light marks across its central portion, and sometimes a 
minute light fleck in its proximal angle ; light markings in 
basal, anal, and axillary cells of normal type but not exten- 
sive, those at distal extreujity of each basal cell sometimes 
merely consisting of a transverse mark at commencement of 
distal third. Halteres cream-coloured, knob brownish at 

African Phlehotomic Dipte.ra, 419 

base ahovo and ])elow. Legs : femora buff"; front tibifc and 
tarsi dark brown^ with a whitish or cream-bufl" baud on 
former near base ; middle and hind tibise and tarsi light 
brown or brownish, two bands on tibiae and first joint of tarsi 
except tip cream-buff; front tibiie not or scarcely incras.sate. 

North-western Rhodesia: Lunga River, Kasempa District, 
7. ix. 19. )7 ; on roan antelope {Hipjjotruyus equinus, Geoff.) 
{Dr. A. Yale Massey). 

In the marking and coloration of the legs, as also in 
having a spotted abdomen, Hiematopota sanyuinaria agrees 
with H. brannescens, Ricardo, the type of which is from 
Uganda; H. sanyuinaria, however, apart from its usually 
sujaller size, may be distinguished from the species in ques- 
tion by the shape of its antennae "^ (especially by the terminal 
annuli of the third joint not being sharply marked off from 
each other), by the much narrower front and the absence of 
a dark brown band between each antenna and the eye, by 
the grey stripes on the thorax being broader and not so 
sharply defined, l)y the ochraceous buff tip to the scutellum, 
and by the wing-markings being broken up into spots. The 
conspicuous ochraceous butt' colour of the greater part of tlie 
scutellum in H. sanyuiauria will serve to distinguish the 
species from any other described African Haemutupola at 
present knowu to me. 

Hcematopota fusca, sp. n. 

?. — Length (6 specimens) S'-f to 9 mm.; width of 
head 2*6 to 2*8 mm.; width of front at vertex just under 1 mm. 
to 1 mm. ; length of wing 825 to 875 nmi. 

Body and ainys dark bruwn ; stripes on thorax incon- 
spicuous; dorsum of second, third, Jourtli, and fifth ul'do- 
iuinal seyments sometimes witli a pair of not very conspicuous 
mouse-yrey spots ; liyht markinys in wiuys clearly defined, 
usual three rosettes jn'esent and each composed of a sinyle 
sei'ies of markinys, apical sinuous morkiny especially con- 
spicuous, broad above immediately below end of second lonyitu- 
dinal vein, interrvpled in second submaryinal cell ; front tibioe 
with one broad pale bund, middle and hind tibia each wiih tn-o 
'narrower pale bands. 

Head: front dark brown, grey only on extreme lateral 
margins and immediately below lateral frontal sputs, face and 

* From tho ahnpo of its autoniue JTcprnxitopota brtinm'scens, Ricardo, 
■would appear to belong to tho gtMUis Fdilueitiatojiofa, Ciriiuborf*' (' Zonlo- 
gischer Anzeiger,' xxx. Ikl. ur. Il/t2, July 3, lUOG, p. iitiO), foiuulod for 
F. coyniUa, Oriinb. (ibid.), from Uermau Eoat Africa aud Zanzibar. 

420 Mr. E. E. Austen on new 

jowls yellowish ^VGy, a dark brown horizontal mark between 
antenna and eye on each side ; clove-brown lateral frontal 
spots conspicuous, in contact with eyes, produced downwards 
and inwards towards frontal callus, which they often touch, 
median frontal spot small but distinct, a narrower lighter 
(sometimes olive-grey) median stripe extending upwards 
from it on to vertex ; frontal callus dark mummy-brown, of 
moderate depth, extending from eye to eye, upper and lower 
margins nearly straight, dark brown spot in middle line 
below callus not very distinct ; palpi dark brown or greyish 
brown, clothed with brownish hairs, terminal joint elongate, 
more or less cylindrical, but little expanded at base ; fir-t 
joint of antenna light mummy-brown, shining and strongly 
incrassate, inner margin convex when seen from above, 
second joint russet, its upper angle moderately prominent, 
third joint wanting. Thorax : dorsum with indications of 
three narrow lighter stripes, pleural and pectus mouse-grey. 
Abdomen : venter greyish brown ; extreme hind margins of 
segments on ventral as well as dorsal surfaces usually paler ; 
dorsal and ventral surfaces clothed with short brownish hair, 
■with sparse yellowish hairs, longer towards distal extremity, 
near hind margins of segments. Wings : oblique light marks 
across first four posterior cells usually broken up into two 
spots in each cell ; light markings along hind margin, if 
present, small and inconspicuous, sometimes distinguishable 
in distal angles of first, second, third, and fifth posterior 
cells and at tip of sixth longitudinal vein ; stlyma well- 
marked, long, dark brown, no light mark at its proximal 
extremity (except a minute and scarcely visible fleck at ex- 
treme tip of second costal cell), but a clearly defined though 
incomplete circular or oval light mark immediately beyond 
it; discal cell with a very small light fleck in its proximal 
angle and with two widely separated transverse light marks, 
the proximal mark curved, with its concave side towards base 
of wing, the distal mark broken up into a pair of spots ; 
basal cells each with a pair of transverse light marks, wider 
apart in case of second basal cell, near tip of which there is 
sometimes also an ill-defined light mark ; an angulate and 
sinuous light streak running across axillary and anal cells, 
and a semicircular light mark in proximal angle of axillary 
cell. Halteres seal-brown, stalk cream-buft*. Legs : femora 
dark brown ; front tibiae and tarsi clove-brown, with a broad 
cream-coloured band close to base of former ; middle and 
hind tibiffi and tarsi brown, two bands on tibiae, first joints of 
tarsi except tips, and bases of next two joints cream-buff; 
front tibiae not incrassate. 

African Phlehotoniic Diptera. 421 

Uganda : type and three other specimens received from 
Colonel David Bruce, C.B., R.A.M.C., F.R.S., 1903; one 
s])eeimen from Uganda, 1901, and another from Nimule, 
Uganda, November 1901, '^ on cattle" {Captain E. D. W. 
Greig, I.M.S). 

Although agreeing as regards its leg-markings with many- 
other African species, Hcemutojwta fasca may be distinguished 
from any of its African congeners at present known to me 
by the uniformly sombre colour of the body, by the fact that 
the light rosettes in the dark brown wings each consist of 
but a single series of marks, and by the very conspicuous 
upper portion of the light mark near the apex of the wing. 

Htematopota lacessens, sp. n. 

$ . — Length (G specimens) 6*8 to 7*4 mm. ; width of head 
2"25 to 2"4 mm. ; width of front at vertex 1 mm. ; length of 
wing 6"6 to 72 mm. 

Body and wings dark sepia-coloured ; dorsum of thorax 
ivith three narrow, smoke-grey , longitudinal stripes, con~ 
spicuous in front , less distinct towards hind mar-gin; abdomen 
sometimes with grey spots or blotches on dorsum, hind margins 
of segments lighter ; light markings in wings clearly defined, 
usually more or less monilifurm, rosettes fairly distinct, a senes 
of light streaks along hind margin, one in each posterior cell 
and at distal extremity of axillary cell : legs dark brown, front 
tibia paler (cream-bvff to ochruceous bujfj at base, middle 
tibia sometinies with a pair of indistinct paler bands, hind tibia 
without bands. 

Head : front mouse-grey to dark brown, light grey only on 
extreme lateral margins and round lateral frontal spots, a 
narrow pearl-grey median stripe running from median 
frontal spot to vertex ; face and jowls light grey, a seal- 
brown band running from antenna to eye on each side ; 
front broad, widening slightly below ; clove-brown lateral 
frontal spots large, consi)icuous, in contact with or narrowly 
separated from eyes, median frontal spot small; frontal 
callus clove-brown, narrow from above downwards, extending 
straight across from eye to eye ; palpi mouse-grey, terminal 
joint ehnigate, but little expaniled at base, clothed with 
blackish hair ; tirst joint of antenuce swollen, shining mummy- 
brown, second joint and basal portion of thii'il joint chestnut, 
upper angle of former not produced, basal portion of third 
joint truncate eylindrieal-ovate, not markedly elongate, 
terminal annuli clove-brown, flattened from side to side, last 
annulus approximately equal in length to two preceding 
Ann, d) Mag. X. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. i. 28 

422 Mr. E. E. Austen on new 

annuli taken together. Thorax : on dorsum, in addition to 
grey stripes, humeral calli, an area behind them, and poste- 
rior border of transverse suture on each side are also grey ; 
pleurse and pectus mouse-grey ; dorsum sparsely clothed with 
minute yellowish hairs ; posterior border (sometimes distal 
half) of scutellum smoke-grey. Abdomen : dorsum clothed 
with minute yellowish hairs, extreme hind margins of seg- 
ment except first usually smoke-grey, second, third, fourth, 
and fifth segments sometimes with a pair of large, admedian, 
basal, smoke-grey spots, and also with a median, basal, 
smoke-grey spot, sometimes more or less triangular, and, 
like the admedian spots, not extending to hind margin ; 
venter dark brown, extreme hind margins of segments smoke- 
grey. Wings : second submarginal cell usually with four 
transverse light marks, apical mark, which is close to tip of 
wing, sometimes large and conspicuous, sometimes indistinct 
or obsolete; stigma dark brown, well defined, no conspicuous 
light mark before it, light mark beyond it a thin semicircular 
or oval curve ; a second light mark often present in marginal 
cell in shape of a small fleck immediately above second 
longitudinal vein, close to distal extremity of cell ; discal cell 
usually with two transverse light marks (one or both some- 
times broken up into two spots), and a curved mark close to 
distal extremity of cell, but not in contact with veins forming 
its distal boundary ; oblique marks across posterior cells 
often more or less broken up into spots : markings in basal, 
anal, and axillary cells of normal type, light mark in upper 
proximal angle of axillary cell very distinct, sometimes a 
complete circle. Halteres seal-brown, stalk ochraceous buff. 
Legs : first joint of middle and hind tarsi (sometimes also 
second and third joints) ochraceous buff at base (in some 
cases ochraceous buff except distal extremity) ; front tibiae 

Northern Nigeria : type from Kefii, Nassarawa Province, 
4. ix. 1907, "on horse ■'^ (Dr. R. F. Williams) ; other speci- 
mens fromZungeru, Zaria Province, 12. vii. 1905 (Dr.Dalziel), 
Zaria, Zaria Province, 15. vii. 1907 (/. Brand), Allowa, 
Zaria Province, 19. vii. 1907 (/. Brand), and Kontagora, 
Kontagora Province, 2. ix. 1903 {Dr. J. J. A. Raye, per 
Sir Patrick Manson, K.C.M.G., F.R.S.). 

This species, which is said by Dr. Raye to swarm at Konta- 
gora, would appear to be particularly bloodthirsty. Dr. R. F. 
Williams writes that it is " a very aggressive biter both of 
horse and man,^^ and the specimen from Kontagora bit 
Dr. Raye and sucked his blood inside a mosquito-net. 

Hcematopota lacessens is not closely allied to any of the 

African Phlebotomic iJi^tlera. \±',\ 

hitherto desci'ii)C(l African specins of its genus at present 
known to me, from almost all of which it can at once be 
distinguished by the absence of bands on the hind tibia. 
The Museum series, however, includes a single damaged 
female of an undescribed species from Akwatcha, Bassa 
Province, N. Nigeria, June 1906 {Dr. G. J. Pirie), which, in 
addition to presenting some reseml)lance to H. lacesseas in 
fades, also has no bands on the hind tibiw ; still this species 
cannot be mistaken for H. lacessens, since in it the front 
tibine are not swollen. 

Hcematopota pertinens, sp. n, 

? . — Length (55 specimens) 7*3 to 10 mm.; width of head 
2' t to 3 ram. ; width of front at vertex just under 1 mm. to 
1\2 mm. ; length of wing 7 to 9 mm. 

Somewhat narruw and elongate in shape, olive-greij to snioke- 
f/rey or ijellowish greij, dorsum of thorax with four complete and 
sti-onghj marked olive-brown longitudinal stripes, dorsum of 
abdomen with a quadrate olive-brown blotch on each segment 
after the first, on each side of middle line, blotches not reaching 
hind margins of segments and each enclosing a yellowish greg 
spot ; ivings sepia-coloured, darkest at distal extremity, some- 
what lighter toivards base, light markings tinged ivith bu/f, 
clearly defined and extending to base, but close together, so 
that rosettes are indistinct ; legs russet, tips of femora some- 
times brown, front tarsi, tips of middle and hind tarsi, and 
front tibia except base dark brown; middle and hind tibice 
without bands. 

Head: front mouse-grey or brownish, lighter round clove- 
brown lateral frontal spots, which are large, conspicuous, 
and not in contact with eyes, median frontal spot small, 
usually distinct ; a quadrate seal-brown spot below frontal 
callus in middle line : face and jowls light smoke-grey, under 
side of head clothed with whitish or pale yellowish hair ; 
frontal callus raw-umber-coloured, of moderate depth, ex- 
tending from eye to eye, upper margin straight, with a slight 
prominence in median line ; eyes (in spirit-specimens) bronze- 
green, upper and lower angles and usual three transverse 
bauds clove- brown, bands separate from each other and 
sharply defined, broader and more or less straight on poste- 
rior half of eye, narrower and sinuous or jagged towards 
inner margin ; palpi cream-buif to ochraceous buff, terminal 
joint elongate, moderately expanded at base, cl